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oA Semi-Monthly Journal of ^ ^ ^ 

) ^6/ 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

January 1 to June 16, 1901 




Digitized by 


BP 3fl/f ' / 

From the 

Quarterly Journal 

of Economics. 

Digitized by 




Adam and Eyb, A Modbbn Sara A. Hvhbard 104 

JSbthktio, a Dash into Charles Leonard Moore . . . 256 

Amsbioan Diplomat and Man of Lbttbbs, An 184 

Abghitbotubb, a Digtionabt of Irving K. Fond 802 

Banking, Two Books on Frederick W. Oookin ... 13 

Biblb Digtionabt, Hastings's Shailer Mathews 43 

Black Wobld, Stobm and Stbbss in thb W. F. Burghardt DuBois . . 262 

Books, Pbigbs of 179 

Books of thb Cbntubt, Thb Gbbat 5 

Bbooks, Phillips, Lifb of C. A. L. Richards .... 133 

Buddhism, Tbub and Palsb Oewge 8. Ooodspeed . . . 267 

Chicago Uniybbsitt 389 

CHBiBTiANiTr IN Amebiga bbfobb Columbus Fdwin Erie Sparks .... 12 

Colonization in All Ages Harry Fratt Judson . . . 373 

Constitutional Histobt, Thobpb*s James Oscar Fierce .... 331 

Cox's Wab Bbminiscbnges Francis W. Shepardson . . 369 

Economic Litbbatubb, Rbcbnt M. B, Hammond , .... 232 

Faith as a Theobt and as an Expbbibncb John Bascom 305 

Famous Cabbbb, Beginnings of a 260 

Fiction, Recent Books of William Morion Fayne . 109, 268 

Finding a Fbbsh Land WaUace Rice 15 

Fbangipani's Ring, Stobt of Edith Kellogg Dunton . . . 227 

Gbbman Litbbatubb. Outlinbs of W. A. Chamberlin .... 231 

Gbbbcb, Modbbn, Songs of Oeorge HorUm 106 

Babe, Augustus — to Date 297 

HiBTOBiCAL NoYEL, A LooK AT THB Alfred Sumner Bradford . . 67 

Histobt, Pbbvbbsion of Ephraim 2>. Adams .... 229 

HoMBB IN THB VuLGAB ToNGUE William Cranston Lawton . . 70 

Idealism, Intebmittbnt Mary B. Swinney .... 181 

Ideas, An Histobian of Faul Shorey 396 

Illinois Histobt, Chaptbbs fbom Edwin E. Sparks .... 266 

Indiana, Litbbatubb in Martin W. Sampson . . . 138 

Iron Chancellob in a New Light 329 

Joubnalist's Reminiscences, A 225 

Lbtteb-Wbiteb and Poet 9 

«* Litb&abt Plat,'* Tbiumph of thb Margaret F. Sullivan . . . 391 

Litbbatubb, Tendencies in 325 

Meade, Genbbal. Penntpaokeb*s Life of ' Charles Leonard Moore . . . 394 

Meaning, Science of Faul Shorey 298 

MooDT, William Vaughn, Pobtbt of William Morton Fayne . . . 365 

Music and Music Cultubb, Essats on Ingram A. Fyle 107 

Music, Ten Yeabs of 293 

Mtebs. Fbbdebic 95 

Napoleon, Miss Tabbbll's Josiah Renick Smith . . . 374 

Natubb, a Joubnet to William Morton Fayne . . . 333 

Nebyous Functions, Novel Views of Joseph Jastrow 139 

New Tobk Pbontieb, The Old Eenry C. Matthews .... 398 

Novel and the Plat Charles Leonard Moore . . 33 

Old Nassau, A GkJMPSB of Feroy Favor Bicknell . . . 301 

Qbibntal Rugs and Rug Making Frederick W. Oookin . . . 137 

OzFOBD Mbmobibs 102 

Pabish Histobt Eztbaobdinabt Arthur Howard Noll . . . 372 

Pabkeb, Theodobe, and his Times Clark Sutherland Northup 42 

Patmobe, Coventbt, his Relatives and Fbiends 37 

Philanthbopt, Pbbscient 363 

Philippines, Chubch in the WaUace Rice 190 

Poetic Dbama, A Edward E. Hale, Jr. . , , 71 

Digitized by 




. 140 

. 336 

. 264 

• 65 
PuBLio School Legislation in Illinois 129 

POBTBT, Rbobnt William Morton Payne 

Poets, Nineteenth Centuby, Messages of Annie Russell Marble 

Political Philosophy, Recent English A. M. Wergeland 

Pond, Major, in Beminiscbnt Mood Ingram A. Pyle . . 

Psychology, Fact and Fable in James Rowland Angell 

Public Libbabibs, Oub 

Religious Discussions, Recent John Baseom . . . 

Social Ethics, Attempts at Charles R. Henderson 

South Afbica, Wab and Politics in WaUaee Riee . . . 

South Afbica, Wab in WaUaee Riee . 

Stage, Oub Contempobaby Ingram A. Pyle 

. . 17 

. . 400 

. . 76 

. . 340 

. . 336 

Stanfobd, The Case at 7, 221 

. . 68 

. . 256 

. . 192 

. . 187 

. . 73 

. . 370 

. . 304 

. . 44 

Stoic, A Modebn Percy Favor BiekneU 

Sympathy, A Difficulty of 

Tennyson, Eably Poems of Albert B. Jack . . 

Tbagedy, Oub Idea of Bdward E. Eale, Jr. 

Tbayel, Some Recent Books of Hiram M. Stanley . 

Venetian Republic, Hazlitt*s Charles H. ffaskins . 

White, Gilbebt, of Selbobne Sara A. Hubbard 

WoBLD*s Futube, Hinge of the WaUaee Riee . . . 

Announcements of Spring Books, 1901 197 

Briefs on New Books 18, 46, 78, 111, 146, 193, 236, 270, 306, 342, 375, 402 

Briefer Mention 21, 50, 82, 114, 148, 197, 239, 273, 346, 378, 405 

Notks 22,51,83,115,149,205,239,273,309,346,379,405 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 23, 84, 150, 240, 347, 379 

Lists of Nkw Books 23, 51, 84, 115, 150, 241, 274, 310, 348, 380, 406 



Abbott, 6. F. Songs of Modern Greece ... 106 
Abbott, LyniMu Hints for Home Beading, new ed. 149 

Adams, J. A. Victoria 405 

Adams, O. F. Dictionary of American Anthors, 

fourth edition 206 

Addison, D. D. Clergy in Am. Life and Letters 308 
Aiken, C. F. The Dhamma of Gotama ... 267 
Albee, Helen B. Mountain Playmates .... 104 
Alfred, King, Old South Leaflets from .... 346 
Allen, Alexander V. 6. Phillips Brooks ... 133 
Allen, Edward A. School Grammar . . . .115 

Altsheler, J. A. In Hostile Bed 110 

American Engineering Competition 205 

Amery,L.S. Times History of South African War 340 
Andrews, C. M. Historical Development of Mod- 
em Europe, student's edition 83 

Andrews, Jane. Stories of My Four Friends . . 83 
Anitohkow, Michael. War and Labour ... 235 

Apthorp, W. F. The Opera 237 

Archibald, J. F. J. Blue Shirt and Khaki . . 376 
Armstrong, Geneva. Hewitt's Queens of England 205 
Amold-Forster, H. O. War Offtce, Army and 

Empire 77 

Arnold Sale, Catalogue of 274 

Ashe, E. OUver. Iksieged by the Boers ... 77 
Askwith, E. H. Christian Conception of Holiness 17 
Atkins, J. B. The Belief of Ladysmith ... 77 
Ayres, Alfred. Some lU-Used Words .... 309 
Babcook, C. L. Study in Case Bivalry .... 378 

Bacon, John M. By Land and Sky 845 

Baildon, H. Bellyse. Bobert Louis StcTenson . 345 
Bailey, L. H. Principles of Vegetable-Gardening 149 



Banfleld, Frank. John Wesley 82 

Baring-Gould, S. Virgin Saints and Martyrs . 346 
Barrett, B. S. Guide to City of Mexico, new ed. 149 
Bass, Florence. Stories of Roneer Life . ... 309 
Bates, Herbert. Buskin's Sesame and Lilies . . 51 
Bates, Katharine Lee. Spanish Highways and 

Byways 75 

Batson, H. M., and Boss, E. D. Omar Ehayy^Lm 50 
Baz, Ernest Belfort. Jean Paul Marat ... 229 

Beddard, F. A. A Book of Whales 113 

Beeching, H. C. Study of PoeUy 347 

Bellaigue, CamOle. Musical Studies and Silhouettes 108 
Bennett, F. M. Monitor and Navy under Steam 79 

Benson, B.K. Who Goes There ? 110 

Bergen, Joseph Y. Foundations of Botany . . 82 

Besant, Sir Walter. East London 307 

Bierbower, Austin. How to Succeed .... 114 

Bismarck, Love Letters of 329 

Bittinger, Lucy F. Grermans in Colonial Times . 81 
Blake, M. M. Glory and Sorrow of Norwich . . 110 
Blashfleld, Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Italian Cities . 306 
Blok, P. J. History of the Netherlands, Vol. III. 197 
Boone, H. B., and Brown, Kenneth. Eastorer 

Courthouse 268 

Boothby, John. Under England's Flag ... 147 

Botsford, G. W. Hbtory of Bome 309 

Bourinot, Sir J. G. Canada 344 

Bowdoin, W. G. Bise of the Book-Plate ... 344 
Boyle, Hon. Mrs. Sylyana's Letters .... 82 

Bradford, Amory H. Age of Faith 306 

Bradshaw,S.E. On Southern Poetry prior to 1860 83 
Brady, Cyrus T. Under Topsls and Tents . . 404 

Digitized by 




Br^ Miehel. Semuiticfl 298 

Britiih Case against Boer Repablios 76 

Brooke, Stopford A. English I^ierainre, revised ed. 21 
Brooke, S. A. Religion in Literature and Life . 309 
Brooke, S. A^ and Bolleston, T. W. Treasury of 

Irish Poetry 378 

Brooks, Geraldine. Dames and Daughters of 

Colonial Days 82 

Brown, Abram £. Faneoil Hall 378 

Brown, Alexander, English Polities in Early 

Virginia 343 

Brown, T. £., Ccileoted Poems of 11 

Brown, William 6. Andrew Jaekson .... 18 
Browne, 6. Waldo. Paradise of the Paeifie . . 74 
Browne, 6. Waldo. Pearl of the Orient ... 74 
Brownson, H. F. O. A. Brownson's Latter Life 50 
Bmee, Riehard I. The Forward Poliey ... 80 
Bollen, Frank T. A Seek of Shakings .... 308 
BnUen, F. T. Men of the Merchant Marine . . 113 

BnUen, F. T. With Christ at Sea 196 

Bnrdett-CoQtts, Mr. Siok and Wounded in South 

Africa 341 

Burt, Mary £. Mrs. Custer's The Boy General . 273 
Burton, J. H. The Book Hunter, new edition . 83 

Butler, Samuel. Homer's Odyssey 70 

Caldeeott, Alfred. Philosophy of Religion . . 306 
Callahan, J. M. Diplomatic History of the Southern 

Confederacy 404 

Cannon, James 6. Clearing Houses .... 15 
Carman, Bliss, and Hoyey, Richard. Last Songs 

from Vagabondia 144 

Carnegie, Andrew. The Gospel of Wealth . . 235 
Carnegie Library (Pittsburg) Catalogue . . .115 
Carpenter, F. I. Selections from Byron ... 21 
Carpenter, W. Boyd. Religious Spirit in the Poets 206 
Carrington, Dean. Anthology of French Poetry 82 
Cartwr^ht, Julia. Madame, new edition . . . 149 

Cams, Paul. Whence and Whither 18 

Cecil, Evelyn. On Eve of the War 77 

Chadwiek, J. W. Theodore Parker 42 

Chamberlain, D. B., and Harrington, E. P. Songs 

of All CoUeges 240 

Champneys, Basil. Coventry Patmore .... 37 

Chapin, Anna A. Masters of Music 271 

Chatty Readings in Elementary Science . . . 405 
Cheyney, E. P. Industrial and Social History of 

England 846 

Choate, Joseph H. Abraham Lincoln .... 205 
ChurcUll, W. S. Ian Hamilton's March ... 77 
ChnxchUl, W. S. London to Ladysmith ... 77 
Clark, John B. Distribution of Wealth ... 232 
Clark, J. Scott. Study of English and Am. Poeto 21 
CliiTord, Mrs. W. K. The Likeness of the Night 238 
Clodd, Edward. Story of the Alphabet ... 146 

Clouston, J. Storer. The Duke 270 

Clutton-Broek, A. Eton 114 

Clymer, W. B. Shubrick. J. Fenimore Cooper . 308 

CocktaU Book, The 22 

Cole, David, and Ferris, M. P. Tarrytown Churofa 

Records 274 

Cole, Samuel V. In Scipio's Gardens .... 143 

Colegrove, F. W. Memory 79 

Collbran, Christine. An American GirPs Trip . 75 

Collier, WiUiam M. The Trusts 233 

Collins, J. C. Early Poems of Tennyson ... 192 
Colorado Grand Csfton, Glimpses of the ... 21 

Commefce and. Christianity 402 

Comstock, G. C. Text-Book of Astronomy . . 405 


Condit, I. A. The Chinaman as We See him . 45 

Council, J. S. Our Nation's Need 402 

Coolbrith,InaD. O'Connell's Songs from Bohemia 273 
Cooper's Works, illus. by C. E. Brock .... 115 
Corbett, Julian. Successors of Drake .... 46 
Corelli, Marie. Patriotism or Self-Advertisement 20 
Courtney, W. L. The Idea of Tragedy ... 187 
Cox, Jacob D. Military Reminiscences .... 369 
Crane, Stephen. Great Battles of the World . 114 
Crane, Walter. Decorative Illustration of Books, 

revised edition 379 

Crawford, J. H. Autobiography of a Tramp . . 19 
Cross, R. J. Dante's Divina Commedia . . . 309 
Crowninshield, Frederic. Pictoris Carmina . . 142 
Cunningham, W. Western Civilization, Vol. II. 271 
Curtis, W. E. Between the Andes and the Ocean 74 
Cusack-Smith, Sir W. Encyclopedia of Whist . 347 
D'Annnnzio, Gabriele. The Dead City ... 187 
Dasent, G. W. Burnt Njal, new edition . . .115 

Davis, Nina. Songs of Exile 239 

Davis, R. H. With Both Armies in South Africa 77 

Dawson, W. H. German Life 377 

De Roo, P. History of America before Columbus 12 
Desmolins, Edmond. Boers or English ... 76 
Dew-Smith, Alice. Diary of a Dreamer ... 20 
Dix, Morgan. History of Trinity Parish . . . 372 

Dobson, Austin. Puckle's Club 346 

Dodd, Anna Bowman. Falaise 76 

Dole, C. F. Religion of a Gentleman .... 17 
Dolsen, Grace N. Philosophy of Nietzsche . . 240 

Dorr, Julia C. R. Afterglow 144 

Doyle, A. Conan. The Great Boer War ... 78 
Dreyfus, Alfred. Five Years of My Life ... 377 

Dunlop, Robert. Daniel O'Connell 78 

Durham, C. L. Subjunctive Substantive Clauses 

in Plautus 378 

Easby-Smith, J. S. Songs of Alc»us .... 405 
Eckstorm, Fannie H. The Bird Book .... 238 
Edwards, Neville P. Story of China .... 46 
Egerton, Hugh E. Sir Stamford Raffles ... 47 
Elliot, D. G. Synopsis of North American Mammals 378 

Englishman's Love-Letters 378 

Englishwoman's Love-Letters 194 

Evans, Robley D. A Sailor's Log 375 

Fairohild, G. T. Rural Wealth and Welfare . . 234 
Farrelly, M. J. Settlement after South African 

War 78 

Finck, H. T. Songs and Song Writers .... 107 

Fiske, Lewis R. Man-Building 307 

FitiGerald, E. Miscellanies 115 

Flynt, Josiah. Notes of an Itinerant PoUoeman . 401 
Flynt, Josiah, and Walton, Francis. Powers That 

Prey 401 

Flint, Martha B. A Garden of Simples ... 20 

Forbidden Paths in the Land of Og 76 

Forsyth, G. A. Story of the Soldier .... 47 
Forsyth, G. A. Thrilling Days in Army Life . 47 

Fox, John, Jr. Crittenden 110 

Eraser, H. W., and Squair, J. French Grammar 309 
Freeman-Mitford, A. B. The Attach^ at Peking 46 

Fuller, Henry B. The Last Refuge 109 

Fulton, R. L., and Trueblood, T. C. Pkitriotic 

Eloquence 23 

Gardner, Edmund G. Florence 195 

Garland, Hamlin. The Eagle's Heart .... 109 

Gamer, R. L. Apes and Monkeys 49 

Gavit, Helen E. Etiquette of Correspondence . 83 
Geddes, J., and Josselyn, F. M. Gil Bias . . 406 

Digitized by 




Grentry, T, 6. Intelligenoe in Plants and Animals 19 
G«nnng, J. F. Worlwig Pxinoiples of Rhetorio . 405 
Grermann, 6. B. National Legislation concerning 

Education 239 

Gilbert, Mrs. Stage Reminiscences 375 

Giles, H. A. Chinese Literature 193 

Gilman, Charlotte P. Concerning Children . . 49 
Gljn, Elinor. The Visits of Elizabeth .... 269 
Gollancz, IsraeL Temple Classics 83, 205, 274, 379 
Goodenongh, G. Handy Man Afloat and Ashore 238 
Goodnow, F. J. Politics and Administration . . 48 
Goodrich, W. W. Bench and Bar as Makers of 

American Republic 406 

Goodspeed, G. S. Israel's Messianic Hope . . 195 
Gordon, George A. New Epoch for Faith . . 306 

Gould, Alice Baohe. Louis Agassis 377 

Graham, WUliam. English Political Philosophy 336 

Grand, Sarah. Babs the Impossible 268 

Granger, Frank. The Soul of a Christian ... 17 
Grant, A. J. The French Monarchy .... 270 
Gray, Edward, and Iribas, J. L. Velasques Dic- 
tionary, revised edition .60 

Gray, Elisha. Electricity and Magnetism ... 20 
Green, W. D. Life of William Pitt .... 403 
Griffis, W. E. Pathfinders of the Reyolution . . 109 

GrifBs, W. E. Yerbeok of Japan 81 

Griswold, Mrs. F. Burge. Old Wickford ... 60 
Haeckel, Ernst. Riddle of the Universe ... 18 

Hales, A. G. Campaign Pictures 341 

Hall, J. R. C. Beowulf 346 

Halsey, F. W. Old New York Frontier ... 398 
Hapgood, Norman. The Stage in America . . 335 
Hardy, Arthur Sherburne. Songs of Two . . . 140 
Hare, A. J. C. Story of My Life, Vols. IIL and lY. 297 

Harper, W. H. Restraint of Trade 402 

Hart, A. B. Am. History Told by Contemporaries, 

Vol. Ill 149 

Hastie, W. Kant's Cosmogony 22 

Hastings, James. Dictionary of the Bible, Vol.111. 43 
Hatfield, J. T., and Hochbaum, E. Influence of 

American Revolution on German Literature . 239 
Hayes, F. C. Handy Book of Horticulture . . 273 
Hayes, F. W. Gwynett of Thomhaugh ... Ill 
HazUtt, W. Carew. The Venetian Republic . . 370 

Heam, Lafcadio. Shadowings 19 

Heathcote, Norman. St Kilda 75 

Heath's Home and School Classics 405 

Heckethom, Charles W. London Memories . .112 
Hendrick, Frank. Railway Control by Commissions 60 
Henshall, J. A. Ye Gods and Little Fishes . . 377 
Hewlett, Maurice. Earthwork out of Tuscany, 

<<Eversley" edition 379 

Hewlett, Maurice. Richard Yea-and-Nay . . .110 

Hillegas, H. C. The Boers in War 77 

Hobson, John A. Economics of Distribution . . 232 

Hobson, J. A. The Social Problem 400 

Holcombe, Cheater. The Real Chinese Question 46 
HoUis, Ira N. The Frigate Constitution ... 80 
Holme, Charles. Modem Pen-Drawings ... 49 
Holt, Emily. Encyclopedia of Etiquette . . . 345 
Horder, W. Garrett. Treasury of American Sacred 

Songs, enlarged edition 76 

How, Louis. James B. Eads 18 

Howe, H. Here Lies 272 

HuddiUton, J. H. Griechische Trag6die im Liehte 

der Vasenmalerei 149 

Hudson, W. H. The Sphinx 141 

Humphrey, Alice R. A Summer Journey to Braiil 74 


Hurl], Estelle M. Greek Sculpture 404 

HurU, EsteUe M. Murillo 239 

Hurll, Estelle M. Sir Joehua Reynolds ... 21 
Hutton, Miss C. A. Greek Terracotta SUtuettes 81 
Hutton, William H. Constantinople .... 196 
Hyde, Mary F. Two-Book Course in English . 273 

Hyde, Solon. A Captive of War 50 

Irwin, Sidney T. Letters of T. E. Brown ... 9 

Jackson, S. M. Huldreich ZwingU 402 

James, G. W. In and around the Grand Canyon 73 
Jameson, J* Franklin. Correspondence of Calhoun 364 
Jastrow, Joseph. Fact and FaUe in Psychology 264 

Jebb, R. C. Macanlay 347 

Jenks, Jeremiah W. The Trust Problem ... 283 
Johnson, Alexander. History of the U. S., revised 

edition 378 

Johnson, Elizabeth L. Recollections of a Georgia 

Loyalist 308 

Jones, Edward D. Economic Crises .... 234 

Jordan, David Starr. To Barbara 141 

Josephson, A. G. S. Bibliographies of Bibliograr 

phies 259 

Joyce, P. W. Reading Book in Irish Histoiy . 346 

Judd, Mary C. Wigwam Stories 309 

Kastner, L. E., and Atkins, H. G. French Literature 83 
Kearton, Richard. Our Bird Friends .... 51 
Eeeler, Charles. Idyls of El Dorado .... 142 
Kilboum, J. K. Faiths of Famous Men ... 82 
King, Mary P. Comfort and Exercise . . . .114 

King, S. H. Dog-Watohes at Sea 307 

Eangsley, Charles. Perseus, « Wayside " edition 405 
Kitton, F. G. Minor Writings of Dickens . . . 22 

Knight, William. Lord Monboddo 194 

Knowles, F. L. On Life's Stairway 143 

Knox, J. J. History of Banking in the U. S. . 13 
Koch, T. W. Catalogue of Cornell Dante Colleetioa 18 
Krausse, Alexis. Story of the Chinese Crisis . . 46 
Lang, A. Animal Story-Book Reader .... 273 

Lark Classics, The 82 

Latimer, Elizabeth W. Last Years of 19th Century 111 
Lay, William, and Hussey, C. M. Globe Mutiny 238 
Leavitt, J. McD. Reasons for Faith .... 305 
Lee, Albert King Stork of the Netherlands . . Ill 
Lee, Guy Carleton. World's Orators . . 148, 405 
Lee, Sidney. Shakespeare's Life and Work . . 22 

Lee's Automobile Annual, 1901 346 

LeGallienne, Richard. Sleeping Beauty ... 79 
Leroy-Beaulieu, P. Awakening of the East . . 44 
Levy, Florence N. Art Annual for 1900-1901 . 51 
Lewis, C. M. Beginnings of English Literature . 21 
Lewis, E. H. ScMud Manual of Composition . 50 
Leyland, John. The Shakespeare Country . . 148 
Liddell, Mark H. Selections from Chaucer . . 240 
Lillie, Arthur. Buddha and Buddhiun . . . 267 

Lincoln, Abraham, his Book 115 

Lincoln, Abraham, Religion of 22 

Lincoln, David F. Sanity of Mind 237 

Link, S. A. Pioneers of Southern Literature,Vol.U. 115 

Lloyd, Henry D. Newest England 15 

Loeb, Jacques. Comparative Physiology of the 

Brain 139 

Lynch, Hannah. French Life 272 

MacLaren, J. H. Put up Thy Sword .... 114 
Mahan, A. T. The Problem of Asia .... 44 
Mallock, W. H. Lucretius on Life and Death . 82 

Markham, Violet R. South Africa 77 

Marshall, Beatrice. Emma Marshall . . . .113 
Marshall, Nina L. The Mushroom Book ... 195 

Digitized by 




Martin, £. S. Laoid Interrals 82 

Martio, WiUkm A. P. Siege of Peking ... 148 
MaryoD, Maud. How the (^rden Grew . . . 196 
MaBOD| D. G. Poems of Philip Henry Savage . 50 
Mason, £. G. Chapters from Illinois History . 266 
Mason, R. Osgood. Hypnotism and Suggestion . 342 
Mathews, Shailer. The Frenoh Reyolntion . . 272 
Matthews, Brander. Frenoh Dramatbts of the 

19th Centnry 309 

Matthews, Brander. Notes on Speeeh-Making . 149 
Matthe^ Brander. PhUosophy of the Short-Story 149 
Matthews, Brander, and Hntton, Lawrence. Edwin 

Booth, new edition 22 

MeCraekan, W. D. Rise of Swiss Repablio, 

second edition 274 

McCrady, Edward. South Carolina in the Revo- 
lution 345 

MeVey, Frank L. Groyemment of Minnesota . 239 
Mees, Arthur. Choirs and Choral Music . . . 272 
Menriee, Pitul. Love-Letters of Victor Hugo . 344 

Mifflin, J. Houston. Lyrics 51 

Mifflin, Lloyd. Fields of Dawn 141 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers. Thomas H. Huxley . . 20 
Mitchell, S. Weir. Dr. North and his Friends . 196 
Moody, William Y . Masque of Judgment . . 365 

Moody, WUliam V. Poems 367 

Moore, Aubertine W. For My Musical Friend . 108 
Moore, Charles Leonard. Ghost of Rosalys . . 71 
Moore, E. Danto*s Divina Commedia . . . .115 
Moore, E. M. Spoil of the North Wind ... 206 
Moore, F. Frankfort Conscience of Coralie . . 269 
Moore, K W. History of German Literature . 231 
Moore, Willis L. Meteorological Almanac, 1901 83 
Moorehead, W. K. Prehistoric Implements . . 49 
More, Paul Elmer. Benjamin Franklin ... 18 
Morrah, Herbert. . Literary Yeax^Book, 1901 . 347 
Morris, Henry C. History of Colonization . . 373 
Morrison, J. M. Poems of Leopardi .... 115 
Mctalton, R. G. Introduction to Literature of the 

Bible 239 

Mowbray, J. P. A Journey to Nature .... 333 
Milller, F. Max. My Autobiography .... 260 

Mumford, John K. Oriental Rugs 137 

Musgrave, G. C. In South Africa with Buller . 77 
National Edncational Association, Proceedings of 

Annual Meeting of 1900 50 

Nettleton, G. H. Specimens of the Short Story . 406 
Neweomb, Simon. Elements of Astronomy . . 83 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Hoosiers 138 

Norton, A. J. Hand-Book of Havana and Cuba 148 
(fppenheim, M. Helps's Spanish Conquest, Vol. I. 51 
Pain, Barry. Another Englishwoman's Love- 

Letters 378 

Painter, F. V. N. Lyrical Vignettes .... 143 
Parker, B. S., and Heiney, E. B. Poeto and Poetry 

of IndiMia 138 

Pkrry, E. A. Love Letters of Dorothy Osborne 274 
Parsons, W. B. An American Engineer in China 45 

Peterson, Arthur. Oliver Cromwell 80 

Payne, E. J. Hakluyt's Voyages, second series . 51 
Payne, Joseph F. Thomas Sydenham . . . .112 
Peabody, F. G. Christ and the Social Question . 306 
Peabody, Josephine P. Fortune and Men's Eyes 143 
Peddioord, W. J. Rudyard Reviewed .... 20 
Pennypacker, Isaac R. Life of General Meade . 394 
Pfleiderer, Otto. Evolution and Theology ... 17 
Phelps, Charles E. Falstoff and Equity ... 403 
Phillips, Stephen. Herod 187 


Pier, Arthur S. The Sentimentaliste .... 268 
Plnmbe, G. E. Daily News Almanac, 1901 . . 83 

Poe's Tales, Selections from 239 

Pollard, A. W". Library of English Classics 51, 239 
Pond, J. B. Eccentricities of Genius .... 40 

Pooler, C. E. Translations 146 

Pott, F. L. Hawks. The Outbreak in China . . 45 
Prescott, F. C. Selections from Swift .... 240 

Private Life of King Henry VII 270 

Qniller-Couob, A. T. Oxford Book of English 

Verse 103 

Rait, R. W. A Royal Rhetorician 147 

Raleigh, Walter. Milton 197 

Ralph, Julian. An American with Lord Roberts . 341 
Ralph, Julian. War's Brighter Side .... 376 
Rambaud, Alfred. Expansion of Russia ... IS 
Rand, Benjamin. Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury 68 
Rand, T. H. Treasury of Canadian Verse . . 342 
Rawnsley, H. D. Memories of Tennyson ... 48 

Raymond, G. L. The Astec God 194 

Reed, Myrtle. Later Love Letters of a Musician 21 

Reinold, H. W. Atkinson's Ganot 309 

Robertson, J. M. Introduction to English Politics 338 
Robinson, Albert G. The Philippines .... 190 

Rosebery, Lord. Napoleon 404 

Rosebery, Lord. Questions of Empire .... 205 

Rostand, Edmond. L'Aiglon 187 

Ronntree, J., and Sherwell, A. Temperance Pn>b- 

lem and Social Reform, seventh edition . . 401 
Rupert, W. W. Famous Geometrical Theorems 22 
Russell, C, and Lewis, H. S. Jew in London . 401 
Salmon, Lucy M. Domestic Service, second ed. 346 
Sanderson, Edgar. Hero-Patriote of 19th Century 237 
Sangstor, Margaret E. Winsome Womanhood . 114 
Sawyer, F. H. Inhabitants of the Philippines . 190 
Sayce, A. H. Babylonians and Assyrians . . . 147 
Schenck and Giirber. Outlines of Human Physi- 
ology 237 

Schuyler, Eugene. Italian Influences . . . .184 

Schuyler, Eugene. Selected Essays 184 

Scoble, Johnv and Abercrombie, H. R. Rise and 

Fall of Krugerism 78 

Seelye, W. J. New Greek Method 83 

Self-Prononncii^ Bible Dictionary 379 

Shaler, N. S. The Individual 48 

Shakespeare's Hamlet, Sothem acting version . . 273 
Shakespeare's Henry V., Mansfield acting version 73 
Shakespeare's Works, " Hudson " edition ... 239 
Sharpe, R. Bowdler. White's Selbome ... 304 
Shaw, G. Bernard. Plays for Puritans .... 343 

Sheehan, P. A. Cithara Mea 145 

Shields, C. W. Scientific Evidences of Revealed 

Religion 305 

Smeaton, Oliphant. English Satires . . . .197 

Smith, George H. Logic 405 

Smith, G. Gregory. The Transition Period . . 21 

Smith, Harry B. Stage Lyrics 239 

Smith, J. R. Earliest Lives of Dante .... 379 
Smith and Thomas. Modem Composition and 

Rhetoric . . . : 274 

Sonnichsen, Albert. Ten Months a Captive . . 342 
Sparks, E. E. Expansion of American People .111 
Sparks, £. E. Men Who Made the Nation . .111 
Spencer, Herbert. First Principles, revised ed. . 51 
Spofford, A. K Book for All Readers . . . .149 

Starr, Frederick. Strange Peoples 309 

Stead, W. T. Life of Mrs. Booth 238 

Steams, F. P. Four Great Venetians .... 239 

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Stedman, £. C. aud T. L. Pocket Guide to Earope, 

1901 309 

Steeyens, 6. W. Glimpses of Three Nations . .113 
Stephen, Leslie. The English Utilitarians . . 396 

Stevensoniana 346 

Stevenson's ^s Triplex, « Merrjmount " edition . 273 
Stillman, W. J. Antobiography of a Jonrnalist . 225 
Stockton, F. B., Works of, « Shenandoah " edtion . 21 
Stoddard, Anna M. Elizabeth Pease Nichol . . 81 
Strong, Josiah. Religious Movements for Social 

Betterment 402 

Sturgis, Russell. Dictionary of Architectnie . . 302 
Sutherland, Howard Y. Jaointa . . . . . .142 

Suzuki, Teitaro. Aovaghosga's Discourse . . . 268 

<« Swift, Benjamin.'' Nude Souls 269 

Tarbell, Ida M. Life of Napoleon, revised edition 374 
Tarr, R. S., and McMnrry, F. M. Geography of 

Europe 379 

Taylor, H. O. Classical Heritage of Middle Ages 378 

Temple Primers 22, 239, 273 

Tennyson, Love Poems of 405 

Thatcher, Lucy W. The Listening Child ... 50 

Thaw, Alexander B. Poems 143 

Thode, Henry. Frangipani's Ring 227 

Thomas, W. H. The American Negro .... 262 

Thompson, J. S. A Day's Song 145 

Thomdike, A. H. Influence of Beaumont and 

Fletcher on Shakespere 274 

Thorpe, F. N. Constitutional History of the U. S. 331 
Titchener, £. B. Experimental Psychology . . 402 
Toller, T. N. Outlines of History of English 

Language 83 

Tolman, Herbert C. Art of Translating ... 148 
Tolstoy, Leo. Slavery of Our Times .... 401 


Tuckwell, W. Reminiscences of Oxford ... 102 
Turner, F. S. Knowledge, Belief, and Certitude . 377 
Van Dyke, Henry. Poetry of the Psalms ... 19 
Waite, C. B. History of Christian Religion, 5th 

edition 347 

Wallace, A. R. Studies, Scientific and Social . . 376 
Walker, Williston. The Reformation .... 147 
Walter, H. £. and Alice H. Wild Birds in City 

Parks 240 

Walton, Joseph. China and the Present Crisis . 45 
Warr, George C. W. Oresteia of iEschylus . . 196 

Watson, John. Doctrines of Grace 18 

Watson, Thomas £. Thomas Jeiferson . . .112 
Weber, W. L. Selections from Southern Poets . 205 
Webster, Richard. Elegies of Maximianus . . 346 
Wells, B. W. Mod6m German Literature, re- 
vised edition 309 

Welles, Charles S. The Lute and Lays ... 143 
Whitman, Sidney. Life of Emperor Frederick . 236 

Who's Who> 1901 115 

Wilkin, Anthony. Among the Berbers .... 75 
Wilkinson, Spencer. Lessons of the War ... 77 
Williams, H. S. Story of 19th Century Science . 376 
WUliams, J. R. Philip Tickers Fithian ... 301 
Willoughby, W. W. Social Justice . . . . .400 

Wilson, H. L. Adam Duncan 82 

Wilson, James H. China, third edition . . . 273 
Winship, G. P. Cabot Bibliography .... 236 
Wirth, Albrecht. Yolkstnm und Weltmacht . . 378 

Wister, Owen. Ulysses S. Grant 112 

Worcester, D. C. Philippine Islands, new edition 240 

World's Work, Vol. 1 378 

Young, William. Wishmakers' Town, new edition 405 
Zangwill, I. The Mantle of Elijah 269 



Anti-Slavery Literature, Some Neglected Material 

in. Alfred Mathews 68 

Authors of the Century, Ten Great. Jackson Boyd 36 
Authors of the Nineteenth Century, Nine Great. 

Alexander Jessup 100 

Besant, Sir Walter, Death of 393 

Chicago Evening Post, Separation of from the 

Times-Herald 206 

County Library, The First, in the United States. 

A. X. Day 184 

Dailies, Our Great, A Much-Needed Reform in. 

Joseph Jastrow 182 

Etruscan Arehssology, A Discredited Museum of. 

F. B. TarheU 8 

Hall, Fitzedward: An Appreciation. Ralph Olm- 
sted WUliams 131 

Hall, Fitzedward, Death of 149 

Japan, Grand Old Man of. Ernest W. Clement . 224 
Library Privileges for Rural Districts. E, /. 

Antrim 36 

«< Library Privileges for Rural Districts." — A 

Further Word. W. T. Porter 223 

M Library Privileges for Rural Districts." — A 

Final Word. E, /. Antrim 259 

Library Statistics, Misleading. Purd B. Wright 258 
Literary Folk-Lore, Our. George Morey MiUer . 327 
McClurg, Alexander Caldwell, Death of ... 294 

Misquotation, A Distressing. S 68 

'•Misquotation, A Distressing." Edmund C. Stedman 131 

Mother Tongue, The. Carolus 224 

Poe and the Hall of Fame. KaU W, Beaver . . 8 
Poe, The Editing of. A, O. Newoonier . . . 183 
Public Libraries, Our: A Suggestion. DuaneMowry 132 
Pyle, Howard, and the American Farmer. Mary 

Famsworih Ames 36 

Shakespeare as a Duty. Hiram M. Stanley . . 9 

Stanford University, The Case at 7 

Tennyson, Variations in. W. J. Rolfe .... 327 
Tragedy, Concerning. Elizdl>eth Woodbridge . . 295 

Tyler, Moses Coit, Death of 22 

Wendell's '* Literary History of America," Some 

Questions Suggested by. Oscar LoveU Triggs 100 
Wendell, Barrett, Professor Triggs on. Gardner 

TeaU 132 

«< Wendell, Barrett, Professor Triggs on." — A 

Reply. Oscar LoveU Triggs 183 

Yonge, Charlotte M., Death of ..... 232 
Youmans, William Jay, Death of 274 

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Vol. XXX. 






Poe aod the Hall of Fame. Kate W. Beaver. 
A Diaeredited Moaenm of Etroaoan Arohaology. 

F. B. Tarbdl. 
Reading Shakeapeare aa a Duty. H. M. Stanley. 



BUS. J^c^iotfi Erie Sparks 12 

TWO BOOKS ON BANKING. Frederick W, Oookin 13 

FINDING A FRESH LAND. Wallace Bice ... 15 

Pfleiderer'a ETolntioii and Theology, and Other 
IWaaya.— Dole'a Religion of a Gentleman.— Aakwith'B 
The Christian Conception of Eblineas. — Granger's 
The Sonl of a Christian. — Watson's The Doetrines 
of Graoe. — Haeckel's The Riddle of the Unirerse.— 
Cams's Whence and Whither. 


Some notable bibliographioal work on Dante. — 
Short lires of three great Americans. — The story of 
a tramp in England. — Mr. Heam's ^^Shadowings " 
of Japan.— Tales of a zoophilist. — The Psalms as 
poetry. — " A Garden of Simples." — Hnzley as a 
leader in science. — Retaliating on Mr. Kipling. — A 
book of pleasant fancies. — A new Yolnme of " Na^ 
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On this first day of the twentieth century 
there can be no subject more suitable for dis- 
cussion in the pages of a literary journal than 
that of the famous books produced during the 
century just ended. The subject is one that 
has already received a certain amount of atten- 
tion in other quarters, and that will doubtless 
be handled by many sorts of pens during the 
coming months. It is a subject of deep and 
enduring interest, because it affords one way, 
at least, and probably the most important way, 
of determining what the nineteenth century has 
done for ciyilization. We propose to confine 
our attention, in the present article, to the 
books of thought as distinguished from the 
books of art, and to enumerate, with some sort 
of brief accompanying comment, some of the 
works of the century that may fairly be char- 
acterized as epoch-making; the books, in a 
word, that have opened men's eyes to a deeper 
view of scientific or philosophical truth, and 
have made permanent changes in the current 
of human thought. 

Considered in this respect, the book of the 
century, beyond any possibility of a successful 
challenge to its preeminence, is ^^ The Origin 
of Species," by Charles Darwin. The influence 
of this book ranks it with the treatises of Co- 
pernicus and of Newton, with the ^^Contrat 
Social " and the '' Wealth of Nations." It is 
doubtful if any other book, in all the history of 
modern thought, has been so far-reaching in 
its influence, or productive of such immense 
intellectual results. There is a difference, not 
merely of degree but almost of kind, between 
the intellectual processes of the men who lived 
before Darwin and those who have grown to 
manhood during the period in which the evo- 
lutionary leaven. has been working in men's 
minds. We no longer think in the same terms 
as of old, and we see that the true measure of 
the power of the great thinkers of the past is 
to be found in the extent to which their work 
foreshadowed or anticipated the evolutionary 

It is because the influence of Darwin has 

Digitized by 



[Jan. ly 

thns extended far beyond the biological field 
in which his work was done that his most 
famous book stands thns preeminent. Among 
the books that have proved epoch-making in 
more restricted fields of thought, we may men- 
tion Lyell's "Principles of Geology/' Helm- 
holtz's «< Tonempfindnngen/' Froebel's «« Edu- 
cation of Man," Buskin's " Modem Painters," 
and Maine's " Ancient Law." The science of 
comparative philology, which hardly existed 
before the nineteenth century, dates from the 
publication of Bopp's "Comparative Gram- 
mar " ; and the scientific pursuit of historical 
scholarship, whose ideals are very different 
from those of the eighteenth century histo- 
rians, although Gibbon did much to anticipate 
them, really began with the publication of 
Niebuhr's " Romische G^schichte." Dalton's 
" New System of Chemical Philosophy " laid 
the foundations for atomic chemistry, and the 
" M^canique Celeste " of Laplace provided a 
firm mathematical basis for the nebular theory, 
previously outlined, it is true, by Kant, but 
lacking in the confirmation that was brought 
to it by the masterly analysis of the French 
astronomer. Here is also the appropriate place 
for mention of the researches of Pasteur, which 
have proved so immensely fruitful in the do- 
main of bacteriology, and upon which, more 
than upon the labors of any other investi- 
gator, the new science is based. To the 
work of Pasteur and his followers we owe 
the first rational theory of disease and its 
treatment that has ever been formulated, a 
somewhat surprising fact when we consider 
the paramount importance of the subject to 

What were once supposed to be the founda- 
tions of religious belief have, during the cen- 
tury just ended, been sapped and mined by 
many agencies. The study of ancient civiliza- 
tions has proved to be the merest fables many 
things that the credulous earlier ages accepted 
without question. The new scientific view of 
man and nature has also brought about a silent 
transformation in many matters of opinion 
once thought to be indissolubly connected with 
religious belief, but now seen to have little or 
nothing to do with it. As far as religion is a 
question of the interpretation of the Scriptures, 
the historical methods that have dealt so effect- 
ively with Greek and Roman tradition have 
also made an enduring impression upon the 
traditions of the Hebrew people and of the 
Christian chnrch. The ^< higher" criticism, 
which means simply the new historical criti- 

cism of sources and ideas, has triumphed so 
completely that little in the way of superstition 
is left for it to slay. Many men have fought 
valiantly in this cause, and it is difficult to 
specify individual scholars. But if our test 
be that of direct influence upon great numbers 
of people, it is probably true that the ** Leben 
Jesu " of Strauss and the *^ Vie de J^sus " of 
Renan have been the most important popular 
agencies in bringing about a restoration of the 
Christian religion to its proper place in the 
perspective of general history. 

In the domain of economics, the most influ- 
ential book of the century has probably been 
one whose teachings are repudiated by those 
who have the best right to speak in the name 
of this science. The propaganda of socialism 
has become so marked a feature in the political 
life of most of the civilized nations that it can- 
not be ignored in any survey of the tendencies 
of nineteenth century thought, and credit must 
be given to the book which, more than any 
other, has been responsible, for this movement. 
That book, it need hardly be added, is the 
«« Kapital " of Karl Marx ; and its force is 
not yet spent. Indeed, we are inclined to 
think that fifty years hence it will loom 
even larger than it now does among the writ- 
ings that have most profoundly influenced the 
thought of modern times. For the socialist 
experiment has not yet worked itself out, and 
it will not be discredited until civilization has 
suffered some very rude shocks. Mill's 
«« Political Economy," on the other hand, 
while it has profoundly influenced the real 
thinkers in this field, and has an absolute value 
far exceeding that of *^Das Kapital," falls 
short of being an epoch-making book for the 
simple reason that, instead of setting new 
ideas in motion, its energy was devoted to 
clarifying the old ones, and to setting them 
forth in logical arrangement. It is still the 
best single treatise on political economy that 
has ever been written, and for this, at least, it 
deserves an honorable place in any review of 
the intellectual history of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. We are inclined to give a place in this 
connection to the writings upon political and 
social subjects of the great apostle of Italian 
unity, Guiseppe Mazzini. It is not merely 
because they brought about the political regen- 
eration of his own country that these writings 
are of the highest importance — although that 
would suffice to justify the estimate — but 
rather because they brought the element of 
spirituality into the discussions with which 

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they were concerned, and supplemented the 
oonception of the rights of man, of which 
something too much had been made during 
the period that followed the French Revolution, 
widi the hitherto neglected conception of the 
duties of man, thus giving an ethical turn to 
the general movement of European emancipa- 
tion, and allying it with something higher and 
finer than merely material interests. The 
teaching of Mazzini, enforced by the singular 
purity and nobility of his devoted life, has had 
a widespread influence upon political thought, 
and has given it an ethical impulse that would 
be difficult to overestimate. 

Turning last of all to the philosophers, that 
is, to the men who, as far as may be, take all 
knowledge for their province, and seek to sys- 
tematize the various results of special intel- 
lectual activity, we find the names of Humboldt, 
Hegel, Schopenhauer, Gomte, and Mr. Herbert 
Spencer to be the conspicuous names of the 
nineteenth century. The ** Kosmos " of 
Alexander von Humboldt marks, in a sense, • 
the end of the period of general scholarship 
and the beginning of the period in which 
specialization has held full sway. Never 
again can anyone hope to master the scientific 
knowledge of his time in the sense in which 
Humboldt mastered it; even the magnificent 
achievement of Mr. Spencer falls short of that 
ideal and shows the futility of any further en- 
deavor in that direction. We owe to Mr. 
Spencer the most thorough-going application of 
the conception of evolution to history that has 
ever been made, and that is glory enough for 
one man ; but we cannot read his *^ Synthetic 
Philosophy '' without at the same time realizing 
that there are gaps in his knowledge and de- 
fects in his philosophical comprehension. We 
have the same feeling in more marked degree 
when we read Comte ; and in his case, while 
recognizing his great influence, we must admit 
that it is an influence no longer active. Even 
the eloquence of Mr. Frederic Harrison cannot 
galvanize the ** Cours de Philosophic Positive " 
into any semblance of the life that left it a 
generation ago. Nevertheless, it will always 
be reckoned among the most influential books 
of the century just ended. Taking philosophy 
in the stricter sense, as primarily concerned 
with the ultimate problems of thought, the 
names of Hegel and of Schopenhauer stand 
preeminent in the history of the nineteenth 
eentory. The *' Logic " of the one and '* Die 
Welt als Wille und Vorstellnng " of the other 
have been the chief metaphysical forces of the 

period, although now, at the end of the period, 
we see that the former is a waning influence, 
while the latter is an influence still to be taken 
into account in any study of the forces which 
still sway the minds of thoughtful men. It 
supplies, better than any other metaphysical 
system yet produced, the needed corrective for 
that material viewx)f the universe which would 
seem to be the outcome of modern science, and 
enforces the fundamental teachings of the 
philosophers — of Plato, and Spinoza, and 
Berkeley, and Kant — in the terms of the 
modern intellect, and with a cogency that is 
irresistible to the logical mind. We are 
inclined to believe that if the *^ Origin of 
Species " is approached in its influence upon 
nineteenth-century thought by any other one' 
book, ««Die Welt als Wille und Vorstel- 
lnng " is that book. 


The recent ease of alleged ** interference with 
the freedom of academic teaehiog " at ^ Stanford 
University has called out a range of discussion and 
criticism that seems to us disproportionate to the 
importance of the ease. It was, of coarse, to be 
expected that the matter woold be made the most 
of by sensation-seeking newspapers, and those of 
California in particular seem to have improved 
their opportunities without mueh regard to the finer 
equities or to the injury they might be doing the 
institution and those who have made it one of the 
chief glories of their State. Into the deUuls of the 
affair we do not now propose to go. Broadly 
viewed, it seems less a question of academic free- 
dom than of academic common-sense. It appears 
that an instructor was asked to resign his position, — 
as he claims, on account of some sentiments, uttered 
by him in a public speech, which were objectionable 
to the founder of the University ; as the other side 
claims, on account of an antagonism of long stand- 
ing, aggravated by some offensive referencf s to the 
family of the founder, the instructor questioning in 
his class-room the legitimacy of the fortune by 
which the University had been established, while 
not scrapUng to accept a portion of the same for- 
tune in payment of his professorial salary. Now 
if these things were true^ or Mrs. Stanford believed 
them to be true, her resentment was natural and 
inevitable ; and in any event, it seems to us that 
such generous devotion and boundless liberality aa 
she has shown to the institution whose welfare liea 
so near her heart might fairly have entitled her to 
more considerate and more kindly treatment than 
she has received from some quarters. We do not 
believe, from all we know of this case, that the 

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[Jan. 1, 

principle of freedom in teaching is in any serions 
•danger at Stanford UniTertity. It certainly coald 
Aot suffer at the hands of President Jordan, who 
was sufficiently well known both for character and 
flcholarship before he went out to make Stanford 
UniTersity one of the greatest civilizing influences, 
and himself one of the greatest individual forces 
for good, on the Pacific Coast 


(To the Editor of Tkx Diai-) 

The list of the first twenty-nine immortals chosen 
for the << Hall of Fame for Great Americans," inangn- 
rated by the New York University, does not include 
the name of Edgar Allan Foe. This time, who hath 
done it ? 

A body of one hundred electors, composed of twenty- 
five university or college presidents, twenty-six profes- 
sors of history and scientists, twenty-six editors and 
authors and publicists, and twenty-three supreme court 
judges, State and National — ** representing the wisdom 
of the American people," -^ these are the jurymen who 
have failed to find a place for Poe in an American 
Hall of Fame. 

Literary England, and particularly Mr. Edmund W. 
Oosse, would doubtless question that '< wisdom " which 
ehows itself in undervaluing Art. Mr. Gosse regards 
Poe as our most perfect, most original, and most 
exquisite poet, and says that were he an American he 
would consider the nation's failure to appreciate him 
extraordinary, sinister, and disastrous. 

Thk Dial's symposium on " The American Rejec- 
tion of Poe,** a year or two ago, brought out many 
warm defenders of the poet, one of whom wrote: << Poe, 
in my judgment, was the greatest intellect America 
has produced — assuredly the best artist. His tales 
seem to me the third collection in point of merit in 
literature — the other two being the Arabian Nights 
and Boooaccio." And another: « Of all the American 
poets of the day, Poe alone fadei not. The rest have 
lost color. They worked in daguerreotype; he painted 
in oil." And still another: ** One great good thing in 
a poet like Poe is that he shows what art for art's sake 
can do. We in America need no incitement to value 
literature for its practical worth. We do not need 
to be told that thought is important, for we know it. 
But we do need to be told that art, or style, is of 
value, for as a rule we are not so much on the lookout 
for that." 

Why are these defenders of the poet silent now in 
the face of this fresh injustice to his memory ? 

In imagination, creative faculty, analysis, and origi- 
nality, Poe has but one rival in American literature. In 
musical poetry — in the marvellous use he made of the 
power which the great god Pan blew into him — " none 
sing so wildly well." To undervalue him because he 
4ef t behind him no Emersonian rules of Ufe and conduct 
— because the glory of his matchless rhyme does not 
lie in ** teaching men how to live well " — is as absurd 
as it would be to undervalue Chopin because he did not 
write the Sonatas of Beethoven. 

As the *< Hall of Fame " is a private enterprise, its 

final significance may perhaps be questioned; but as it 
is the only thing of its kind we have or may for some 
time have in America, its meaning to the American 
people will grow in importance with the years, and it 
is as well to treat it seriously. 

Resolution Six of the rules adopted by the Univer- 
sity Senate relating to the nomination of candidates 
states that *< Any nomination by any citizen of the 
United States that shall be addressed to the * New 
York University Senate' shall be received and con- 
sidered by that body." 

Why should not all lovers of Poe avail themselves of 

the opportunity therein afforded to place his name in 

nomination? ^ „^ „ 

Kate W. Beaver. 

San Francisco^ December 16, 1900. 



(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

A recent pamphlet by a young Italian excavator, 
Sig. Fausto Benedetti, treats of matters which, though 
of immediate importance to only a small group of 
specialists in Etruscan archeology, are indirectly of 
interest to a much wider public. For they affect the 
scientific standing and the official honor of Comm. 
Bamabei, who was lately Director of Antiquities and 
Fine Arts for the kingdom of Italy, and is reported to 
be seeking reinstatement in the same position; and no 
cultivated visitor to Italy, no friend anywhere of Italian 
art and antiquities, can afford to be indifferent to the 
manner in which that office is administered. 

In 1888 a museum was established in the Villa 
Ginlia, situated a half mile or so outside the Porta del 
Popolo, and this museum has been stocked chiefly with 
objects found in the territory of the ancient Falerii, 
the necropolis of Naroe having furnished a large share 
of the material. This material is professedly arranged 
according to tombs, the contents of each tomb by 
themselves; and this separation is all-important for 
scientific purposes, inasmuch as the tombs belong to 
different epochs of Etruscan civilization. The objects 
from Naroe have been elaborately described and dis- 
cussed in Volume IV. of the <<Monnmenti Antichi," 
the sumptuous arohsBological periodical issued by the 
Accademia dei LinceL So far as appearances went, the 
arrangement in the museum and the publication in the 
« Monumenti Antichi ** were controlled by a scientific 
rigor worthy of all praise. But disquieting charges in 
regard to this point have for some time been current; 
and now, on the heels of a whitewashing report made 
by a governmental commission, there comes a convincing 
attack from the hand of Sig. Benedetti, who conducted 
the excavations at Naroe as a private enterprise of his 
father's and his own. The title of his pamphlet is 
«61i Soavi di Narce ed U Museo di Villa Ginlia" 
[The Excavations at Narce and the Villa Ginlia 
Museum]; and it is published in Turin by Loescher, 
and in London by Mr. David Nutt. 

The author was only fifteen years old when, in 1889, 
he began his work at Naroe. He has presumably had 
but little education, and the wonder is that he writes 
as well as he does. He tells his story calmly, with 
every appearance of frankness and with full recognition 
of his own limitations. Moreover, he quotes extensively 
from documentary evidence which it is impossible to 
regard as falsified. So far as the present reviewer 

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ean make out from the evidence before hiniy Big. Ben- 
edetti eompletely establishes his ease. 

It appears thi^ the moseam in the Villa Ginlia has 
been managed with the grossest laxity and falsity. No 
pains were taken to secure adequate reoords of the 
excavationa, and such information as the young exea- 
▼ator was able to supply was disregarded and his 
memoranda were actually destroyed. The plans of the 
▼prions oemeteries and of the individual tombs pub- 
lished in the ** Monumenti Antiehi ** are inaccurate or 
wholly imaginary, and the eontents of the various 
tombs have been hopelessly confused. With good 
reason may Sig. Benedetti write (page 44): "My 
labor has been lost, and the loss can never be recov- 

It is a deplorable story, hot it is bettor that the 
truth should be known. If the injury done is beyond 
repair, at least it is to be hoped that the present 
Minister of Public Instruction in Itoly and his suc- 
oessors may see to it that no such scandal in the De- 
partment of Antiquities and Fine Arts shall again be 

P<»»*>^- F. B. Tarbkll. 

University of Chicago^ December 90, 1900, 

(To the Editor of Ths Dial.) 

Apropos of Mr. Anderson's remarks, in the last issue 
of The Dial, on my expression, <• We read Shakespeare 
as a duty," in the previous number, I may be permitted 
to explain that ** we " does not implicato my critic nor 
others. However, I suspect that most educated people, 
if they were frank to confess, would acknowledge Uiat 
while they enjoy Shakespeare's dramas as acted — the 
true test of the drama — they do not find them special 
favorites as read. Though Shakespeare is said by many 
eritios to be equally adapted to the stege and the closet, 
yet, aa a matter of fact, he is rarely read save per^ 
fanetorily by college instructors and classes and by 
some predeuses. In short we are growing beyond the 
Shakespeare idolatry period, just as we are growing 
beyond the period of the idolatry of the 6r»oo-Roman 
classics. Like Milton and the Bible, Shakespeare lies 
unopened in most cultivated homes from one year's end 
to another, at least as far as spontaneous pleasurable 
reading goes. If an honest census were maide of those 
who, £uiy, weekly, or even monthly, turn to the read- 
ing of Shakespeare <' with delight," their number would 
be found to be amazingly smalL For those few, how- 
ever, I have admiration and even envy; but I am un- 
willing to admit them as the sole representatives of the 
children of light, and the saving remnant from Philis- 
tiniam in this generaUon. Hiram M. Stanley. 

Lake Forest, lU,, December IBS, 1900. 

Early this year will be published Prof. A. Campbell 
Fraser's new edition, in four volumes, of the Complete 
WoiAs of Bishop Berkeley, all arranged in chrono- 
logieal order. Professor Fraser has thoroughly revised 
ai2l reeast his previous edition of the Works, published 
in three oetovo volumes at the Clarendon Press in 1871, 
and DOW cmt of print. The Introductions and Notes 
have been practically re-written; and a brief new 
biography wUl be prefixed. All fresh materials that 
have come to light within the last thirty years have been 
inoorporated throughout ; and this may be regarded aa 
the final Oxford edition of the great Irish Philosopher. 

^]gt |ltto gcoFis. 

liETTBB- Writer and Poet.* 

Now and then there crops up in print a new 
collection of letters, like Fitzgerald's or Smeth- 
am's or Stevenson's, good enough to set review- 
ers of the sanguine sort to hailing cheerfully a 
revival of the long-mourned-as-lost art of letter- 
writing. Such is the case with the two trim 
volumes now before us, the Letters of Thomas 
Edward Brown; and it should be said, and 
noted as a favorable sign> that the marked stir 
of interest caused by them is the result of the 
intrinsic and generally unlooked-for merit of 
the letters themselves, and not of the celebrity 
of the writer, — Brown's public, even in his 
own country, not having been a large one. 

An author of no wide vogue at home. Brown 
has been, we think, even less known in Amer- 
ica ; and hence a word or so about him now, 
a statement of the main facts in his not very 
eventful career, prefatory to the foretaste we 
propose giving through quotation of his cer- 
tainly remarkable letters, may not come amiss. 
He was bom in the Isle of Man in 1880, and 
died in 1897. His father, the Rev. Bobert 
Brown, Vicar of Kirk Braddan, near Douglas, 
was a writer and preacher of something more 
than local repute — a sort of Grandison of the 
pen (as we gather from the notice of him by 
the editor of the Letters), who was so nice in 
his notions of literary deportment that he used 
to «« make his son read to him some fragment 
of an English classic before answering an in- 
vitation." At fifteen Brown went to King 
William's College, where he distinguished him- 
self in verse composition, Greek, Latin, and 
English, and developed that distaste for math- 
ematics so often coupled with the literary gift. 
An old schoolfellow. Archdeacon Wilson, 
thus speaks of him : 

** I can well rememher, as a small boy of eleven, just 
plaoed in the fifth olass at King William's College, 
having Brown pointed oat to me, not without awe. He 
was said to * know more than any master! ' and * to have 
written the best Latin prose that the University exam- 
iners had ever seen!' ... Of course he never saw or 
spoke to a youngster like me.'' 

The *^ of course " can only be appreciated by 
those who know from some experience what 

*LsTTBB8 OF Tbomas Edwabd Bbown, Anthor of 
''Fo'c's'le Yams." Edited, with Introdnotory Memoir, by 
l^idney T. Irwin. In two Yolomes. NewTork: B.P. Dntton 

Ths GoLLBOTBD Pones OF T. B. Browv. With portrait. 
New Tork: The MsrnniHan Co> 

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[Jan. 1» 

the *^ head boy " of an English school is to his 
cringing and reyerential juniors, who are only 
too glad to blacken his boots, and fetch and 
carry for him like so many spaniels. The drop 
from this high estate of ^* head boy " to the 
quasi-menial one of a servitorship at Christ 
Church, Oxford, whither he went in 1849, was 
a trying one for Brown, as is bitterly indicated 
in an article on the position of a servitor at 
Oxford in his time, which he wrote years after 
for ^* Macmillan's Magazine." But to Oxford 
he went, and his academical career there is 
described as a peculiarly brilliant one. He not 
only won a double First Class in 1853, but 
found himself, in 1854, ** in the proud position 
of a Fellow of Oriel " — as Dr. Fowler records 
with academic unction. 

The life of an Oxford Fellow was not, how- 
ever, one to Brown's liking. He had no wish, 
he said, to «« fatten on a Fellowship," nor did 
a Tutorship attract him ; so after a few terms 
with private pupils he returned to the Isle of 
Man, and became Vice-Principal of King 
William's College. Then he went to the Crypt 
School, at Gloucester, where his friend Mr. 
W. E. Henley was his pupil. After a brief 
stay at Gloucester he was asked to take the 
Modern Side at Clifton College, Bristol ; and 
there he remained as a master for thirty-six 
years, leading a life outwardly uneventful but 
intellectually rich, and productive of work of 
which the world has taken too little notice. All 
his published poems were written, and most of 
them were published, while he was at Clifton 
— « Betsy Lee," in 1878 ; ** Fo'c's'le Yarns " 
(including "Betsy Lee"), in 1881, and in 
1889; ''The Doctor and Other Poems," in 
1887 ; ** The Manx Witch and Other Poems," 
in 1889 ; and «' Old John and Other Poems," 
in 1898. These works have now been gathered 
into a rather thick volume of Collected Poems, 
which comes to us almost simultaneously with 
the Letters. 

A former pupil at Clifton, Mr. H. F. Brown 
(the author, if we remember rightly, of an ad- 
mirable book on Venice), writes as follows of 
the impression he retained of his old master's 
strong and somewhat rugged personality : 

*< He never spoke to me out of sohool, and I never 
knew him at all privately or socially at that time, but 
his personality made a ^^reat impression; his slow sort 
of urgent walk, like Leviathan, his thick massive figure, 
above all his voice. I used to see him in the distanoe on 
his lonely strolls about the downs, and his flgnre seemed 
to belong to and to explain the downs, the river, the 
woods, the Severn, and the far Welsh hills. I remem- 
ber him walking, in the lain, and locking as if he liked 

it, as I did. Personally, at that time I was afraid of 
him; but he stirred fancy, curiosity, imagination. I 
should say that his educational function lay in * widen* 
ing.' He was a *widener.' He made one feel that 
there was something beyond the school, beyond sueoesa- 
ful performances at lessons or at games; there was a 
whiff of the great world brought in by him." 

Brown's letters, as selected for publication 
by Mr. Sidney T. Irwin, the editor of these 
volumes and long a colleague of Brown's at 
Clifton, extend chronologically from 1851, or 
the period of the author's undergraduateship, 
to 1897, the year of his death. Whatever 
faults may have been ascribed to Brown in hia 
lifetime, no one ever thought of calling him 
commonplace. His mind was one of quite un- 
usual turn and content; and he gave it free 
rein in his letters. He liked, as he said, ** to 
please his friends "; and when he took pen in 
hand to write to a friend he poured out with- 
out stint the best he could say or fancy of the 
topic in hand. He did not ** keep his best for 
the printer," for he was singularly indifferent 
to general recognition, and had no need of 
slaving for that difficult and fickle taskmaster 
and patron, the public. The not too wide circle 
of his chosen friends was the public he served 
by choice, and the one whose approval he valued 
most. His love of nature was profound, and 
sought frequent expression in word-paintings^ 
a little rhapsodic at times, but often of marked 
power and beauty, as in the following picture 
of the Jungfran : 

*'So the Jungfran vu-o-w-es you frankly through 
the bright sweet intervening air. . . . One evening onr 
sunset was the real roee-pink you have heard of w^ 
much. It fades, you know, into a death-like ohalk- 
white. That is the most aw/id thing. A sort of spasm 
seems to oome over her faee, and in an instant she is a 
corpse, rigid, and oh so oold! Well, so she died, and 
you felt as if a great soul had ebbed away into th» 
Heaven of Heavens: and thankful, but very sad, I went 
up to my room. I was reading by candle-light, for it 
gets dark immediately after sunset, when A. shrieked 
to me to eome to the window. What a Resurrection — 
so gentle, so tender — like that sonnet of Milton's about 
his dead wife retoming in a vision 1 The moon had 
risen; and there was the Jungfran — oh, ehaste, oh^ 
blessed saint in glory everlasting! Then all the ele- 
mental spirits that haunt crevasses, and hover around 
peaks, all the patient powers that bear up the rooky 
buttresses, and labor to sustain great slopes, all streams,, 
and drifts, and flowers, and vapors, made a symphony, 
a time most solemn and rapturous. ... A young Swiss 
felt it, and with exquisite delicacy feeling his way, as 
it were, to some expression, however inadequate, he 
played a sonata of Schumann, and one or two of the 
songs, SQoh as the FrfUkUngsnackt.^ 

That Brown had in a high degree the artist*a 
love of expression for its own sake is more 
evident in tlie foUowing oharaeteriatie nolelet s 

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<< Last night I had a ramble whieh it would be hard 
to describe. I went round and round something ; 
probably myself. One point there was upon the oir- 
«umferenee — a spark — a ship working her way np 
•ehannel against wind and tide. The ship was invisible 
in the gloom, but the light — what intense yearning ! 
and what pluck and energy too I It was like a red 
diamond, if there be such a thing, boring into black- 
ness. I could almost hear the rip-rip of the severing 
sheets of darkness; or perhaps, rather, a delicate hum 
of the gritty grating stuff Uirough whieh she had to 
pass. But no, I return to the first idea. The borer, 
the red diamond piercing the black marble.'' 

To many readers not of the now ruling 
j;eneration the following note (1881) on Car- 
lyle*s death will be gratefully intelligible : 

«* And * True Thomas ' is gone. What has he not 
l>een to men of my generation ? And the younger men 
•come and ask one — What was it ? What did he teach ? 
and so forth; and, of course, there is nothing to be said 
in that direction. And, if one mumbles something be- 
tween one's teeth (impatiently, rather like a half- 
chewed eurse) — something about a Baptitm of firt — 
my graceful adolescents look shocked, and, for the 
most part, repeat the question, * Yes, yes, but what did 
lie teach? ' To whieh (I mean when repeated^ there is 
sio possible reply, but the honest outspoken < I> .' " 

The note on Carlyle naturally leads up to 
the following amusing dissertation on genius, 
•eyidently in reply to a friend's plaint of a par- 
ticular instance of the proverbial seamy side 
of the man of genius. 

<< A genius I that's it And they are all like that, 
almost all. Those little falsetti, and affectations, and 
posings, and putting the best foot foremost; those 
cravings for appreciation, the egotism, the self-eon- 
aciousnees (go ahead !), all characterize the genius. You 
must take him with them — take him or leave him 
alone. But you seem to seek a portent! — a man of 
^nius and a man of hard practical common- sense 
knocked into one. The world has produced half a 
<dosen such men. They are tremendous. But — 
Heaven help us I — you must be content with some- 
thing less than this, or Nature will never get her men 
off her hands. <Sell me a genius,' say you. <Here 
jou are/ says Nature, handing over a lot, < plenty of 
•ehoiee : marked in flgnres ; read — Byron, Shelley, 
Keats, Coleridge — ' < Oh, I want _ ' < Well, what do 
you want? ' < A strong, powerful, healthy intellect, and 
genius as a dooragh.'* * Oh, thank you for nothing! 
We don't make them. Yon had better try the shop 
over the way, or give a special order, and we can try, 
provided you are willing to wait a thousand years or 
«o! ' . . . This < rift within the lute ' of genius is the 
inseparable accident ... I have no doubt that to 
many of us it were better if we never got to know men 
of genius privately. You may depend upon it that, 
throughout the history of literature, they offended their 
oontemporaries by their airs and their bosh, their petti- 
ness and their annine conceit. Never mind! The world 
lias taken its hat off to these men, and so must we. 
We need not stroke the quills on the <back of the 
fretful porpentine '; let us avoid coming into too close 
oontaet Perhaps some of them had better be kept in 


cages. But chance may domesticate you with one; 
you may, for instance, marry one. Poor Mrs. Carlyle! " 

On the following somewhat satirical passage 
from a letter of 1895, comment were superfluous. 

** Have you seen Mat. Arnold's Letters f I hear of 
a Penny Mat. Arnold published by Stead ( / / ). Is that 
possible? And to be followed by a Penny Chugk! 
Did you ever ? Is he publishing them in penny num- 
bers ? the whole to coet a lot ? Or, positively, can we 

have Mat. — the whole unmutilated Mat for a 

penny ? And by Stecui f Wonders will never cease. 
Fancy Mat., from that fair heaven which now holds his 
dainty ghost, stooping to sniff, etc. . . . Still, one has 
the consolation of thinking that he must be amused 
when he beholds waving a censor in his temple such a 
high-priest as Stead — amused — yes, and note the 
shrinking nostril, how it curves! " 

The foregoing quotations should suffice to 
show the general tone and the genre of Brown's 
letters, and to establish the point, at least, that 
commonness is the last quality to be predicated 
of them. Their diversity, their rich allusiye- 
ness, their swift spontaneity, their protean 
mutability of mood, their odd humor, we have 
but faintly indicated. All in all, they seem tp 
us to form one of the richest and most original 
collections of the kind of recent years. Mr. 
Irwin has done his editing well and helpfully, 
in the main ; but for some inscrutable reason 
the volumes were issued without an Index, 
which they especially need. This omission we 
trust to see supplied in the forthcoming second 
edition of the Letters, already called for. The 
volumes are well printed, though not without 
an occasional slip in the spelling, — for in- 
stance, *^ Olnet " for Ohnet, on page 220, and 
•« Cuddie '' for Caddy, on page 208. 

The popularity of Brown's letters will doubt- 
less send people to reading, or re-reading, his 
poems ; and hence the convenient volume of 
" Collected Poems of T. E. Brown " recently 
issued by the Messrs. Macmillan comes witb 
especial timeliness. The not very poetic Manx 
dialect with which not a few of these earnest 
but somewhat rugged productions are plenti- 
fully sprinkled may prove an obstacle to some 
readers ; and we should think that a taste for 
Brown's poetry must in general be something 
of an acquired one. But once acquired it wiU 
be likely to abide, and to prove a source of no 
small joy and profit of the high sort that genuine 
poetry alone, with a strain of broad human 
sympathy in it, can give. The volume contains 
786 compact pages, and is the latest number 
of its publishers' admirable series of Uniform 
Editions of the Poets, including such masters 
as Tennyson and Browning. A fine portrait of 
the author forms the frontispiece. £. 6. J. 

Digitized by 




[Jan. It 

chbi8tia19itt in america before 

In these days of easy authorship and half- 
matured production, it is a strengthening of 
faith in the survival of learning to take up two 
large volumes that show research and investi- 
gation requiring many years of patient labor. 
To attempt even a cursory examination of the 
multitude of myths and legends on the rela- 
tions between the Old and the New worlds 
prior to Columbus is a task that might dissuade 
any save a scholar who works under the in- 
centive of religious zeal and writes from a fixed 
purpose. Fifteen pages of closely-printed 
bibliography reveal a searching investigation 
that extends backward from the ^* moneron " 
of Darwin to the voyages of Columbus. In 
addition to the printed authorities, two pages 
of manuscripts and archives, mostly in the 
Vatican, are included. The Bible, Humboldt's 
Mcamen Critique^ and Herrera's Sistoria 
General are most frequently cited. Such an 
exhaustive list of authorities on the relations 
between the two hemispheres prior to Columbus 
is rarely met with. 

Rejecting, on religious grounds, the theory 
of evolution, which he terms ** the fashionable 
school of science sprung up during the latter 
half of our century," as also the suggestion 
that the American aborigines were pre- Adam- 
ites, the author proceeds to examine the Cave 
Dwellers and the Mound Builders as types of 
people separate from the Indians of Columbus, 
and possessing a higher civilization, whose 
origin must be accounted for. Such advanced 
state is also indicated by ruins in Central 
America, California, Peru, and Brazil. Simi- 
larity between the traditions of the aborigines 
and the descriptions of the Old Testament 
forms further proof of a pre-Christian civili- 
zation. As a means of crossing the waters, 
the author seems to accept Plato's Atlantis, as 
nearly as he expresses a definite opinion on 
any point raised. Seeking the peoples by whom 
this civilization was brought from the Old 
world to the New, he rejects the Phoenicians, 
Jews, pre-Christian Irish, Romans, and Afri- 
cans, and, by the law of elimination, is *^ in- 
clined to believe '' that these traditions were 
*< brought into America by the nearest descen- 
dants of the patriarch Noe, who had taken 
their course in an easterly direction, landing 

* HiSTORT OF Ambbioa BBiORB Ck>LUMBU8. Aooording 
to doeoments aod approred avthoi*. By P. De Roo. In 
two TolnmM. Philadelphia : Tlia J. B. Lippinoott Co. 

in America, either at Behring Strait, or, after 
sailing through Polynesia, on the western 
coast of Central America and Peru." Accord- 
ing to this hypothesis, Christianity beoomea 
America's ** second civilizer.'* 

Finding here his real thesis, the author an- 
nounces the apostle St. Thomas as the agent 
who brought Christianity to early America^ 
although that St. James or St. Paul came is 
not ** an unreasonable induction." Anticipating 
the objection that human agencies were wanting 
in those days for such journeys, the writer 
takes refuge in the superhuman or the miracu- 
lous. *^Is not the whole establishment of 
Christianity one single great miracle too little 
noticed ? " Discussion of this point resolves 
itself into the old controversy between the 
Spanish church which claimed the credit for 
the evangelization of America, and the other 
Roman Catholic nations which objected to such 
a monopoly. 

An examination of the rites of the western 
savages further strengthens the hypothesis of 
a pre-Columbian Christianity. Crude forms 
of the confessional are found, as well as baptism^ 
the eucharist, convents, monasteries, and celi- 
bates. Penance is not uncommon ; but when 
penance becomes self-torture, it ceases to be a 
church function, according to the author, and 
becomes one of *^ Satan's rites." Numerous 
witnesses are found to testify to the finding of 
the crucifix among so-called heathen emblems ; 
of the representation of a man fastened to a 
cross; of the expectation of a Messiah, and 
even hb birth from a virgin. 

The people of Ireland seem the most likely 
agents who disseminated this knowledge of the 
church in America. That no trace of them 
remains is due to their relapsing into barbar- 
ism. Traditions of the Welsh in America^ 
the delightful crux of our scientific ancestors, 
are explained by a similar appearance and 
disappearance of that people. The claims of 
the Scandinavians are examined through the 
sag^s, indubitable evidences of them being 
found all along the Atlantic coast from New 
York to New Foundland. Between these 
Norsemen and Columbus, the author finds a 
host of daring men who crossed the ^^ great 
Sea of Darkness," thus enabling him to pro- 
claim with evident satisfaction his summing 
up, that ** knowledge and not genius directed 
the voyages of Columbus." 

Beginning by chance his inquiries among 
the archives of the Vatican, the author could 
not avoid a pardonable pride in the early 

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achieyements of his church and a resulting ten- 
dency to favor her claims. Of this fact he is 
confessedly conscious in his introduction. He 
has ** kept a steady eye on the religious par- 
ticulars "; he admits the ** religious trend '' of 
his work ; but at the same time he has made 
it his ^^ duty to hear the testimony of dissent- 
ing and infidel authors." He apologizes for 
quoting so frequently H. H. Bancroft and 
W. H. Prescott, ^ two authors whose religions 
ideas are either extremely vague or absolutely 
null when not inimical to Christianity." 

Quite naturally the author's conclusions on 
a majority of the questions concerning primi- 
tive days are based upon the Scriptures. For 
instance, after examining the opinions of a 
multitude of scientists as to the probable time 
of the appearance of man on the earth, and 
summing up their widely divergent opinions, 
the author refuses to steer his *' exploration 
bark " by their figures, and decides *^ for pru- 
dence to seek safety in the harbor opened to 
us by that venerable book," etc. Similar dis- 
crepancies existing among Bible students upon 
this point he easily disposes of by the state- 
ment that if we knew more about the Scrip- 
tures we could the better explain them. 

Aside from the criticism that the work is 
more of a Middle Age church disquisition than 
a modem historical essay, one must note the 
difficulty that always attends such obsolete 
methods — the impossibility of rendering by 
them a verdict upon any mooted question. 
The mind is lost in uncertainty between the 
legendary and the authentic. Only when 
resting upon Scriptural ground does the 
author venture beyond the highly probable. 
In general, he rarely states a fixed opinion. 
Thus, of the texts of the Scriptures he finds 
that *^ which one is right and which wrong will 
most likely ever remain a matter of dispute "; 
the time and circumstances of the disappear- 
ance of the so-called Mound Builders are 
** involved in as deep mystery as those of their 
first appearance"; while concerning the sup- 
posed evidences of the Norsemen in Massachu- 
setts, ** explanation strictly historical is now 

On the other hand, it should be said that no 
previous work has disclosed to the general 
reader so many disquisitions on the possible 
Ghristianization of the Western world before 
Columbus, nor made so full a compilation of 
the many opinions on this vexed question. The 
volumes will be read with interest even by 
those who lament that the author did not con- 

fine himself to a narrower field and a lesa 
pre- judged attitude. Mention should be made 
of the several charts accompanying the descrip- 
tive matter. In dosing, the author announces 
a similar work upon the spread of Christianity 
in America after Columbus. 

Edwin Eble Spares. 

Two Books on Banking.* 

The compiler of a history of banking in the 
United States is confronted at the outset by a 
difficulty inherent in the material with which 
he has to deal. Should the treatment be chro- 
nological? or should the subject-matter be 
divided into histories of banking in each of 
the States, with a separate section for banks 
chartered by the Federal government ? The 
latter plan is the one followed by Mr. Knox 
in the work before us. This plan facilitates 
the tabulation and orderly arrangement of the 
vast array of details which defy all attempts 
at condensation; but on the other hand it 
makes the coordination of the material a prac- 
tical impossibility and precludes the compre- 
hensive view that is essential to complete 
understanding. The aim of the author was to 
gather all the information possible <^upon 
every phase of banking in every State of the 
Union." This work, left unfinished at his 
death in 1892, has now been revised and 
brought up to date under the editorship of 
Mr. Bradford Rhodes and Mr. Youngman of 
the ** Bankers' Magazine," with the assistance 
of ** a corps of flnanciid writers " who have 
furnished sketches of banking history in the 
several States. The result is a stout octavo 
volume of eight hundred and eighty closely 
printed pages, which, although it containa 
much information not elsewhere accessible, ia 
not so much a connected history as a collection 
of material for one. To a certain extent the 
book has the advantage of being the work of 
a banker of training and ripe experience, who 
had, moreover, during his long service as 
Comptroller of the Currency, exceptional op* 
portunities for familiarizing himself with the 
varied details of his subject ; nevertheless, it 

* A H18TOBT OF BANKina nr thb United Statbs. By 
the lato John Jay Knoz ; assisted by a corps of finanoiai 
writers in the Tarions States. Reyised and bronght np to 
date by Bradford Rhodes and Elmer H. Yonngman. New 
York : firadf oid Rhodes A Co. 

Clbabiko H0U8B8 : Their History. Methods, and Admin- 
istration. By James G. Cannon, Vioe-President of ih« 
Fourth National Bank of the City of New York. New York r 
D. Appleton A Co. 

Digitized by 




[Jan. I9 

is on the whole disappointing. The desire of 
the editors (it is impossible to determine the 
extent of Mr. Knoz*s anthorship) to dironide 
the facts without bias may be assumed to be 
the reason why all statement of basic princi- 
ples and explanation of events by reference 
thereto is, as far as may be, omitted. This is 
somewhat like the play of *^ Hamlet" with 
Hamlet left out 

Strange as it may seem, the principles of 
sound banking have nerer been well under- 
stood in the United States, even by bankers 
themselves. As a consequence there has been 
nothing in the nature of progresrive develop- 
ment with gradual addition of desirable fea- 
tures and elimination of defective ones. 
Instead, we have but a sorry record of the 
practical trial of almost every conceivable 
theory in regard to banking and credit. No 
other country has been the field for such a 
variety of foolish legislation upon the subject. 
Gtood banking systems in some of the States 
and bad systems in other States have existed 
side by side, yet seemingly with little or no 
comprehension, on the part of bankers, legisla- 
tors, or the public generally, of what consti- 
tuted the vital difference between them. At no 
time has a thoroughly sound, well-considered, 
and comprehensive system, adapted in all 
respects to the needs of the country, been in 
operation. The National Banking Law brought 
order out of the chaos which preceded its en- 
actment, and has many excellent features, yet 
it is far from creating an ideal system. Its 
very success in protecting the note-holder from 
loss is responsible for tibe prevalence of erro- 
neous ideas in regard to the true character of 
the note-issuing function. This function has 
always been one of the chief stumbling-blocks 
in the way of an understanding of banking 
principles. Ignorance of these principles led 
to the enactment of laws in some of the States, 
of which unscrupulous men were quick to take 
advantage, and ^^ wildcat banks " and ^^ stump- 
tail currency" were the logical sequence. 
Even in the States in which the note issues 
were on a sound basb, the volume in circula- 
tion was regulated more by accident — as, for 
example in New England, through the develop- 
ment of the Suffolk Bank redemption system — 
than as the result of a clear conception of the 
governing principle. This principle, stated 
briefly, is that no bank should pay out over its 
counter other bank notes than its own, and 
that provision should be made for daily 
redemption in all the commercial centres. In 

this way only can true *« elasticity " be seeored 
and the volume of the currency be automatic- 
aDy adjusted to the needs of die community. 

In a book more than half of which is made 
up of articles by some twenty-seven different 
authors, consistent exposition in the light of 
any one view of what is the true explanation 
of the occurrences described, is not to be ex- 
pected ; and it is not surprising, therefore, to 
find effects attributed to entirely different 
causes, — as on page 458, where one author 
thinks the panic of 1857 was due to the low 
tariff then in force ; while another writer, on 
page 512, expresses the opinion that inflation 
of the currency was the cause. Such differ- 
ences of opinion are perhaps inevitable in a 
work by so many hands. The editors, how- 
ever, must be hdd responsible for not elimi- 
nating, so far as possible, the jargon of **the 
street " and adopting a scientific terminology 
in its place. To speak of ** money,'* when 
*« free loanable capital " is the correct phrase, 
may be sufficiently intelligible to the man who 
borrows or the banker who lends the capital ; 
but the use of sudi language in a history is in 
the highest degree misleading. What wonder 
is it that when people are informed that 
^* money is scarce " they should jump to the 
conclusion that the volume of the circulating 
medium is inadequate ? Yet the simple truth 
is that it is not money but loanable capital 
that has become scarce, because die free cap- 
ital of the country or the locality — which free 
capital may consist either of money or credit — 
is in use owing to increased business activity, 
or is locked up throngh apprehension on the 
part of its owners. It is true that money and 
capital and credit are, under some cironm* 
stances, interchangeable terms ; but that need 
not here be taken into consideration, this not 
being the place for extended discussion of the 
relation between them. 

Comment in detail upon the many topics 
treated in this volume would expand these 
remarks far beyond the limits of available 
space. As a storehouse of information, it is a 
welcome addition to banking literature. Many 
of the separate articles are ably written and 
are worthy of separate reviews. Much pains 
appears to have been taken to secure accunu^ 
of statement. While there are occasional 
slips — as, for instance, on page 192, where it 
is a litde surprising to read that the Metro- 
politan National Bank of Chicago failed in the 
year 1888, — such mistakes are remarkably 
few for a work of such magnitude. 

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The ntilitj of the Cleariog House as a labor* 
saving and time-saving device in banking is 
novr well understood. Curiously enough, 
although the idea of offsetting mutual demands 
against eaoh other and settling them by pay* 
ment of the resulting balanoes only, is sim* 
plioity itself, the methods by which it is put 
into practice vary widely. Mr. Cannon has 
performed a service which bankers will appre- 
ciate, in setting forth in detail, in his book on 
^ Clearing Houses," the machinery in use for 
this purpose in the different cities in the United 
States, and also in London, in Canada, and in 
Japan. The work is that of a banker thor- 
oughly familiar with his subject and careful 
in his presentment of it. 

Clearing Houses in their inception were the 
outgrowth of a practical necessity. The same 
consideration has led most of these institutions 
in the United States to assume functions other 
than the primary one for which they were 
established. Many have become to a greater 
or less degree a medium for united action on 
the part of their members. Rules regulating 
collection charges, rates of interest on deposits, 
banking hours, and other matters, have been 
adopted in many cities. The most important 
of the added functions is the pooling of 
resources in times of financial stress through 
the issue of Clearing House loan certificates. 
This contrivance, the most ingenious which 
has been evolved from the banking methods in 
Togae in the United States, affording as it 
does a partial remedy for the lack of elasticity 
in our currency, is discussed at length by Mr. 
Cannon. While pointing out the great benefit 
which has accrued from the resort to such cer- 
tificates in critical times, he omits to indicate 
the disadvantage which their use implies. 
There can be no doubt that the issue of loan 
certificates by the New York banks in 1898 
relieved the aouteness of the distress then 
prevalent ; but it is true also that it intensified 
the currency famine and subjected bankers 
and merchants throughout the country to a 
heavy tax by causing an abnormally large dis- 
count on New York exchange. Alone among 
banks in the leading commercial centres, the 
Chicago banks have never made use of this 
device. There are many reasons for this ; 
among them, the certainty of inducing a 
scarcity of currency, which could not fail to 
bear with severity upon the great market-place 
for products always bought and sold for cash, 
bas ever been a potent consideration. 

Mr. Cannon very jnsUy criticises the custom 

which obtains among the Boston banks of 
lending to each other the credit balances aris- 
ing from the clearing. In commenting upon a 
somewhat similar practice in Chicago, he does 
not appear to note the important distinction 
that the Chicago banks trade their balances 
merely as a matter of convenience and to avoid 
the risk of carrying large sums of money 
through the streets. The necessity of being 
always prepared to make cash settlements is 
not in the least done away with. Such settle- 
ments are liable to be insisted upon at any 
time, and especially in periods of stringency. 
Frederick W. Gookin. 

Finding a Fresh IjANd.* 

In some glowing words concerning his coun- 
try, an American poet sings : 

" Hen the lest etend le mede. 
If we fail here, what new Golambne bold, 

Steering bmye prow through bleok eeae unafraid. 
Finds out a fresh land where man may abide 

And freedom yet be sayed ? *' 

And the answer comes with no uncertain voice 
in the new book by Mr. Henry Demarest 
Lloyd, an amplification of his recent ^^ Country 
without Strikes," and entitled, *^ Newest En- 
gland, Notes of a Democratic Traveller in New 
Zealand, with Some Australian Comparisons.'* 
To those unfamiliar with the practical acoom- 
plishments of the statesmen guidiug the desti- 
nies of the English-speaking people in the 
antipodes, the book will be a surprise ; to all 
idealists and believers in human perfectibility 
it will be a delight ; and to evolutionists gen- 
erally it will be in a sense a stumbling-block. 
At the same time it is reasonable proof that 
many things we in the United States have been 
dismissing as Utopian dreams are eminendy 
practical in unselfish hands, requiring nothing 
more abstract than leaders of the people who 
have the welfare of the people first at heart, 
with intelligence enough to know where that 
welfare lies. 

In 1890 the people of Australasia found the 
world slipping beneath their feet. A huge 
strike, extending through the Australian con- 
tinent and its tributary islands, had been com- 
pletely overthrown and the labor element left 
gasping with defeat. Concurrently, financial 
dishonesty and monetary stringency had par- 
alyzed capital, so that in victory it was no 

*Newb8T Enolaitd : Notes of a Demoeratio Traveller in 
New Zealand, with Some Australian Companions. By Henrj 
Demareet Lloyd. New York : Doableday, Pase A Co. 

Digitized by 






[Jan. 1» 

happier than its opponent in rout. In this 
emergency, as Mr. Lloyd tells us, there arose 
in New Zealand a small body of men, themselves 
the sons of the people, but sons who had not 
forgotten their upbringing, who stepped into 
the gap. The Bank of New Zealand, whining 
patriotism while it plundered rich and poor 
alike, was taken out of a slough of despond 
into which its managers had plunged it, and 
the country was thereby enabled to weather 
the financial storms which all but wrecked the 
sister colonies. This accomplished, a series 
of reforms was set on foot, the end of which 
is not yet. It is with these that Mr. Lloyd is 
chiefly concerned, and they are already so 
numerous that little more than a summary of 
them can be given. 

First of all, the New Zealand government, 
recognizing tramps, paupers, and workless 
laborers as symptoms of a disease infecting the 
body politic, was wise enough to regard it as 
only one of several symptoms, among which 
were also to be counted millionaires when made 
by turning over to private individuals any of 
the powers of government for the sake of 
private gain. The system of taxation was 
therefore reversed. The tax which bore most 
heavily on the improvements of land, and so 
on enterprise and thrift, was taken off, and 
the burden thrown on vacant land. If the 
holdings were large, the tax was proportion- 
ately larger ; if owned by an absentee, larger 
still; and the right to purchase any given 
estate at a ten peir centum advance on the 
valuation given in for purposes of taxation 
was legalized — a measure which has given 
relief to scores of New Zealand families by 
enabling them to leave the overcrowded cities. 
Leases in perpetuity, with occupancy as an 
essential, make it impossible for the land to 
return again into the hands of the few. *' No 
man now dreams,'* an eminent New Zealander 
is quoted as saying, **of founding a great 
landed estate in New Zealand." 

In the public works, beginning with road- 
making and extending thence to bridge-build* 
ing and even to the erection of public edifices, 
it has been found possible by the rulers of 
these islands to dispense altogether with the 
services of the middleman, to give the work 
directly to the workmen, and to give it in such 
a way that the weaker and less efficient among 
the workmen are fully secured in their chances 
of earning such a living as they are capable of 

Becognizing that in trades unions the only 

efficient ally of the State against the greed of 
employers is to be found, the one bulwark 
against the wholesale manufacture of men of 
broken wills and hopeless futures, the govern- 
ment set about restraining the power of both 
employers and employees for ill, passing a com- 
pulsory arbitration law which at a single move 
made strikes and the attendant abuses of public 
rights impossible, but limiting its beneficence 
to members of trades unions idone. A strike 
is not legally impossible in New Zealand, but 
a strike by organised labor — the only form of 
strike which has proved effective — is impos- 
sible. So a lockout by employers, singly or in 
combination, is not legally impossible, but may 
take place only when their employees have 
failed to join themselves to some labor organi- 
zation. It is significant that both sides not 
only welcome this innovation upon what some 
economists style natural rights, but refuse to 
avail themselves of the recommendation of the 
court below, the powers of which are limited to 
conciliation, and carry their cases to the point 
where a compulsory decree of the court of last 
resort ends the litigation by final adjudication. 

The railroads, prime cause of many great 
fortunes through partiality and private con- 
tract elsewhere, already belonged to the state 
in New Zealand, yet had been administered by 
a board remote from the popular will. The 
management was placed directly in the govern- 
ment, which is fully amenable to the will of 
the people as expressed at the polls. As a re- 
sult, the rates are fixed regardless of the wealth 
of the shipper or the value and quantities of 
his shipments, and the poor farmer and the 
rich manufacturer have exact equality in get- 
ting their wares to market. A single policy is 
declared — that of cheaper rates. 

The government itself^ without the interven- 
tion of a banker, advances money on lands for 
purposes of the improvement thereof, and the 
mortgage shark has disappeared with the rack 
renter. Not only this, but the government finds 
a market in London for the products of New 
Zealand industry, and advances money on con- 
signments, as of agricultural products, in its 
hands and inspected. The wild dream of the 
Western and Southern populist, which would 
have had the American government issue de- 
bentures based upon wheat and other grain in 
governmental warehouses to the farmer, is in 
New Zealand an accomplished fact. 

Women vote in New Zealand, and every 
needy individual who reaches the age of sixty- 
five is given a state pension of five dollars a 

Digitized by 





week, the moneys for this purpose being secured 
by a progressive income tax. 

All these things have been ** made to pay/' 
MB Mr. Lloyd is at pains to prove. Within 
the short time they have been operative they 
have been profitable to the country, and taxa- 
tion has decreased. It is not pretended that 
all abases have been rectified. A highly pro- 
tective tariff still exists, for example ; but 
there is a perfect recognition on the part of 
the government that the effect of such a meas- 
are is to enrich the rich and deplete the purses 
of the poor, and compensating taxation is ar- 
ranged for in view of that fact. 

Nor is the country standing still. The pro- 
gramme of the future contains such items as 
state fire insurance ; zone rates on railroads ; 
nationalized steamship lines, mmes, and land; 
inexpensive law courts; state banking; and many 
more things of the sort, all of which seem 
to grow naturally out of existing conditions. 

As will be seen, the book is of the greatest 
interest to all students of existing social con- 
ditions. It is written in Mr. Lloyd's simplest 
and best manner, and is, within certain limits, 
convincing. Yet there is too little stress laid 
on the fact that only ten years have elapsed 
since the beginning of these reforms was made 
— a mere second of time in sociology as in 
geology ; that the New Zealand statesman is 
as exceptional in training and ambitions as in 
achievements ; that ** fraternalism," however 
different initially from ** paternalism," still 
spells much the same thing ; and that the pro- 
posed Australasian confederation places an 
entirely new aspect on the whole case. 

Wallace Bice. 

Bbcjsnt Beligious Discussions.* 

The volume entitled << Evolution and Theology " 
is made up of a series of articles published at vari- 
ous times. It is vigorous, aggressive, and saggestive. 

* Evolution amd THBOiiOOT, Ain> Othbb Essays. By 
Otto Pflmdever, D.D. Edited by Orello Cone. New York: 
The Maemillan Co. 

Tbb Reuoioh or a Gbntlvmait. By Charles F. Dole. 
New York : Thomas Y. Ciowell A Co. 

Tbb Christiak Conobptiok or Houmbss. By £. H. 
Aekwith, M.A. New York: The Maomillan Co. 

Thx SofTL OF A CHBiSTiAk. By Fraok Granger. New 
York : The Maomillan Co. 

Tbk Doctrihis of Graob. By John Watson, M. A., D.D. 
New York: Met^ora, Phillips A Co. 

Thx Riddlb or tbb Ukivbbsb. By Ernst Haeckel. New 
Yerk : Harper A Brothers. 

Wbbhob axd Whithbb. By Panl Cares. Chicago : The 
Opes Goort Company. 

The aathor occasionally poshes his view to a point 
that is self-destrnctive. Thns, he says : *^ If it is 
the methodic cardinal proposition of the science of 
to-day that we have to explain every condition as 
the eaiually determined development oat of a pre- 
ceding one, this exelades the appearance of any 
condition, event, action, or personality, which is 
not explicable oat of the factors of the preceding 
conditions and according to the laws of genesis 
in general" (page 9). This assertion leaves no 
standingwgroand for haman thought as a free, self- 
directed process. All mental activity nnks to a 
series of cansal events, each series on the same foot- 
ing as every other series. The earth-worm leaves 
a shiny trail on the flag it traverses. The direction 
it parsaes has no significance, has no rational 
basis. The movement, at its highest and its lowest 
expression, is merely an obscure fact with no qaality 
in the realm of trath. 

'< The Religion of a Gentleman " — the religion 
of a man — is admirable in parpose and in execu- 
tion. The aathor is possessed of strong spiritaal 
sosceptibilities, roddy life, and quick intellect. His 
aim is to anite these human endowments in one 
coherent self-sustaining whole. The book will be 
helpful to all who are struggling for such a recon- 
ciliation, and find themselves embarrassed by ob- 
trusive irrational elements in religion. With sound 
common-sense, the author grasps at once the inner 
substance of faith. 

^* The Christian Conception of Holiness '' is an 
effort to unite Christian doctrine and evolution in 
one harmonious conception. The intermediate 
thought by which this is done is '*the gospel of 
creation," the development of a higher form of 
spiritual life. << God is a being whose every thought 
is love." '' Creation is one great unselfish thought, 
the bringing into being of creatures who can know 
the happiness which God himself knows." The 
author has a vigorous hold upon his subject, and 
scatters light freely along the discussion. One who 
gladly accepts this general line of reconciliation 
will still be inclined to go farther, or less far, in the 
details of presentation, according to the degree in 
which he has worked out similar lines of inquiry. 
It is a bold region, full of various and captivating 
views. The manner of thought and expression is 
so isolated as to detract somewhat from the popular 
value of the discussion. 

<< The Soul of a Christian " is a book quite of its 
owfi order, and well deserves attention. The 
writer states his object in his first sentence in this 
wise \ << It is the purpose of this essay to describe 
the Christian life, as far as possible, in the terms, 
and with the methods, of psychology." The 
method pursued is discursive. The chapters have 
no very close connecUon, and the diecussion in each 
is free. It is a book that offers itself to a piece- 
meal perusal, and rewards it by many flashes of 
light. It cannot fail to help us to a better under- 
standing of the connection of nervous and spiritual 

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[Jan. 1» 

The foarteen chapters on <<Tbe Doctrinee of 
Grace/' though not offered as sermons, have the 
proportion and independence of pnlpit discoarses. 
Xhey are characterized by a warmth of feeling, 
qaickness of intellect, and common-sense which 
should make them acceptable not only within bat 
beyond the circle of assent to the doctrines involved 
in them. 

« The Riddle of the Universe " seems to be a 
misnomer as a title, for the author makes no riddle 
whatever of the world, denying most of that which 
others regard as mysterious. Professor Haeckel 
has been from the beginning, and still remains, a 
very flat-footed empiricist Mental phenomena 
with him are simply a phase of physical phenomena. 
Barely is a man so destitute of all the instruments 
and insights of spiritual knowledge as Professor 
Haeckel. If one with no better furniture of 
powers were to give himself to science, he would 
be regarded simply as a charlatan. The Professor 
has this merit: he is no way afraid of his own 
conclusions, and puts them unreservedly in lan- 
guage appropriate to them, without the disguise of 
a phraseology that belongs to a higher philosophy. 
The book is a loose statement of opinions, his own 
and others, on a variety of spiritual and quasi- 
spiritual themes. 

''Whence and Whither" is, like the previous 
volume, an effort to answer great questions out of 
meagre resources. Empirical monism is largely 
logomachy. It regards very diverse relations as 
alike because it has applied to them similar lan- 
guage. Its explanations are verbal, not real. 
At bottom, it is most utterly nnempirical, since a 
spiritual experience is wholly wanting or boldly 
thrust aside. Listen to this explanation of memory, 
and depart being fed: ''Memory is nothing but 
the psychical aspect of the preservation of physio- 
logical form. Some sense-impression or its reaction 
has left a trace which in the general metabolism 
preserves its form, for every particle discarded is 
replaced in the very same mode of grouping by 
another particle of the same kind, so that the 
structure remains the same in spite of the change 
of the material, and possesses the capability of 
producing the same kind of feeling" (page 20). 
In noticing a book, it may be one's duty to give 
some intimation of what persons would probably 
be pleased with it. We have no more convenient 
phrase at hand than that of Lincoln : Those who 
like this sort of thing will find this the sort of 
thing they will like. j^n Bascom. 

When " The IntematioDal Monthly " was established 
a year ago, the annonnoement was made that many of 
its articles would be reprinted in book form. The first 
fruits of this promise appear in the shape of a volume, 
now issued, which contains Senator Rambaud's schol- 
arly monograph upon " The Expansion of Russia.'* The 
volume bears the imprint of the International Monthly, 
Burlington, Vermont, since the Macmillan Co. no 
longer act as the publishers. 

Briefs on Xew Books. 

Some nciabi0 ^ ^^7 "^©We piccc of bibliographical 
bMioffraphdeai work is the " Catalogue of the Dante 
workimDanu. Collection" presented by Professor 
Willard Fiske to the Cornell University Library. 
This catalogue, the work of Mr. Theodore Wesley 
Koch, is now complete in two volumes containing 
an aggregate of over six hundred large double- 
columned pages. A first part, covering « Dante's 
Works," was issued over two years ago ; the remain- 
ing section (which is five or six times the larger of 
the two), is a bibliography of *< Works on Dante," 
and has just now appeared. It is a work of amazing 
industry, including references to a great mass of 
fugitive material, and even to critical reviews of the 
more important modem works. The complete cata- 
logue includes more titles than have ever before 
been brought together in any work of Dante bibli- 
ography. Not the least interesting feature of this 
work is the introductory chapter written by Pro- 
fessor Fiske, in which he tells how the collection 
was brought together, and makes some extremely 
interesting statements by way of comparison be- 
tween Dante and the other world-poets. It seems 
that as regards editions, translations, and commen- 
taries, Dante occupies a higher place than Homer, 
Shakespeare, or Goethe. His fama mandiale has 
reisulted in more than seventy distinct translations 
into English, French, German, Spanish, Dutch, 
Greek, and Latin, with perhaps a dozen more into 
other languages and dialects. In this comparative 
reckoning, Homer has about fifty versions, and 
Shakespeare hardly more than thirty. During the 
present century alone, there have been about four 
hundred and forty Italian editions of the ** Divine 
Comedy." The Cornell D^nte Collection now num- 
bers seven thousand bound volumes, besides other 
material, and more than twenty-five thousand cards 
are needed for its catalogue. These facts we take 
from Mr. Eoch's pamphlet on "The Growth and Im- 
portance of the Cornell Dante Collection," published 
simultaneously with the "Catalogue." Another 
pamphlet by Mr. Koch, also just published, is a 
hand-list of the framed portraits and other Dante 
pictures in the same collection. There is a thor- 
oughness about the way in which all this work has 
been done that commands our admiration, and Cor- 
nell University is certainly to be congratulated both 
upon its Dante library and the accomplished eoe- 
todian thereof. 

Short live* ^ The « Riverside Biographical Series " 
three great 18 inaugurated by Messrs. Houghton, 

AmerUtoHt. Mifflin & Company with three en- 

tertaining volumes — one on Andrew Jackson by 
Mr. William Garrott Brown, one on James B. 
Eads by his grandson Mr. Louis How, and one on 
Benjamin Franklin by Mr. Paul Elmefr More. Mr. 
Brown*s account of the here of New Orleans is a 
rarely impartial account of a career which, as he 
observes, has always made stanch friends or bitter 

Digitized by 





I leaviDg the reader, it may be, with a eon- 
Inaed aeiiM of Jaekaon's proper plaee in the hearts 
of his eoantrymen, even while it stimolatet him to 
form an opinion of his own open the data abun- 
dantly brought forth. From Jaekson to Eads is a ' 
long step, from whatever point of view ; and Mr. 
How has foand a congenial and pious tMk in 
extolling the Tirtnes of his kinsman with eonsid- 
erable and pardonable enthusiasm and some little 
skill in seeking and disclosing the critical moments 
of his long and most useful life. The St. Louis 
Bridge and the New Orleans jetties have made 
Sads's fame secure, and are sufficiently well known; 
Mr. How rescues an account of his services to his 
country at the outbreak of the war between the 
States as well, though a more detailed history of 
his building of the Western flotiUa of ironclads 
would have been welcome. A complete change of 
style is to be noted in Mr. More's account of 
f^klin, a certain lightness of touch and thorough 
appreciation of the real homely humor with which 
Goodman Richard's life is so fully seasoned per- 
vading his pages. The books are small and the 
lives are correspondingly brief; but they are all 
worthy the men they celebrate. Portraits add 
to their value in each case. 

TktM^ry^ "^^ name of Mr. J. H. Crawford is 

« 7Vm»p not much known in English letters, 

te smpiamd. y^^^ j^jg u Autobiography of a Tramp " 

( Longmans, Green, & Co.), with its delightful flavor 
of out-of-door life and freedom from town miseries, 
will serve to make subsequent works from his hand 
•omething to be looked for. The hero of the story 
is a little English boy, and his tramping is done in 
his native island. It is interesting to see how like 
the most conventional of human beings this wan- 
dering lad was bred. He learned his lessons with 
the same sorrow and forced perseverance which 
most of us are called upon to pay as the price of 
education ; his father and mother loved him quite 
as much and expressed it quite as unsuccessfully as 
other parents, and his smiles and tears were no 
more eommon and no further apart than those of 
the most respectable urchin that ever hated the 
taste and feeling of soap. The pictures are quite 
as realistic as the text, but far less artistic, being 
reproduced from photographs derived from vari tus 
and not always congruous sources. The book will 
be most pleasant to read in the season when snow 
has covered the ground and mist>gray clouds 

the sky. 

Mr Bsarmu ^^ ^ volume of ^ Shadowings " 

•siMM»Ai^» (Little, Brown, & Co.), Mr. Laf- 
^J^pm, eadio Heam has given us an inter- 

esting if not deeply significant study of Japanese 
thought and feeling. In the dedication (to Pay- 
master Mitchell McDonald of the U. S. Navy) he 
says, '^ Herein I have made some attempt to satisfy 
fmat wish for * a few nsore queer stories from the 
Jspawme * " ; and the pavpose is one which the book 
Mill. Tbe tftoftos afe teld frith ata effective difeet- 

which gives the impression of artless simplicity, 
an impression serving to heighten the sense of 
reality in them. For those who love to have the 
grotesque and the fanciful made real, and who find a 
charm in credulous sincerity, the book will have a 
distinct fascination. There is in it no direct attempt 
to explain Japanese civilization ; it is a volume to 
be read for pleasure rather than for information, 
yet the reader cannot help gaining from it a clearer 
notion of some of the elemental things in Japanese 
feeling and character. The long chapter on '* Jap- 
anese Female Names " is full of suggestions of the 
fundamentally poetic nature of Japanese thought, 
and the chapter on <<01d Japanese Songs'' may 
well serve to give suggestions to English poets. 
The strange iterations, the noufe baldness, have an 
air of originality that is strikingly effective. The 
book ends with a group of studies and stories writ- 
ten by Mr. Heam himself, having much of the 
same misty and dreamy character of those he merely 
reproduces. Mechanically the book is very at- 

There was a time, not very remote, 
when the works of the Rev. J. G. 
Wood were the sources of popular 
information concerning all that was interesting and 
curious in the life of animab. In much the same 
vein and for the same purpose that this author 
wrote his << Man and Beast, Here and Hereafter," 
Dr. Thomas G. Gentry privately published his 
^^ Life and Immortality," which now appears in a 
new edition nnder the title " Intelligence in Plants 
and Animals " (Doubleday, Page ^ Co.). The book 
contains a very extensive assortment of instances 
of curious and remarkable activities in plants and 
animals, which in the author's opinion indicate a 
higher order of intelligence than that usually cred- 
ited to them. This so-called intelligence is the basis 
upon which the author founds his arguments, scien- 
tific and scriptural, for the immortality of all forms 
of life. He details his own observations and those 
of others very freely, but withal not very critically. 
While in the main the facts reported will be ac- 
cepted, the terminology employed in the argument 
and the conclusions reached will meet with objec- 
tions. Notwithstanding the somewhat pronounced 
views of the author, the book is very interesting 
and will be a valuable addition to the literature of 
aninud lore. Some excellent photographs from 
nature, by Mr. Dngmore, supplement tJbe numerous 

In ««The Poetry of the Psalms" 
(Crowell) Dr. Henry van Dyke has 
given us a serviceable << Introduction 
to the study of the Psalms in English, as poetry." 
While the work contains little that is really new, 
yet we know of nothing quite like it in the way of 
a brief popular hand-book to the English Psalter. 
Dr. van Dyke dwells on the inadequacy of any 
translation, then proceeds to speak of the parallel- 
and the various kinds of lyrics. In the greatest 


Digitized by 




[Jan. 1, 

psalmt he finds '< deep and genaine love of natare," 
** a passionate sense of the beaaty of holiness," << an 
intense joy in God." He seems not to have used 
the opportunity to emphasize the contrast, which 
many besides Matthew Arnold have observed, be- 
tween the poetic fervor of the King James Psalter 
and the ntterly flat, stale, and wearisome monotony 
of oar modern hymnology, which shows too little 
improvement over the Bay Psalm Book. We hope, 
too, the time will soon come when it will be deemed 
nnneoessary to show that to stndy the Bible as lit- 
eratore does not injare it as <<a rale of faith and 
condact." There is no good reason for not indent- 
ing paragraphs, the f ailare to do so often eaasing 
obscarity. Otherwise the volume is typographically 


In the old days, Mrs. Martha Bock^e 
Flint reminds as, it used to be the 
custom to administer tea made from 
the barrs of the Virginia stickseed {echinospermum 
Virginieum) for otherwise incorrigible cases of 
forgetfulness. Her whole book serves the same 
purpose, for no one can fail to retain such impres- 
sions as he gains from even glancing at the old- 
fashioned binding and paper label of << A Garden 
of Simples" (Scribner). It is such a book as 
Jeffery taught us to love, filled with all the delicate 
spirituality which Nature wears when seen with 
loving eyes, and imbued throughout with the charm 
of an elder day. The interests are often confes- 
sedly literary, as in the chapters on << A Posy from 
Spenser," or the '< Flowers of Chaucer's Poems." 
From that they wander to delicately material 
things, — such as honey, most poetic of human 
aliments, or << The Secrets of a Salad," no light 
topic to those who know. The history of America 
is not to be neglected in so eclectic a work, as little 
essays on « Liberty Tea" and '< Indian PUnt 
Names " attest We can hardly imagine a pleas- 
anter gift to a charming woman, nor a more 
charming woman than she to whom such a book 
makes its full appeal. 

A recent volume in the << Leaders in 
Science" series (Putnam) is Mr. 
P. Chalmers Mitchell's life of the 
great English evolutionist and agnostic, Thomas 
H. Huxley. The perspective in which the author 
views his subject enables him to present a compre- 
hensive and well proportioned account of the life 
of this leader of the modem school of biologists. 
The author is himself an investigator of some note, 
and he renders a popular account of Huxley's most 
important contributions to the sciences of vertebrate 
and invertebrate anatomy, and of palasontology, as 
well as to the development hypothesis. With equal 
clearness and fulness he relates Huxley's public 
services, and defines his position as the opponent 
of materialism and the exponent of agnosticism. 
His attitude on theological questions, as weU as his 
ethical ideals, are clearly stated. The book does 
not aim to be an intimate biography. It is a sym- 


pathetic but unbiased and jast appreciation of 
Huxley's life and work, in concise form ; and it is 
a worthy compeer of the other books of the series 
to which it belongs. 

Recently the lines of Mr. Rudyard 
f^SSlT Kipling seem not to have fallen in 
^^* pleasant places. Mr. W. J. Peddi- 
cord writes, and publishes at his own expense, 
'* Rudyard Reviewed," seemingly actuated by Mr. 
Kipling's dislike of America and Americans. At 
least, the critic does not attack the poet and trav- 
eller on flssthetic grpunds in the ordinary accepta- 
tion of the term, but rather because the Anglo- 
Indian did not see in America all that her more 
devoted children would have him see. We think 
Mr. Peddicord has wasted both time and energy, 
and his residence in Oregon we take to be an en- 
couraging sign that regions nearer the East are 
largely indifferent to the expressed prejudices of a 
young man however distinguished. — Miss Marie 
Corelli takes stronger ground in her << Patriotism 
or Self-Advertisement " (Lippincott), devoted to 
the excoriation, as a whole and in all of its parts, of 
that jingle so widely known as << An Absent-Minded 
Beggar." The punishment doubtless fits the crime ; 
but it makes us feel a little sorry for the criminal, 

The charm of a pleasing personality 

i^J!J/anci« '•'*°« ^^^'^'^^^ **^« ^"«^ chapters of 
Mrs. Alice Dew-Smith's " Diary of 
a Dreamer " (Putnam), and gives a color of reality 
to what might otherwise be but "trifles light as 
air." With a bright abandon to the mood of the 
moment, the author tells us her experiences with 
tortoises and cats, with her husband's dictionaries 
and writing-desk, and with the problems that eon* 
front one in building a house and furnishing it. 
The themes are often inconsequential and the expe- 
riences not particularly dramatic, but they furnish 
occasion for much vivacious comment upon the 
every-day affairs of life. The book is to be read 
in moments of relaxation when the reader is willing 
to be entertained without any stirring appeal to the 
imagination. Any single chapter of the forty-five 
can be read in ten minutes, and each is interesting in 
itself apart from the others, and leaves its distinct 
impression. On the other hand, the dream atmos- 
phere is not always compeUing, and at times leaves 
one with the feeling that we have when over the 
breakfast-table a friend tells us a fantastic sleep 
experience of the night. 

An9wvoiuim€ '^^^ third volume in the series en- 
^f " ifature** titled " Nature's Miracles " (Fords, 
MiracUi» Howard & Hulbert) is the eontinaa- 

tion of Professor Elisha Gray's popular account of 
modera science, devoted particularly to the subjects 
of electricity and magnetism. Professor Gray is 
of course thoroughly at home in this field, and his 
account is a most interesting and instfuctive one, 
the story of wireless telegraphy, and the results of 

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the eleetrical exploiUtion of Niagara Falls, reading 
like a fairy tale. Especially entertaining is the 
chapter on ** Some Carioflities," devoted largely to 
the strange properties of seleniam. 

Each reenrring Holiday season has 
^m!d%!Sl!m, ^^ ^•** brought with it some nniqae 

specimen of book-mannfactaring in- 
gennity from the press of Mr. Frank S. Thayer, of 
Denver* The series began, as we remember, with 
a collection of photographic views of stuffed wild 
animals in their native lairs, the negatives for which, 
we were given to understand, had been secured at 
great peril and through years of patient waiting by 
« mighty hunter of the region who had been per- 
suaded or bribed to substitute a camera for his rifle 
in furtherance of the enterprise. This season Mr. 
Thayer's contribution is an album of fifteen photo- 
graphic reproductions in color, collectively entitled 
** Glimpses of the Grand Caflon of the Oolorado," 
which we have inspected with caution. The plates 
are showy and effective, and are neatly mounted 
on ash-colored paper, and encased in flexible dec- 
orated covers. The pictures selected are represen- 
tative, and convey a good idea of the remarkable 
scenery of the region. 

A vein of delicate sentiment, a grace- 
ful and refined fancy, and the ability 
to realize vividly for the reader bits 
of landscape with their proper atmosphere, make 
Miss Myrtle Beed*s '< Later Love Letters of a 
Musidan " (Putnam) a book to be enjoyed for its 
artistic charm. The letters, of which there are 
nearly thirty, each preceded by an appropriate 
phrase of music set alone on the page, are largely 
the expression of artistic responsiveness to the 
moods of nature or to some of the suggestive expe- 
riences of a musician's life. The book is very art- 
istically printed, and is one to be enjoyed for more 
than the first reading, a thing that cannot be said 
of many a more pretentions volume. 


''The Traosition Period" is a new volume in the 
« Periods of European Literature " (Soribner), edited 
by Professor Saintsbnry. It la the work of Mr. 6. 
Gregory Smith, and fills the gap between Mr. Snell's 
•* Fourteenth Century " and the editor's f ortbooming 
diseossion of *« The Earlier Benaissanoe." The author 
has brought mooh learning and no little animation to 
his somewhat thankless task of dealing with the most 
barren period of modem literature, a period which in* 
eludes Villon and Malory, the Sootch group of poets, 
the ** Morgante Maggiore," the " Coplas " of Manrique, 
the <*Cent Nonvelles Noavelles," ««Till Enlenspiegel," 
the ** Indtation," the ballads, and the beginnings of the 
drama in France and England. 

Miss Estelle M. Huril's little book on Sir Joshua 
Reynolds forms a weloome and pictorially attractive 
aamber in the *< Riverside Art Series" (Houghton). 

The volume is apparentiy meant to be in some sort a 
text-book, or an elementary manual for the teacher, 
and hence its style is simple and its information mainly 
rudimentary. There is an introductory outline of 
Reynolds's life, together with some general appreciation 
of his work; but the text is largely a running com- 
mentary on the pictures, of which there is about one 
to each chapter, making seventeen in all. These are 
well chosen and handsomely reproduced. 

Fifty pages of introduction, a hundred pages of notes, 
and three hundred pages of extracts are, roughly speak- 
ing, the contents of the volume of ** Selections from the 
Poetry of Lord Byron " which Dr. Frederick I. Car- 
penter has prepared for the series of '* English Read- 
ings " published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. This is 
one of the best books of the admirable series in which 
it appears, and was rather more needed than any of the 
others. No one to-day wants the whole of Byron, and 
a book which will help us to keep in mind the best of 
him does a real service to literature. The estimate 
made by the editor is sympathetic, yet carefully dis- 
criminating, and the judgments expressed are in the 
main temperate and sound'. 

With the appearance of Volume XVIII. (containing 
the remainder of the short stories) the *< Shenandoah " 
edition of the novels and stories of Mr. Frank R. 
Stockton which has been in course of publication by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons during the past year, 
reaches temporary completion. Like all of Messrs. 
Scribner's well-known subscription sets, the mechanical 
form of the « Shenandoah" edition could hardly be 
improved upon. Mr. Stockton may well be envied the 
distinction conferred upon him by his publishers, for it 
is not often that an author has the satisfaction of seeing 
his work presented in so beautiful a form. The set 
should take a prominent place on the shelves of every 
admirer of Mr. Stockton's peculiar and inimitable 

•*The Beginnings of English Literature," by Mr. 
Charlton M. Lewis, is a small volume published by 
Messrs. Ginn & Co. '< Its purpose ia to give to those 
who do not, for the present at least, require an intimate 
acquaintance with Old and Middle English authors, 
such a knowledge of their characteristics and historical 
relations as may serve for an introduction to the study 
of the Elizabethan and later periods." It offers a com- 
promise between the very elementary books and those 
which are made unduly repellant by being crammed 
with minor names and facts. It includes many extracts, 
and la altogether a readable and useful little book. 

Professor J. Scott CUrk's ** Study of English and 
American Poets " (Scribner) is a companion volume to 
the author's *< Study of English Prose Writers," pub- 
lished oyer two years ago. The method is the same 
in both volumes. Each author treated is given a biog- 
raphy, a page or two of references to critical apprecia- 
tions, and something like thirty or forty pages of clas- 
sified excerpts from the best critics, together with 
illustrative passages from the poet himself. Twenty 
poets are considered altogether, six of them being 
Americans. We have great confidence in the value of 
this method of studying literature, and believe that 
teachers will find these volumes by Professor Clark a 
useful adjunct to their work. 

Mr. Stopford Brooke's erstwhile « Primer," later 
known by the simpler title of ** English Literature," has 
just made a third appearance, with an additional ohap- 

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[J«D. 1, 

tar by the author, and two snpplementarj ohapters on 
Amerioan literatora by Mr. George Riee Carpenter 
(Macmillan). Praise baa long since been exfaanated in 
dealing with this little book, which, eonsidering its lim- 
ited scope, is as good as oould well be imagined. Speak- 
ing of Mr. Brooke's added chapter, however, we are 
bonnd to take exception to the statement that Morris 
and Rossetti and Mr. Swinbnme have remained ** out 
of sympathy with modem life.'' The poets of ** Jenny " 
and « Poems by the Way " and « Songs before Sunrise " 
need no defeooe against such a charge, and it is sur- 
prising indeed that Mr. Brooke should have expressed 
anch an opinion of them. 

Having exhausted the bibliographical possibilities of 
the longer novels of Charles Dickens in a volume issued 
some two or three years ago, Mr. F. G. Kitton has 
turned his attention to the '< minor writings," and the 
results of his work in this field are contained in the 
latest volume of the ^ Book-Lover's Library " (A. C. 
Armstrong & Son). The amount of labor necessary 
to identify the numerous periodical contributions and 
miscellaneous papers of the novelist cannot easily be 
estimated, but Mr. Kittont unfailing enthusiasm for 
his subject has prevailed over all difficulties. Taken 
together, the two volumes form as complete and exact 
a bibliographical record of the literary productions of 
Charles Dickens as could be desired. 


*< The Book of Daniel," edited by Dr. S. R. Driver, 
is a volume of *< The Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges," published by the Macmillan Co. 

** A Reader in Physical Greography for Beginners," 
by Ptofessor Richard £. Dodge, is a recent educational 
publication of Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

** Springtime Flowers," by Miss Mae Ruth Noroross, 
is a book of << easy lessons in botany " for very young 
children, publiBhcMi by Messrs. Silver, Bnrdett & Co. 

<« The Civilization of the East," by Dr. Fritz Hommel, 
and ** Plant Life and Structure," by Dr. £. Dennert, are 
the latest of the « Temple Primers," published by the 
Macmillan Co. 

<* A Hero and Some Other Folk," being a volume of 
essays by Mr. William A. Qnayle, has reached a third 
edition, and bean the imprint of Messrs. Jennings & 
Pye, Cincinnati. 

Mr. Samuel Usher, of Boston, publishes a memorial 
address, l^ Dr. R. S. Storrs, upon the late Ptofessor 
Edwards Amasa Park, of Andover. The book may be 
obtained from Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The American Book Co. publish a « Higher Algebra," 
by Professor John F. Downey. They ako send us an 
** Elementary Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene for 
Higher Grammar Grades," by Dr. Winfleld V. Hall. 

In addition to their collective edition of the writings 
of Count Tolstoy, the Messrs. Crowell publish, in a 
form of its own, a new volume of ** Essays, Letters, 
and Miscellanies," the translations by Mr. Aylmer 
Maude and others. 

««The Cocktail Book," further described as «<A 
Sideboard Manual for Grentlemen," is a recent publica- 
tion of Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. It is a very small 
book indeed, but its dimensbns are by no means 
ftopottkmed to its nsefnlness. 

•« Shakespeare's Life and Work," by Mr. Sidney Lee» 
as now published by the Macmillan Co., is an abridge 
ment of the author's <*Life" of the poet, prepar^ 
chiefly for the use of students. It retains all the es- 
sentials of the larger work, although reduced to some- 
thing like half its compass. 

<* Kant's Cosmogony," as embodied chiefly in hia 
'* Natural History and Theory of the Heavens," is given 
us in an English version by Dr. W. Hastie, who haa 
not only made the translation, but has also supplied it 
with an introduction and other editorial apparatus. 
The work is issued in this country by the Macmillan Co. 

« Famous Geometrical Theorems and Problems " ia 
the subject which Mr. W. W. Rupert has undertaken 
to discuss, for the instruction and entertainment of 
mathematically-minded persons, in a series of four 
pamphlets, published by Messrs. D. C. Heath ft Co. 
Other monographs in this series will follow, all nnder 
the general editorship of Mr. Webster Wells. 
I. « Edwin Booth and his Contemporaries" (Page), ed- 
ited by Brander Mathews and liiwrence Hutton, is a 
new edition of a work first published about fifteen yeara 
ago. It is a collection of chapters, by various hands, 
upon the English and American actors and actressea 
who have been prominent during the last half-century^ 
and IB furnished with an interesting series of portraits. 

The Macmillan Co. announce that they have acquired 
the publication rights of Mr. James Ford Rhodes'a 
« History of the United States from the Compromise 
of 1850," hitherto issued under the imprint of Messrs. 
Harper & Brothers. A new edition of the work, em- 
bodying a few minor changes and typographical correc- 
tions, will be issued at once. 

Two interesting speeches shortly to be issued in 
printed form by Messrs. T. Y. CroweU & Co. are 
Lord Roseberry's ** Questions of Empire" and Hon. 
Joseph H. Choate's ** Abraham Lincoln," both of which 
were delivered in November last — the former before 
the students of the University of Glasgow and the lat- 
ter before the Edinburgh PhUosophical Institution. 

**The Story of American History for Elementary 
Schools," by Mr. Albert F. Blaisdell, is a first book 
of our national history published by Messrs. Ginn & 
Co. A still more elementary work is ** America's 
Story for America's Children," by Miss Mara L. Pratt^ 
published by Messrs. D. C. Heath ft Co. There are 
to be five parts of this work, forming a series of 
graded reading-books. 

Professor Moses Coit Tyler, of Cornell University,, 
died on Dec. 28 at his home in Ithaca. Professor 
Tyler*s career was a most active and distinguished one. 
He was bom in Griswold, Conn., in 1835, was graduated 
from Yale in 1857, from 1867 to 1881 waa Professor 
in the English department of the University of Mield- 
gan, and from 1881 to bis death was Professor of 
American history at Cornell. He was author of many- 
books, a frequent writer in the periodicals, and waa a 
contributor to Tbb Dial from the beginning of the 

*<The Religion of Abraham Lincoln," a pamphlet 
published by the G. W. Dillingham Co., reproduces a. 
correspondence that passed some years ago between 
Colonel R. G. Ingersoll and General C. H. T. Collis. 
The purport of it is to refute the charge that Lincoln 
was essentially a Voltairean in his religions attitude ^ 
but the documents prove little either way. lineoln 
and Voltaire were about as far apart aa posaible wm 

Digitized by 





lempezameDty b«t in the matter of their fundament 
eoDTietioiis theve is mneh to be said for Ingeraoll's 

•«F^triotio Eloqaenoe Relating to the Spanishp 
Ameriean War and Its Issues " (l^bner) is the title 
of a eompilation made by Messrs. Robert L. Folton 
and Thomas C. Tmeblood. The selections range all 
the way from the pinchbeck rhetoric of Senator 
Beyeridge and the platitudes of Senator Depew, to the 
gennine oratory, inspired by patriotism of the old- 
fashioned sort, of such men as Mr. Carl Scharz, Dr. 
Henry Tan Dyke, Senator Towne, and Senator Hoar. 

Topics jn LiBabino Periodicals. 

January, 1901, 

AdTOBtiue, A Womlerfia. Chalmers Roberts. World's Work. 
Adyertinnir Disfigurement. A. R. Kimba^. JScribner, 
Annies in China, Comparison of. T. F. Millard. Scribner, 
Athens, Modem. George Horton. Scribner, 
AnetnOiaD Commonwealth, The. H. H. Losk. Rev. <ifIUv$, 
Bernhardt in her 'Teens. Albert Sehinz. LippineoU, 
Osaomna of Rnsaia, The. Henry Norman. Scribner, 
CitU Senrioe Reform, Pnrpote of. H. L. Nelson. Forum. 
Qnbe, Odd. Lney Monroe. Lippincott. 
CoUege Qradnate, Is he Impraetioable ? R. B. Jones. Forum. 
Colonies and Nation. Woodrow Wilson. Harper, 
Confedemey, Last Days of. San M. Handy. Atlantic. 
Coagreasional Apportionment, New. Henry Gannett. Forum, 
DsTis, Cnshman Kellogg. S. G. Smith. Beview qfBeviewt. 
Dislriet of Colombia in its Centennial Year. Forum. 
Bast London Shadow and Sunlight. Walter Besant. Ckntury. 
Edueatioa, A Gap in. H. D. Sedgwiek, Jr. Atlantic. 
Weetoffs and Comiag Eleetion. Albert Shaw. Bev, qfBevt. 
Kmpiess Dowager, The. R. Van Bergen. Atlantic. 
Bzploration, A Century of. C. C. Adams. World's Work. 
Fig-Giowing Indostry in California. L. O. Howard. Forum, 
Friars, Filipinos, and Land. J. B. Rodgers. Bev.qfBevs, 
Oilman, President, at Johns Hopkins. N. M. Butler. B. qfB. 
GoTomment, Cost of. Carroll D. Wright. Century, 
Hamlet's Castle. JaeobA.Rii8. Century, 
ImmiciatieB, New Problems of . P.F.Hall. Forum. 
Japan, My. Poultney Bigelow. Harper. 
Liberal Party in England, The. Forum. 
Misskms, Foreign, in 20th Century. E. F. Meirriam. B. qf B. 
MiUlor, Max. A. V. Williams Jaokson. Forum. 
Nature's Beauty, Trust to Pioteot. S. Baxter. Bev. qfBevs. 
New Century, Great Tasks of the. World's Work. 
New Orleans, Old Cabildo of . GraoeKing. Harper. 
Panama and Nicaragua Canals Compared. A. Davis. Forum. 
Park MaUng as National Art. HB.Merwin. World's Work, 
Patent Offioe, The U. S. B. V. Smalley. Century. 
Pekin, Fall of . GUbert Reid. Forum. 
Peking, Besieged in. Ceeil £. Payen. Century, 
PhiUips, Stephen. Bdmund Goese. Century. 
FHtsbuig, A Glimpse of . W. L. Soaife. Atlantic. 
Poetry, Ameriean, Century of. O. L. Trigg*. Forum. 
Polar Work, Present and Future. World's Work. 
Publie Expenditures, Growth of. C. A. Conant. Atlantic, 
Publishing, New Tendencies in. A Publisher. World's Work. 
Reeonatruetion of Southern States. Woodrow Wilson. Atlan, 
Rio Grande. Cafions of the. R. T. HUl. Century, 
Roberta, Lord. Winston Spenoer Churohlll. World's Work. 
Robiason, Rowland E. Julia C. R. Dorr. Atlantic. 
Rodia, Anguste. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 
Smokeless Cannon Powder. Hudson Maxim. Forum. 
Snow-Plough, Work on a. H. H. Lewis. World's Work. 
Sml, Going Back to the. J. P. Mowbray. World's Work. 
Time-Spirit of the 20th Century. Elizabeth Bisland. Atlantic. 
YiUard, Henry, Reminiscences of. Murat Halstead. B. <fB. 
Washington: A Ptadestined Capital. Anne Wharton. Lipp, 
Wealth and Morals. Wm. Lawrence. World's Work. 
Winehelsea, Rye, and ** Denis Duval." Henry James. Serib. 
Yale. The New. H. A. Smith. World's Work. 

LiisT OF New Books. 

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The most aggravatiDg of all critics is the critic 
who asserts and gives no reasons. A writer in a 
recent nomber of The Dial tells as that the novel 
ia a finer art-form than the play, and practically the 
only reason he offers to back his opinion is that the 
first form is contemporary and the second archaic 
Archaic ! What great art has not been archaic at 
the time of its production? Gray remarks, in one 
of his letters, that the langnage of poetry is never 
the language of the age or of common life. Shake- 
speare's speech was andonbtedly strange to the 

Elizabethans. The '' welMangaaged Daniel " was 
the scholarly type of that day, and Daniel is as 
modem as Sir Edwin Arnold. The same is trae of 
thought and character. If either is great, it cannot 
possibly conform to accepted conventions. What 
can we suppose that even the Athenians made of 
the PromeUieus or the Agamemnon or the Persian 
ghost of iBschylus? As we can see in Aristophanes, 
these were rather musty fables to them. The dis- 
play of the Panathenaic festival, or the riot of the 
Elensinian mysteries, were much more to their 
minds. AUeyne, the theatrical manager of Shake- 
speare's time, has left it on record that he made 
the greater part of his fortune by showing bears. 
The Spaniaids tolerated Calderon as an appanage 
of the Inquisition, but their real joy was in the 
burning of heretics. The OMto da fa was doubtless 
to them a sweet contemporary thing. Goethe and 
Schiller, by the expenditure of infinite labor, built 
up a theatre in Weimar. They forced great tragedy 
and comedy, the use of verse and the right reading 
of it, down the Grerman throat But was their 
patient grateful to them ? Not a bit Groethe was 
forced to resign the directorship of the theatre by 
a performing dog. 

I hope the writer referred to will pardon me if I 
offer him some reasons why the novel might be a 
finer art than the play. In the first place, it has a 
larger canvas. The average novel has from five to 
ten times more words in it than the average play. 
If there is anything in big battalions, Xerxes ought 
always to overwhelm Leonidas. In the second 
place, the novel, though a hybrid, may possibly in- 
herit the qualities of its various ancestors. It may 
have the pure emotional gush of the lyric, the orb- 
icular sweep of the epic, the intensity of the drama. 
In the third place, it is gifted with omniscience, a 
power which the epic shares with it, but which is 
denied to other art forms. In the fourth place, it 
can perform the offices of the scene-painter, the 
actor, the gas-man, the usher in the body of the 
theatre, and the critic in the next day's print And 
lastly, it requires no such attention on the part of 
the reader as does the more abstract form of the 
play, which, especially if written in verse, is the most 
concentrated work of the human mind. In reading 
a novel, we sit at feast like a Persian King, and have 
one servant to cut our food, another to put it in our 
mouths, and a third to work our jaws for us. 

I am not mocking. These advantages the novel 
possesses, and they in great part account for its 
popularity. But for the final result of greatness 
they are fallacious and break down. The immense 
expenditure of words in a novel is a solution of con- 
tinuity and defeats the purpose of an art-work to 
grasp and body forth a definite conception. Each 

Digitized by 




[Jan. 16, 

tidal wave of words washes oat the record of its 
predecessor. And the mixtare of forms in the 
novel is an element of weakness rather than of 
strength. An oUa podrida is neither as good for 
the digestion nor as tempting to the palate as a 
coarse dinner where the flayor of every dish is con- 
served. And the all-emhracing view of the novelist 
carries with it a qaality .of vagaeness, so mach so 
that the epistolary and biographical forms of the 
novel, in which this power is resigned, are perhaps 
the most vivid and intense. And the combination 
of services which the novelist offers to perform for 
as tends to distraction ; it is rainoas to total effect 
The actors get in the way of the plot, the scene- 
painting interferes with the dialogne, and the lyrical 
or didactic effusions of the aathor in person spoil 
the illasion. Most serioas of all, the ease with which 
a novel can be read weakens the mind. A good 
play, thoagh so mach shorter than a novel, demands 
a far greater amonnt of attention, and so tends to 
fasten itself npon the brain. 

In general, the question between the play and 
the novel is a qaestion of law or liberty, discipline 
or license. I like to image the play as a troop of 
Spanish eoMleros or canquestadares, mounted on 
the steeds of inspiration, armored with verse, armed 
with thought, and moving in instinctive obedience 
to one will; while the novel is a vast, lawless, dis- 
organized mass of Mexican or Inca barbarians, 
howling and hurling itself on the compact body of 
iron-clad men. The mob may submerge the few 
for a time, but it must eventually be beaten back 
and reduced to submission and slavery. 

We learn from the article already cited that the 
play tends to base itself on the novel. Certainly. 
It has always done so. The plays of the Greek 
tragedians were based on the cyclic poems which 
were the novels of antiquity, and which have per- 
ished. Shakespeare and his circle based their art 
on Italian novella, many of which were as good 
fiction as is written to-day. The order of life is for 
the soul to ascend from the body. The instinct of 
mankind is not satisfied until the pure kernel of an 
art-work is disengaged from its mixed and impure 
mass of wrappings and enfoldments. 

Though the writer I am considering regards the 
novel as a finer art-form than the play, he does not 
assert that his greatest typical novelist is superior 
to the typical dramatist. He only insists on a cer- 
tain equality between the two. He is willing to 
concede that Shakespeare was a respectable sort of 
a person who did good in his day, though he is 
hardly up to our modern standards of democratic 
art. Personally, I feel disposed to light a hecatomb 
of expiation to Shakespeare for bringing him, even 
for defense, into competition with B Jzac But this 
is a wrong feeling. Shakespeare must stand his 
trial like any other author. Every generation sum- 
mons the favorites of the past to the bar of its 
opinion, questions them as to their birth and con- 
dition and present means of livelihood, and judges 
and sentences them after its own sweet will, — 

judging itself at the same operation. And this 
is necessary and right. Literature in Mortmain, 
literature held in the dead hand, is as dangerous 
as literature of new-bom boanoe and blaster. So 
let us on to the comparison. 

Those who have done me the honor to read my 
notes on literature published in Thb Dial will not 
suspect me of holding a brief for style. Not that 
I do not in my own mind worship style, but I hold 
it a result, not a means. I believe it follows the 
accumulation of thoughts, and the kindling concep- 
tion of character. But when it so arrives, it is the 
final stamp of greatness. Now, as the previous 
writer practically admits, there is in this respect 
no possible parallel between Shakespeare and Bal- 
zac. Balzac in style is plebeian, is home-made, 
is humdrum. In a nation of graceful writers, he 
is the dancing bear of prose. Shakespeare, with 
a great many people, is mainly and above all 
the master, the magician of words. He may be 
slightly less clear and faultless than the Greeks, 
but he is infinitely more gorgeous in color and 
varied in carving, — and there is more of him that 
is good than there is of all the Greek poets put 
together. This matter of wealth of expression in 
Shakespeare is very little realized. Because each 
of our greater English poets has some distinctive 
quality of his own, we are apt to think of them as 
inferior indeed to Shakespeare, but still to some 
extent comparable. As far as expression is con- 
cerned, they could almost all of them be quarried 
out of Shakespeare. The peak of Teneriffe is a 
striking enough object in its isolation, but transport 
it to the Andes or the Himalayas and it would sink 
to a mole-hill lost in the vastnesses aboat it. The 
matter of expression, therefore, to many people the 
most important of all, is settled for Shakespeare 
against Balzac. 

Most great poets are philosophers as well. They 
justify the ways of God to man, or defend the 
ways of man to God. Dante is the final expression 
of the Catholicism of the Fathers ; Calderon of the 
Catholicism of the Inquisition ; Milton of Calvin- 
ism. Goethe gave full literary form to the new 
scientific method and thought of Bacon and Frank- 
lin. His philosophy is the philosophy of egotism 
and utility. It must be admitted that when we 
come to assess the philosophy of Shakespeare, it is 
difficult to put one's hand on his centrid thoughL 
He unquestionably imbibed Pyrrhonism from 
Montaigne, and Pyrrhonism is not constructive. 
But he is always thinking of the mighty problems 
of the soul, of the destinies of humanity. He wan- 
ders around the walled chamber of the world like 
a mightier Hamlet stabbing the arras everywhere 
to find out what is beyond. As for Balzac, he can 
hardly be said to have any thought at all — except 
the ever-pressing one to get and spend as much 
money as possible. He wrote in ^< The Alchemist " 
about the research into the Absolute. But the 
Absolute has mighty little to do with the book, 
which is mainly concerned with the physiognomy 

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of an old honso and the fate of a lot of old fnrni- 
tnre. When Balzac was well through his '^ Haman 
Comedy/' he seemed to haye felt that there was 
something wanting to it He was like the architect 
who left the staircase out of his hoase and had to 
add it on the outside. Balzac wrote ^< Louis Lam- 
bert.*' An American editor of this book has read 
into it marvellous and immeasurable meanings. 
Any book can become a fetish if one gives one's 
mind up to it and shuts out all other sources of 
information. Wilkie Collins, in one of his novels, 
has an old butler who has made a Bible of <' Rob- 
inson Crusoe/' and finds in it the most amazing 
oracles for every event To me << Louis Lambert " 
seems a vague rehash of Swedenborgian or Hindoo 
philosophy crammed for the occasion. It utterly 
lacks the value which hard, original thinking, in 
whatever method to whatever end, possesses for 
the human mind. ^< The Angels are white," says 
Lambert, and that is about his most valuable con- 
tribution to vision or thought. On the whole, then, 
Balzac as a thinker is of no class whatever ; whereas 
Shakespeare wears the imperial purple. 

There remains the presentation of reality by the 
two — the reproduction of the aspects of Nature 
and Art, and the creation of human figures. It 
may be noted that Shakespeare is almost all out-of- 
doors; whereas Balzac is ever confined to the 
rooms of mansion or cottage — to the streets and 
alleys of towns. Pretty much the whole of Nature 
is in Shakespeare, but little of the art or handiwork 
of man. Balzac has a real point of superiority in 
his architecture and interiors, in which he surpasses 
everybody. As for the human crowds of the two, 
what shall I say ? In making a comparison here, I 
can only do like the critic I have been criticising, 
olfer assertions unbacked by reasons. For it is 
almost impossible to give reasons for the love or 
the affections which rise within us. If anyone 
thinks Eugenie Grandet superior to Juliet, or 
Modesto Mignon to Imogen; if he likes Cassur 
Birrotteau better than Dogberry, and believes old 
Grandet a better drawn figure than Shylock, — 
why, one can only avert one's eyes, turn down the 
first crossing, and let him go his misguided way 
alone. But I think I may assert that Bakac's 
people are all book folk. They never have had 
eot the umbilical cord which binds them to the 
printed page. They do not ^tray out into real life 
and become our friends and loves, as do the char- 
acters of even lessieir men than Shakespeare — Scott 
and Dickens, for instance. One forgets them in 
their multitude until one takes the book up again, 
when the skill, the science, the power of the author 
bring them back. And another thing may be 
asserted : they are all small, figurines rather than 
statues. Balzac never created one of those typical 
human figures that sum up a race, or resume once 
for all some abstract quality of life. Moli^re and 
Old Dumas are the most Shakespearean souls of 
France. Aleeste and Tartuff are eternal, and 
D'Artagnan is the incarnation of the Gallic spirit 

He is as much the human symbol of France as 
Don Quixote is of Spain, Hamlet of Germany,' or 
Robinson Crusoe of England. The typical figure 
of America is — What shall I say ? — Mr. Barnes 
of New York. 

A writer may be greater than his age, but, even 
unconsciously, he is apt to render in his work the 
lineaments of his time. It is important, then, that 
the age has something of splendor or greatness to 
give him. Shakespeare came at the culminating 
period of the young manhood of the English race. 
His age was the age of new-bom liberty, of revo- 
lutions in thought and discovery in the world. It 
was the age that beat back the Armada. Balzac's 
age was wearied with the excesses of the Revolution 
and the Napoleonic era ; it was an age of galvanized 
monarchy and scarecrow empire. It was weak and 
futile and corrupt It was the age which fell at 

Balzac's gift is the modern gift, the scientific gift, 
the gift of observation. Lord Bacon claimed that 
his method did away with the necessity of genius 
in philosophy, that it opened the paths of science 
to the average intelligence. The same can be said 
of the scientific method in literature. Anyone can 
sit down with a note book before a given quantity 
of life and record and report it But the art so 
produced is open to the charge which Plato mis- 
takenly brought against all poetry — that it is an 
imitation of an imitation, reidity at third remove. 
Only where the poet aereates the mass of material 
given him from without with the inspiration which 
comes to him within, where he glimpses the uni- 
versal through the actual, do we get an art product 
which is valid and* valuable for ail time. 

Perhaps the best way to get at the value of any 
large art-work is to estimate the sum-total of emo- 
tion it produces. What is our final impression of 
Balzac's work ? Do we not feel, when we are done 
with it, as though we had wakened from an all-night 
debauch, with a headache and a bad taste in our 
mouths? Do we not feel as though we had been 
moving through some mighty marsh clothed with 
fantastic vegetation, with fetid exhalations rising 
from it as incense to expiring suns ? Do we not say 
to ourselves, <* What is the use? Tis a sick and a 
sordid and a sorry world. Let 's cut our throats." 
On the other hand, what is our legacy of impression 
from Shakespeare ? Is it not Uiat we have been 
living in a land of sunlight and wooded shade, co- 
equal heirs with men of mighty ardor and women 
of holy flame? That thunder-storms might come, 
indeed, and seem to wreck our world, but that 
everything would spring fresher from their passing; 
that our minds would leap to their shock, our 
muscles brace with their tension, until we would 
feel that we were seventeen feet high and of Achil- 
lean form and visage, — until we would want to 
climb to the summits of the earth and shake our 
fists in the face of fate ? Wh^ch is the mightier 
artist, — which is the better gr^|Q^ mankind ? 

CharlbsLbokabd Moobb. 

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[Jan. 16» 




(To the Editor of Thb Diai-) 

In some brief comments on Mr. Howard Pyle's illus- 
trations for the holiday volume of Mr. Markham's 
poemsy a writer in your issue of Deo. 1 shows a fine 
appreciation of the artist's strong elemental treatment 
of the subjects ranged for his pencil, and a correct con- 
ception of art yalues. Noting this breadth of view upon 
one side, it is surprising to find what appears to be a 
somewhat narrow range of sympathy upon another. 
The critic assumes, apparently, that in the <* pictorial 
allegory " which forms the frontispiece of the rolnme 
in question, the artist had in mind the American farmer, 
and that the effect was decidedly unflattering to this 
worthy citizen. To refute this idea seems an exegesis 
of the obyious. It is, at the outset, hardly reasonable 
to suppose that the poem, written arowedly in com- 
mentary upon Millet's picture of the same name, could 
refer to any American working-man, except in so far as 
he like any other had become a type of degraded labor. 
The Millet peasant is not eren a type of the ordinary 
French laborer, but only of the toiler bmtalised by ex- 
cessive and unrelieved toil. He is a man who has had 
no inlet of joy, no outlet of delight, in his labor. As 
Mr. Markham himself has said, « 'Hie Man With the 
Hoe ' is, in a large way, the type of any man who has 
forgotten to grow, who has forgotten that man does not 
live by bread alone.'' This overworked drudge, who 
will have to be bom again many times to get out of 
the basement strata of life into the height of "the 
upper chamber opening toward the sky," does exist 
amongst us. He sweeps our streets; he bakes our 
bread; he digs our coal; he may even write our law 
briefs, or preach our sermons. Civilization will not be 
civilisation till somehow he is mad^is best, — whether 
by educating his grandfather in oraer that he, the de- 
scendant, may have a voUL to do and dare, or by edu- 
cating the man himself, and giving him time, like 
Browning's hero, to get all the gain there is from hav- 
ing been a man. 

Mr. Pyle, like Mr. Markham, sees in the Man with 
the Hoe, not the American farmer, though possibly a 
« farm hand," slaving from dawn till long past dark, 
might represent the type. He sees only the bended back 
that has borne the heat and burden of the day down 
through the ages; he sees that the Man with the Hoe 
is the type of industrial oppression in all lines of labor, 
— the man shapen (or misshapen^ by the pitiless ten- 
dencies and injustices of our civilization. 

Mart Fabnsworth Ames. 

BroMffn, N, F., January 5, 1901, 

(To the Editor of Thb Diai..) 

On the first of January, 1901, there occurred in the 
town of Van Wert, Ohio, county-seat of Van Wert 
county, an event whose significance the future alone 
will reveal: the dedication of America's first county 
library. Most of the cities and many of the larger 
towns and villages of our country have their public 
libraries ; it renudned for this Ohio county to inaugurate 
a movement that may eventually bring library privileges 
where they are most needed, viz., to the rural districts. 

The library is named The Brumback Library, in 

honor of its founder, the late J. S. Brumback, a prom- 
inent and wealthy citizen. A special law made pos- 
sible by the Brumback heirs was passed by the Ohio 
legislature, providing for the maintenance of the library 
by the county, and this was almost unanimously favored 
and approved by the people throughout the county 
concerned. The library building is one of the most 
substantial and beautiful in the country. It has a 
capacity of 100,(X)0 volumes, represents a value of 
960,000, and under the new decennial appraisemeni 
will have an annual income of $8,(X)0. 

Under the stimulus already given, Cincinnati has ex- 
tended its field of library work to sil parts of Hamil- 
ton county, and several other counties have been dis- 
cussing the advisability of imitating the example of 
Van Wert county. The movement was fully discussed 
and heartily endorsed at the recent annnal meeting of 
the Ohio Library Association. 

Two thoughts which were especially emphasized in 
the dedicatory exercises may be worth repeating here: 
First, we have in the bequest of a county library one 
of the few philanthropies that tend to benefit M the 
people, — country as well as town. Our philanthropy 
has heretofore directed its efforts chiefly to the eleviU' 
tion of the city or town only. Second, the recent 
census, which shows how great during the past decade 
has been the migration from county to city, is an appeal 
to American citizenship to look in the future more to 
the welfare and enlightenment of our great rural pop- 
ulation, the bone and sinew of our national life. 

£. L ASTBDff. 

Van Wert^ Ohio, January 8, 1901. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

One of the greatest authors of all time is Jeremy 
Beniham. He is the father of Utilitarianism, and to 
him more than to anyone else do we owe a rational 
system of jurisprudence. Bentham has furnished more 
ideas to legal writers than any other man of the century. 

Arthur Schopenhauer is the greatest metaphysician 
that ever lived. His « World as Will and Representa- 
tion" is the best solution of the World Riddle ever 
offered. He is the father of Wagner in music. He 
originated a system of philosophy — Pessimism. He 
was one of the greatest scholars of the century; the 
only man who ever made metaphysics popular. 

Auguste Comte was one of the greatest men that 
ever lived. He originated the science of Sociology; 
and it is to his impetus that we owe the great social 
evolution now going on. His conception of Humanity 
is the grandest ever originated; his conception of the 
destiny of man the truest. He knew more about Re- 
ligion than any man in the nineteenth century. He is 
one of the least appreciated men of his age. He did 
for Sociology what Darwin did for Biology. 

Charles Darwin's was the most argumentative mind 
of the century. He discovered the most useful law 
ever known to science, and he proved it to an opposing 
public. The race will remember him as one of her 
great men for all time. He revolutionized the science 
of Biology — all science. It is to him that the troe 
theory of things is possible in the twentieth century. 

What Darwin did for Biology, Herbert Spencer did 
for Psychology. Besides, he has systematized all 
science in his Synthetic Philosophy. He is the greatest 
Individualist of the race, and the last great one. 

Karl Marx is one of the master-minds of man. He 

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ia the fatlier of SoeiaUsm, — the making of the raoe 
Into one elafls, with equal rights, equal opportunities, 
the realisation of that better life hoped for by all and 
■ought after by so few. His ooneeption of the iniqui- 
ties of modem soeietj will be used as an indictment by 
reformers from now on till the millennium. Of all men, 
he is the common man's best friend. He was one of 
the greatest scholars that ever lived. 

Lester F. Ward is the most practical philosopher the 
eentury has produced. His Dynamic Sociology com- 
pleted the science Comte began. His psychic factor in 
eiTilisation shows wherein Darwin's great law does not 
hold good in society^ But Ward came so late that his 
teal inflnence will be in the twentieth century. 

The great trouble with light literature in the last 
century is that it is almost without exception time- 
■eiring, not serving all time. George Eliot is the only 
writer of light literature who has any claim to real 
greatness. She has attempted to apply the great con- 
cepts of Bentham and Comte and Spencer to evexy-day 
life. She has been called, not inappropriately, a female 
Shakespeare. She will be better appreciated in the 
new century. 

Guy de Maupassant is the most artistic story*teller 
ftbe world has ever produced; Count Leo Tolstoi the 
most artistic novelist. Both are masters. Maupassant 
«ared nothing for philosophy or morality. His one 
objeet was to tell his story. Tolstoi is so intent on 
giving his art its highest moral motive that he overlooks 
the intellectual, the chief merit of George Eliot. It 
will take the twentieth century to appreciate Tolstoi's 
high art 

These are the preeminent authors of the nineteenth 
•entnry. Jackson Botd. 

Qreeneaatlet Ind., January B, 1901. 

8)|^Je l^tte §00k0« 


The multifarious interest of the two thick 
volumes containiug Mr. Basil Champneys's 
Memoirs of Coventry Patmore goes far to make 
up for their somewhat disproportionate size. 
The work forms a readable though rather 
rmmUing account of Patmore, his relatives, his 
three household ^^ Angels/' his literary friends, 
which one may open at random with the'assur- 
anoe of finding something at least mildly inter- 
esting ; but we should have preferred a close- 
knit, comparatively concise biography, showing 
the figure of its hero clearly and in the due 
perspective — though of course Mr. Champ- 
neys has adhered to his own view of Patmore's 
proportional importance. 

Outwardly Patmore's career was uneventful, 
and its main features may be briefly sketched. 
He was not a University man, and indeed the 

*llsiiC»Bs Ajm GoBBXBPoaDBiian or Covbhtbt Pa^ 
MOmm, By Basil Champneys. Two Tolomes, illoatrated in 
pbotofsaTue, ete. New York: TheHaomiUanOb. 

two years he spent at the College de France,. 
St. Germains, formed the only period of hift 
life during which he was under regular tuition. 
As a boy he showed great precocity and a 
marked literary bent which his father, who was 
at once his companion and preceptor, industri- 
ously fostered. Authors were the heroes of his 
boyhood, and he used to tell later of his pil- 
grimage at sixteen to the house of Leigh Hunt,, 
whose devoted admirer he then was. 

«... After I had waited in the little parlor at 
least two hours the door was opened and a most pie* 
tnresque gentleman, with hair flowing nearly or quite 
to his shoulders, a beautiful velvet eoat and a Yandyek 
oollar of laoe about a foot deep, appeared, rubbing his 
hands and smiling ethereally, and saying, without a 
word of prefaoe or notiee of my having waited so long,« 
* This is a beautiful world, Mr. Patmore I ' I was so 
stmek by this remark that it has eclipsed all memory 
of what ooeurred during the remainder of my yisit^ 

Encouraged by his father, and fired by the 
appearance of the Tennyson volume of 1842, 
Patmore launched, in 1844, a little volume of 
poems which, being as full of promise as they 
were vulnerable, came in for both exaggerated 
praise and exaggerated contempt at the hand 
of the reviewers. ^ The Critic " kindly said of 
Patmore : 

** fiut if nature hath forbidden him to be a poet, the 
sooner he finds out hb incapacity the better for himself 
and his friends; for it may save to society a valuable 
worker in some other field, while it spares to critios the 
irksome toil of fault-finding, to himself the pain of b»- 
ing eompelled to hear unweloome truths, and to his 
friends mayhap the cost of maintaining a lank-ribbed 
author and a bare-footed family." 

^^Maga," of course, fell foul of the new 
^* cockney '' poet in its usual style, the reviewer 
ending his diatribe against the ^^ school " in 
general, and its alleged latest exponent in par- 
ticular, as follows : 

«< This is the life into which the slime of the Keatses 
(He) and Shelleys of former times has fecundated. 
The result was predicted a quarter of a eentury ago in 
this magaxine — nothing is so tenacious of life as the 
spawn of frogs — the fry must become extinct in him. 
His poetry (thank Heaven) cannot corrupt into any- 
thing wor$€ than itself." 

On the other hand, as we have said, Pat- 
more's initial volume was warmly praised in 
some of the reviews, and it was, as may now be 
noted, even rapturously received by a band of 
young men, themselves convention-breakers, 
who were then springing into prominence — 
the PrsD-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Possibly 
these young painters recognized a certain sim- 
ilarity of aim in their own productions and the 
verses of the new poet. At all events they used 
to carry the little volume about with them, and 

Digitized by 




[Jan. 16, 

*^to read it at every moment of leisure." 
William Roesetti writes : 

« We admired the poems enormously, and I daresay 
that in the ooarse of a couple of years we had read 
every one of them through 20 or 30 tunes. Gabriel 
was certain to talk aboot them to fellow-students at tl^e 
B. A., etc., and more especially to Hunt, Millais, and 

It waB some years later that Patmore became 
personally known, through Woolner, to the 
Millais-Bossetti circle, who claimed him, it 
seems, as the representative in poetry of their 
principles, and got him to write for **The 
Germ," to the first number of which he sent a 
short poem, **The Seasons," which was later 
reprinted in " Tamerton Church Tower." Of 
his intercourse with the ** Brotherhood " Pat- 
more says : 

** I was intimate with the Pre-Baphaelites when we 
were little more than boys together. They were all 
▼ery simple, pure-minded, ignorant, and confident. . . . 
They could not even have printed the * Grerm ' without 
(pecuniary) assistance. I well remember Millais tri- 
umphantly flourishing before my eyes a cheque for 
£150 which he got for < The Return of the Dove to the 
Ark.' Once I was at a gathering of the Brethren and 
their friends, when Holman Hunt produced forty 
sketches, and said that any one-might have them for a 
pound apiece. . . . Hunt attracted me personally more 
than any of the Pre-Raphaelites. He was heroically 
simple and constant in his purpose of primarily scrying 
religion by his art, and had a Quixotic notion that it 
was absolutely obligatory upon him to redress every 
wrong that came under his notice. . . . Rossetti was 
in manners, mind, and appearance completely Italian. 
He had very little knowledge of or sympathy with En- 
glish literature; and always gave me the impression of 
tensity rather than intensity." 

When twenty-two or thereabouts Patmore 
felt for a time the unaccustomed pinch of want, 
he and his brother having been suddenly thrown 
upon their own resources through their father's 
failure and subsequent flight to the Continent. 
For a time the brothers struggled on in Grub 
Street fashion, mauiaging to scrape together, 
through translations and chance hack-work, 
the few indispensable shillings — from twenty- 
five to sixteen a week. At one time Coventry's 
finances were reduced to three and sixpence, 
which sum he seems to have recklessly spent on 
ices. This period of eclipse was ended through 
the kindly intervention of Monckton Milnes, 
who procured for Patmore a place in the Brit- 
ish Museum. Of Milnes's first encounter with 
Patmore a pleasant story was told by Mrs. 
Procter, which we quote in Mr. Gosse's words : 

'< After a dinner at her house in 1846, Monckton 
Milnes said to her in the drawing-room, ' And who is 
your lean young friend in the frayed coat-cuffs ? ' < Oh, 
Mr. Milnes,' she replied, * you would not talk in that 

way if you knew how clever he is and how nnfortanate. 
Have yon read his « Poems"?' Milnes took them 
away in his pocket, and wrote to her next momin|f, 
' If your young friend would like a post in the Library 
of the British Museum, it shall be obtained for him, if 
only to induce you to forget what must have seemed 
my heartless flippancy. His book is the work of a true 
poet, and we must see that he never lacks butter for 
his bread.'" 

From the end of 1846 till the beginning of 
1866 Patmore worked steadily at the Museum, 
a diligent but not, from the librarian's point 
of view, a particularly able assistant. He 
could never, he used to say, resist the temp- 
tation to look into and taste the flavor of every 
book that passed through his hands ; and it is 
interesting to note that the net result of these 
tests was that at the end of his long term of 
service he reached the depressing conclusion 
that, of the forty miles of shelves in the 
Museum, forty feet would contain all the real 
literature of the world. How much of the 
forty miles of shelving was, in Patmore's opin- 
ion, devoted to conserving real rubbish we are 
left to conjecture. On his retirement in 1866 
Patmore was awarded a pension Tof the cu- 
riously precise sum of X126, 18s. 4d. a year) 
which he drew until his death. 

The circumstances of Patmore's conversion 
to Roman Catholicism (1864) are not perhaps 
generally known, and would seem indeed to 
have been to some extent misrepresented, or 
misunderstood. That his formal change of 
creed was at least accelerated by his desire to 
remove the insuperable obstacle to his union 
with the lady who became his second wife, 
Mr. Champneys seems to admit. The notion 
that Patmore deliberately turned Catholic 
because he thought the lady in question (as 
Henry IV. thought Paris) "well worth a 
Mass," is of course as cruel as absurd, and 
that anyone could have broached it bears out 
Mr. Lecky's philosophical conclusion that there 
is muf h more pure malevolence in the world 
than people think. However, the facts in the 
case were as follows : In 1864 Patmore, still 
outwardly of the Anglican faith, journeyed to 
Rome where he made the acquaintance of a 
Miss Byles, an English convert to Romanism. 
Miss Byles was a woman of cultivation and 
some personal charm, who, as a girl, had been 
a pupil of Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) 
Manning, whose second wife it was believed 
with good reason she might in time have 
become. Any such prospect was of course 
brought to an end when Manning took orders 
in the Roman Church ; but his influence over 

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his pnpil oontinned, and two years after his 
secession Miss Bjles, to the oonsternation of 
her friends, f oUowed the example (and probably 
the oonnsel) of her former preceptor. She 
need to relate afterwards widi some humor, 
when the sting of the slights once put upon 
her by her antipapistical friends and relatives 
had disappeared, how an Anglican clergyman, 
calling at the honse shortly after her conver- 
iBion, refused for some time to notice her at all, 
until, on leaving, he kindly asked her ^* when 
she might be expected to turn Mohammedan ? " 

Patmore, then, met Miss Byles at Borne in 
1864, and it was she, we may conclude, who 
finally turned his foptsteps, already wavering 
at the parting of the ways, into the path to the 
Vatican. Patmore records in his religious 
aatobiography his early impression of his 
fntnre wife : <* I had never before," he says, 
•« beheld so beautiful a personality, and this 
beanty seemed to be the pure effluence of the 
Catholic Sanctity." The pair were married 
in July, 1864 (a year after the death of Pat- 
more's first wife), at Bayswater, Cardinal 
Manning performing the ceremony, despite his 
disappointment at his fair convert's ^* sacrifice 
of her vocation," for Miss Byles, it seems, had 
contemplated taking the veil. Patmore's second 
wife, whose infiuence on his religious views 
and writings Mr. Champneys thinks was con- 
siderable, died some sixteen years after her 
marriage, and her place was promptly filled by 
Harriet Bobson, the third *^ Angel in the 
House," for the ** poet of nuptial love " tolerated 
no long break in his facilities for the imme- 
diate study of his chosen theme. 

Patmore's inbred mystical bent, and the 
completeness of his surrender to the primitive 
q>irit of the old faith, are attested by his pil- 
£primages to Lourdes with two of his children, 
for whose bodily ailments he hoped for a mir- 
aculous cure at the shrine. For the partial 
blindness of one eye of his son Henry, in par- 
ticular, great things were hoped ; but, alas ! 
Our Lady of Lourdes proved no better than 
the London oculist, for the sight of the offend- 
ing eye was soon totally lost. Patmore wrote 
to his wife from Lourdes : 

** , , » We are offering onr Masses for Henry and our 
hopes of him are increased bj a miraole we were Inoky 
eooagh to come in for yesterday. A peasant girl, with 
the most exquisite look of innocence and gratitude, had 
just come from the hath entirely cured of a paralysis 
of three years' standing. We had some talk with her 
and her mother as she was walking off with no touch 
of lameness, and the limb, which had been hitherto en- 
tmly insensible, restored to feeling and full strength. 

There could be no mistake about it. Rachel could not 
hare acted the part." 

Patmore's faith in the virtues of the holy well 
was as entire as that of the Catholic students 
cited by Paul Bert, who, before presenting 
themselves for their examination for the ** bao- 
calaur^at," piously put drops of Lourdes water 
into their ink-bottles, in order that they might 
** pass " with distinction ; and his faith was in 
no wise shaken by the failure in his son's case 
of the mystic fluid as an eye-water. 

Mr. Champneys's first volume contains, be> 
sides the story of Patmore's life, separate chap- 
ters on his father, on each of his three wives, 
on his relations with Tennyson, and concludes 
with three chapters of personal recollections. 
In Volume II. Patmore's religious and philo- 
sophical opinions are rather elaborately dis- 
cussed in three chapters, and these are followed 
by the account Patmore wrote at the instance 
of his wife and a clerical friend, of his conver- 
sion to Bomanism ; two-thirds of this volume 
are devoted to the letters, and r^;arding these 
we are of opinion that Mr. Champneys's rever- 
ence for great names has led him to include 
some writings that are hardly worth reprinting. 
But the correspondence on the whole is in- 
teresting, and the list of correspondents is 
imposing, including such names as Tennyson, 
Buskin, Carlyle, Aubrey de Vere, Cardinals 
Manning and Newman, Holman Hunt, B. W. 
Emerson, Browning, etc. Carlyle's robust ex- 
pression of contempt for reviewers we are 
tempted to quote : 

** Unhappily the reyiewer too is generallj iu the exact 
ratio of his readers, a dark blockhead with braggartism 
superadded; probably the supreme blockhead of block- 
heads, being a vocal one withal, and conscious of being 
toise. Him also we must leave to his fate: an inevitable 
phenomenon (< like people, like priest '), yet a transitory 
one, he too." 

But why, then, make so angry a coil over the 
doings of so small a creature ? 

Let us conclude our notice of these beauti- 
fully manufactured volumes with a verse of 
Patmore's written by him just after a great 
battle of the Franco-Prussian war, when Ger- 
man Te Deums were going up in thanksgiving 
to Him who was supposed to have presided 
over the slaughter of the French. Patmore 
used to call it ^^ the most popular poem he ever 
wrote "; and our readers may discern in it a 
certain present appositeness : 

** This is to say, my dear Augusta, 
W« 're had another awful buster : 
Ten thousand Frenohmen sent below I 
Thank God fiom whom all blessings flow I *' 

£. 6. J. 

Digitized by 




[Jan. I69 

Majob Poni> in Bemikiscbnt Mood.* 

For thirty-five years. Major James B. Pond 
has been the foremost lecture manager in this 
country. Daring that time he has managed 
practically all the famous men and women who 
have spoken from American platforms. Most 
of these have been his warm personal friends, 
and have written to him familiarly and charm- 
ingly. He has gathered many of their letters 
together and included them in a book entitled 
*^ Eccentricities of Oenius/' and we are given 
glimpses of their idiosyncrasies, their foibles, 
and their virtues, in a series of personal ob- 
servations and reminiscences. The wit, the 
wisdom, the anecdote, the talk of famous men 
and the talk about them, the strangeness and 
vivacity of many of the incidents, the singu- 
larity and eminence of the characters, combine 
to render his volume fascinating, interesting, 
and instructive. 

In speaking of the *^ lecture bureau," its 
sphere and its origin, he says : 

«The Ijoeam platfonn stands for ability, genius, 
education, reform, and entertainoaent. On it the greatest 
readers, orators, and thinkers have stood. On it reform 
Has found her noblest advocates, literature her finest 
expression, progress her bravest pleaders, and humor 
its happiest translation. Some of the most gifted, most 
highly educated, and warmest-hearted men and women 
of the English-speaking raee have in the last fifty years 
given their best eiforts to the lycenm, and by their 
noble utterances have made its platform not only his- 
toric, but symbolic of talent, education, and genius. 
Until the Redpath Lyceum Bureau was founded by 
James Redpath in Boston, in 1867, lecture committees 
were in the habit of applying to lecturers and readers 
direct. These committees were usually made up from 
the leading citizens of the town, with a view to securing 
the services of the ablest men and women of letters 
for the entertainment of the public. The fee was gen- 
erally nominal, but sufficient to cover the actual ex- 
penses of the star and furnish a small honorarium." 

Among those who were brought before the 
public under these early conditions were Ed- 
ward Everett, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John 
B. Oough, Wendell Phillips, George William 
Curtis, James Russell Lowell, Edward Everett 
Hale, Bayard Taylor, Henry Ward Beecher, 
Julia Ward Howe, Susan B. Anthony, Anna 
E. Dickinson, and 'Mary A. Livermore. The 
four great readers who could attract attention 
year after year were George Vandenhoff and 
James E. Murdoch — famous Shakespearean 
actors of the day — Professor Churchill of 
Andover, and Charlotte Cushman. Mr. Shil- 
laber (^^Mrs. Partington") as a humorous 

*BoomTBioiTiBS OF Gbmius.* Memories of Famous Men 
and Women of the Platform and Stace. By Major J. B. 
Pond. Illostrated. New York: The G. W. Daiingham Go. 

lecturer was also very popular. Major Pond 
notes the change that has come over the spirit 
of ^^the lecture course" during later years. 
Given at first to discussions of the leading 
issues of the day, the demand then was for 
entertainment by traveller and humorist, bring- 
ing us to the present, in which audiences are 
demanding the presence of the best in the lit- 
erary auid scientific world, and the story of 
great exploits or discoveries. 

Major Pond admits that he ** drifted " into 
the lyceum business. It was while associated 
with the ''Salt Lake Tribune '' — the first 
Gentile paper in Utah — that he became ac- 
quainted with Mrs. Ann. Eliza Young. This 
was shortly after she apostatized. One evening 
it was arranged that she should tell the story 
of her life to the guests of the Walker House, 
where she had taken refuge under the protec- 
tion of the officials of the territory — Governor 
Woods and Chief Justice MoEean. She told 
her story — one of the most interesting and 
thrilling ever rehearsed. Her speech was 
telegraphed to the Associated Press, and the 
next day she received many telegrams from 
various persons asking her to lecture. One 
was from P. T. Bamum, and another from 
James Redpath. It was conceived that if she 
could tell her story in Washington, the state 
of Utah, instead of being neglected as it was, 
would get some attention and legislation. 
Major Pond proposed a lecture tour, and she 
accepted ; it was then that he undertook his 
first managerial contract. Two days later she 
did tell her story in Washington. Forty-eight 
hours afterwards the Poland bill for the relief 
of the oppressed in Utah was a law. 

It is not surprising to learn that the great 
triumvirate of lecture kings consisted of John 
B. Gough, Henry Ward Beecher, and Wendell 

'< Gough was one of the heroes of the nineteenth 
eentnry. The incalculable good he did his fellow men 
can never be known. It is no idle statement when we 
saj that he was the direct means, under God, of raising 
tens of thousands from degradation. ... He was a 
charming man personally — modest, unassuming, kind- 
hearted, and sincere." 

Wendell Phillips is accredited with being the 
most polished and graceful orator our country 
has ever known. The author's recollections 
of Beecher extend over many pages. 

*< He had, as I can bear witness, the power of ab- 
straction by which he could put away all thoughts of 
care and trouble, and rise to a higher atmosphere where 
the heavens were unclouded, while his eyes and ears 
were closed to all lower considerations. To those 
nearest to him at these times this power seemed almost 

Digitized by 





snperhnman. ... I remember saying to him one day, 
after I had seen him walking arm in arm with a man 
who had injured him, who had been abusing him, < I 
think you are earrying the doctrine of forgiveness too 
far.' He said: ' Pond, can we go farther than to bless 
those who curse us, and pray for those who despitefully 
use us? Ah, there is so little known of the spirit of Christ 
in the world that when a man is trying feebly and afar 
to follow Him even Christians do not understand it.' " 

Emerson called Charles Samner ** the 
whitest soul I ever knew." Men of whom 
Buoh remarks may be made with absolute truth 
are rare in the public life of any nation, and 
their careers should be kept prominently before 
each rising generation. But Sumner's faults 
of character are as well known as his public 
aeryices — he was unconciliating, egotistic, and 
dogmatic. Major Pond and his father were 
once on the same train with the ^* aristocrat." 
He was reading in the drawing-room car. 

« Father stepped up and said: <The Honorable 
Charles Sumner? I have read all of your speeches. I 
feel that it is the duty of every American to take you 
by the hand. This is my son — he has just returned 
from the Kansas conflict.' Honorable Charles Sumner 
did not see father nor his son, but he saw the porter 
and said: ' Can you get me a plsice where I will be undis- 
turbed ? ' Poor father I His heart was almost broken." 

The author's estimate of *^ Mark Twain " is 
lengthy, and naturally commendatory. Suffice 
to say that he considers him one of the greatest 
geniuses of our time, and as great a philosopher 
as humorist. The ^^ eccentricities " of ^^ Max 
O'Sell " he found unen joyable. The history 
of professional humorists shows that they have 
turned their bright side to the world, have 
laughed and joked, and have so bubbled over 
with humor that they seem to have no serious 
side — all this with a background of physical 
disease, or a personal sorrow, that made mental 
depression inevitable. ^' Bill Nye " kept alive 
his quaint humor in the face of bodily disabil- 
ity under which men of less courage would 
have succumbed at once. 

There is a pathetic strain in the account of 
Salph Waldo Emerson's last appearance on the 
platform. A lecture was given to raise funds 
to save the Old South Church from being torn 
down. The venerable author faced as choice 
an audience of the blue blood of Boston as 
has ever assembled in that old chapel. 

** Mr. Emerson was introduced. As he began read- 
ing his lecture the audience was very attentive. After a 
few moments he lost his place, and his grand- daughter, 
sitting in the front row of seats, gently stepped toward 
him and reminded him that he was lecturing. He saw 
at once that he was wandering, and with a most charm- 
ing, characteristic, apologetic bow he resumed his place 
— an incident that seemed to affect the audience more 
than anything else that could have occurred. A few 

moments later he took a piece of manuscript in his 
hand, and, turning around with it, laid it on a side 
table. Just then one of the audience said to me (I 
think it was Mrs. Livermore or Mrs. Howe), * Please 
have the audience pass right out.' He had probably 
been speaking about fifteen minutes. The audience 
passed out, many of them in tears. I never read any 
account of it in the newspapers. I suppose it was out 
of love and veneration for the dear man that the inci- 
dent did not receive public mention, but there must be 
a great many still alive who were witnesses to that 
memorable scene." 

Mr. Israel Zangwill was one of the unique 
characters whom Manager Pond introduced to 
American audiences. He speaks of Mr. 
Zangwiirs *^ indomitable assurance," adding : 
** Whatever he said was so because he said so, 
although I knew better at the time." Three 
pages are devoted to Mr. Hall Caine, who was 
greatly disappointed at his lack of success in 
America as author-reader. Zangwill and Caine, 
both smarting at their treatment by the New 
York papers, breakfasting together at the 
Waldorf, were ^* so chopfallen and dejected 
that they might have put pepper in their cof- 
fee instead of sugar without knowing the dif- 
ference." *^ Ian Maclaren " was as much 
surprised at his audiences as Mr. Caine was 

Sir Edwin Arnold was also surprised at the 
welcome tendered him in this country. Ameri- 
can audiences were amazed at the poet-editor's 
retentive memory. 

« One evening in my library Sir £dwin was reclining 
on a lounge. I was holding a rare volume of Shake- 
speare, which he had been admiring and had passed to 
me. < Now, Major,' he said, < give me the first line 
from any scene and I'll give you the whole scene.' I 
gave him a line from the least-known of the plays and, 
to my astonishment, he recited the entire scene. He 
told me afterward that he could recite Shakespeare 
from beginning to end." 

Speaking of the passage of our international 
copyright law. Sir Edwin humorously said: 
** Personally I was never a fanatic in the matter. I 
have always rather had a tenderness for those buc- 
caneers of the ocean of books who, in nefarious bottoms, 
carried my poetical goods far and wide without any 
charge for freight" 

It is impossible to do more than merely 
point out the sphere of the book under con- 
sideration. Upwards of a hundred persons — 
all well known names in the world of science, 
literature, art, and theology — are here treated 
in a gossipy, reminiscent manner. The author 
does not claim to be more than a story-teller, 
and his book is not more nor less than what 
he claims it to be. A little more indulgent 
appreciation of the right word in the right 
place would have added to the literary quality 

Digitized by 




[Jan. 16, 

of the work ; but his veneration for the ** aris- 
tocracy of genioa " oyerbalancea his respect for 
mere words. He has a keen sense of hnmor — 
it is not every man who can carry a bon mot^ 
and probably no man carries witticisms cor- 
rectly who has not himself a fall comprehension 
of their point. In addition to this, his per* 
ception of character is acnte, and he possesses 
the rare faculty of being able to single out traits 
which are peculiar to each person. It is not 
hard to read between the lines, that dealings 
with celebrities are not always as agreeable as 
might be hoped. Yet, in spite of the cases 
where his subjects have been imbued with an 
exaggerated idea of their own greatness, Major 
Fond could hardly hesitate in saying, as Bos- 
well said to Lord Chatham: *^I have the 
happiness of being capable to tontemplate with 
supreme delight those distinguished spirits by 
which God is sometimes pleased to honor 
humanity." Ingbam A. Ptlb. 

Thbodobk Parker and his Timbs.* 

Another biography of Theodore Parker is 
welcome. Weiss's bulky and ** chaotic " work, 
which appeared in 1864, was written too soon 
after the stormy life it portrayed had come to 
a close. It was, moreover, the work of one 
who was too much of a partisan of its hero. 
Yet withal it is a wonderfully interesting book ; 
we know an Episcopal clergyman who has read 
it three times. Dr. Frothingham, on the other 
hand, was in his earlier years a sympathizer 
with Parker's theological opponents, a fact 
which could hardly fail to leave its effect on 
even his maturer judgment of the great preacher 
— though Mr. Chadwick believes this effect 
was slight. The other biographies — R^ville's, 
Dean's, Altherr's, and the rest — are either not 
readily accessible or not of prime importance. 
Mr. Chadwick, then, had the opportunity of 
producing a really desirable and timely book. 

Mr. Chadwick is, moreover, well qualified to 
write the story of Theodore Parker's life. He 
enjoyed a personal acquaintance with Parker 
and the members of the circle in which Parker 
lived. He is familiar with Parker's system of 
thought and its relation to the speculation of 
Parker's time in America and abroad ; he is 
fully in sympathy with the creed of Parker, at 
the same time appreciating the point of view 
of those whose opinions differed from Parker's 

*Thsodors Pabkbb, Pbbaohxb Am Bbvobjcbb. By 
John White Chadwick. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin A .Go. 

excessively radical views. He possesses rare lit- 
erary gifts, especially in the field of biography. 

Naturally, then, we expect from him an ac- 
curate and vivid picture, if only in outline, of 
Theodore Parker and his times ; and such the 
book proves to be. The author has set himself 
the difficult task of compressing the story of 
Theodore Parker's life, for which Weiss (in- 
cluding, however, much correspondence) re- 
quired a thousand pages and Frothingham 
nearly six hundred, into four hundred small 
pages. He would have preferred, he says, to 
make a book even larger than Weiss's, draw- 
ing freely from Parker's works and correspond- 
ence ; or, within the limits of a work like the 
present, to introduce a more largely autobio- 
graphical element. But he has wisely refrained 
from either course. To our generation, the 
present book will be more really serviceable. 

In these pages Theodore Parker lives again 
— scholar and teacher, minister, heretic, theo- 
logian, leader of the enemies of slavery. The 
proportion of the book is good. We do not 
complain that Mr. Chadwick has laid too much 
stress on the side of the preacher, for we do 
not think he has. Parker, with all his multi- 
farious reading, book-reviewing, lecturing, and 
fighting of slavery, was first and last and always 
a preacher, with the sermonizing habit so firmly 
rooted that he could never shake it off. He felt 
*^ bom for a pulpit if for anything." His other 
activities, however, were marvellously diverse ; 
and these Mr. Chadwick has clearly set forth. 

In summing up Parker's traits and defining 
his present position in the public estimation, 
Mr. Chadwick differs from Frothingham con- 
cerning Parker's lack of ^^ the atmosphere of 
devout feeling." The explanation of this lack 
Mr. Chadwick finds not in the predominance 
of Parker's intellectual power over his religious 
sensibility, — he thinks Parker's religious sen- 
sibility was much greater than his intellectual 
power, — but rather in his *^ exaggeration of 
Martineau's conspicuous defect, that of looking 
for the significance of religion too rigidly to 
its intellectual contents." He agrees with 
Frothingham, however, in calling Parker ^^the 
grandest theist of the time." Concerning 
Parker's philosophical and theological position, 
Mr. Chadwick, writing a quarter of a century 
later, naturally goes further than Frothingham, 
— for in that interim great changes have come 
about, so great as to ^^ make Parker's hetero- 
doxy seem antiquated, almost absurd, ortho- 
doxy." With skUl he points out how much fur- 
ther orthodox critics have now gone than Parker 

Digitized by 





ihoQglit of going, and how Parker's doctrine 
of ^^the divine immanence in matter and in 
man " ia now held by most Cfarwtian thinkers. 

But great as was the preacher in Parker, 
the humanitarian was greater. He is remem- 
bered to-day not so mnoh by his sermons, now 
little read, as by his devotion to discouraged, 
doubting, and downtrodden humanity. The 
call to aid a fugitive slave was put above 
everything else. He must follow the flag of 
humanity. And to this part of the story Mr. 
Chadwiok does full justice. The life of the 
anti-slavery leader and of the pastor of ten 
thousand souls, from Boston to Calcutta, he 
recounts vividly. 

The make-up of the book is good. Some 
minor corrections have already appeared in 
print ; in addition we may note (p. xtz.) that 
the ''National Review " article of 1860, which 
has been ascribed to James Martineau, ap- 
peared in volume x ; and (p. xiv.) that the 
discourse on Daniel Webster was not published 
till 1868. The bibliography is fairly full. 
Seferences to Allibone and Poole for sup- 
plementary titles might have been added 
(ep. p. 879) ; and why confine the list to 
I&glish books ? Mr. Chadwick was of course 
aware of Altherr's careful study (^Theodor 
Porter in seinem Ld>en und Wirken darge- 
steUty St. Oallen, 1894; see an appreciative 
review by M. Picard in Semie de Ihiatoire 
desreHgums xxx. 224-227), and of the earlier 
and briefer work by H. Lang (^Theodor 
Parker, Zurich, about 1880). The list might 
also have properly included Ziethen's transla- 
tion of some of Parker's works into German 
(five vols., Leipzig, 1854-61). But these are 
minor points. A good index makes the book 
doably valuable. 


Hastings's Biblic Dictionabt.* 

The third volume of Hastings's ^^ Dictionary 
of the Bible" maintains the previous high 
standard of the monumental work. While it 
woold hardly be true to say that its subjects 
are more important than those of Volume II., 
a book must be of first importance that treats, 
among other subjects, of Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
the Old and New Testament canons, Paul the 
Apostle, L aw, Moses, Numbers, Mediator, 

* A Dkoisohaxt or thx Bibia : DmUb^ with its Lmh 
tngs* litcitttHre, and GontaDts, iiielndinff Biblioal Theology. 
Uted by James Hastings, M.A., D.D. Volnma III., Kiz- 
PWidos. Hew York : Charles Seribner's Sons. 

Miracle, Peter, Epistles of Peter, Passover, 
and Pharisees. 

The point of view of the authors of the 
articles in this volume is that of historical crit- 
icism, although in the case of certain contrib- 
utors there is to be seen a somewhat unexpected 
disregard of what has come to be accepted as 
probability. Yet even in so conservative an 
article as that of Dr. M'Clymont upon the 
New Testament, critical results are by no 
means disregarded. As a whole, the articles 
are of exceptional value, although one's pat- 
riotism leads one to feel that more work might 
well have been assigned to American scholars. 
It must be said, too, that some of the articles 
upon the New Testament are disappointing, 
and hardly of the same grade as those dealing 
with similar subjects in the Old Testament. 
That upon the New Testament Canon, for in- 
stance, is hardly more than a somewhat mod- 
ernized epitome of Westcott, — a discussion 
of the external evidence of different books, 
which all but ignores the weighty matters of 
local, partial, and heretical canons, as well as 
the motives and causes leading to the final 
adoption of the canon in its present form. 
Similarly, the article upon the Messiah, al* 
though sufficient for the general reader, will 
disappoint the special student. Altogether 
admirable, however, are the articles of Pro- 
fessor Chase upon the Epistles of Peter, that 
upon the Second Epistle being a model of 
method and investigation. Professor Findlay 
has done characteristically careful work upon 
Paul the Apostle. Here again we have an 
illustration of the conservative progress of 
English New Testament scholars. Professor 
Findlay favors Lightfoot's view of Paul's 
*^ thorn in the flesh " as epilepsy, and holds 
to the second imprisonment of the Apostle, as 
well as the older chronological scheme of his 
life, while adopting the South Galatian theory 
of Ramsay. It is to be regretted that in its 
exposition of the Pauline thought the treat* 
ment should have been so much more system- 
atic than historical. Of the two articles by 
Dr. Fairweather upon the Maccabees, that 
upon the history of the family is hardly more 
than a brief statement of external events, and 
all but overlooks the great movements of 
thought and religion that characterised their 
epoch. Professor Kennedy has produced a 
most valuable study upon the money of the 
Bible, in which he follows the trend of recent 
numismatic work in refusing to accept any coin 
of the Maccabees earlier than John Hyrcanus. 

Digitized by 




[Jan. 1ft, 

An eqaally valaable article is that of Professor 
McAllister upon Medicine. 

It is, howerer, quite impossible and almost 
impertinent to pass these ex co^Aecfra judgments 
upon such serious and scholarly work as is 
contained in this volume. It would perhaps 
be better, in a short review, to be content 
with congratulating the general editor of the 
Dictionary, Dr. James Hastings, for his suc- 
cess, not alone in his selection of contributors, 
but also in the almost uniform justice with 
which the space is distributed. His work, 
representing as it does both caution aud inde- 
pendence in the use of scientific methods in 
biblical study, is certain to have a permanent 
place and influence in the rapid development 
of a rational theology. 

Shaileb Mathews. 

The HncGE of the "Wori.b's Future.* 

The criticism of Mr. Chester Holcombe in « The 
Beal Chinese Qaestion" applies to nearly all of 
the books dealing with the weighty problem on 
which the future of the entire world may be said to 
hinge. Not the welfare of the Chinese, bat that of 
the various nations of Christendom clamoring at 
the gates of the ancient empire, is the subject of 
their consideration. The talk is all of reparation 
and indemnity from the Chinese, — with never the 
hint of a suggestion of indemnity or reparation to 
them for the wholesale atrocities visited upon them 
by the Allied forces. For the most part every 
author assumes that the Enropean or American 
point of view, or the point of view of some one of 
the Christian sects, is the only one from which the 
present emergency can be grasped ; that the Chi- 
nese, even in their own country, are strange and 
inhuman, and that the solution of their problems 
lies with the statesmen of Christendom, to whom 

*Thx Awakkkino ov thx East. By Pierre Leroj-Bean- 
lien. New York : MoClnre, PhUUpe & Co. 

Thb PaoBLBai ov Asia, and Its Effect upon International 
Polioiee. By GapUin A. T. Mahan. Boston: little, Brown, 
A Go. 

Thb CmMAMAV as Wb Sbb Hm. By Ira A. Gondit, D.D. 
Chieago : Fleming H. Revell Gompany. 

GmKA ABD THB Pbbsbbt Gbisis. By Joseph Walton, M.P. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

An Ambbioak Eboikbbb or Ghika. By William Barolay 
Parsons. New York : MoCiore, PhiUips A Go. 

Thb Outbbbak nr China: Its Ganses. By F. L. Hawks 
Pott, D.D. New York : James Pott & Co. 

Thb Stobt of thb Ghinbsb Gbuib. By Alexis Kransse. 
New York : CasseU <fc Co., Ltd. 

Thb Stobt of China. By NeTille P. Edwards. Philip 
delphia : J. B. Lippinoott Company. 

Thb AttaohA at PsKiNa. By A. B. Freeman-Mitford, 
C.B. New York : The Maomillan Gompany. 

Thb Rbal Ghinbsb Qdbstion. By Chester Holcombe. 
New York : Dodd, Mead <fc Go. 

plenipotentiary power most be granted. The very 
remedies proposed show the Cancasian to be a tnan 
of like passions with his yellow-skinned eongonor, 
and Shyloek's oatborst and plea for a common hu- 
manity comes into mind with eyery fresh revelation 
of the wish to place all the moral responsibility 
npon Chinese shoulders as a preliminary to doing 
something, ostensibly for his own good, but really 
for the good of his advisers. 

The book of M. Pierre Leroy-Beaolien, <*The 
Awakening of the East," is an honorable exception 
to this. Mr. Henry Norman writes an introduction 
for it, saying rightly that the three coantries t re a t ed 
in the work, Siberia, Japan, and China, are thoM 
concerning which enlightenment is needed before 
the question of China iJone can be discossed at alL 
The author is a Frenchman, and has travelled 
through the lands he describes. He gives us not 
only an account of the position of Russia, which 
seems to be less advantageous than Great Britain 
has generally been disposed to think, but a sympa- 
thetic survey of the advance of Japan, and an illu- 
minating comparison of Japan's condition forty 
years ago with that of China to-day. Other writers 
have seen in the laying off of one culture and the 
assumption of another, by the people of the Mikado, 
an evidence of instability and lack of moral convic- 
tion. With more insight, our author holds that 
Japan was touched at heart not at all by the Chinese 
civilization she is so rapidly discarding, and not 
much by the European garments in which she is 
clothing herself, her own national life lying calm 
and undisturbed below them all ; that it is the depth 
of this life, not its shallowness, which enables the 
astonishing change to be made. In China, on the 
other hand, the civilization of the people is the 
people itself, and a change is inconceivable except 
as a preliminary to national suicide. In Japan, too, 
the nation worked out its own salvation ; in China, 
a multitude of self-constituted counsellors are stand- 
ing about suggesting or dictating safety — for them- 
selves. He sees in England, Japan, and the United 
States the only honest advocates of an open-door 
policy, and his advice to his countrymen is to secure 
for Europe in China such commercial concessions 
as have been wrested from Turkey. 

Captain Mahan is an excellent illustration of the 
writer whose only thought is one of enlightened 
selfishness ; and it is doubtful if a line in his ^ Prob- 
lem of Asia " has the good of the Chineee nation at 
heart, except in so far as unhappiness in that coun- 
try conduces to unhappiness for Christendom or to 
Christian disadvantage. *<The propriety of non* 
interference," or " the conventional rights of a so- 
called independent state to regulate its own internal 
affairs," are outworn phantasies with him when 
Chinese affairs are under discussion. His advice, 
then, would be to prevent a preponderance of influ- 
ence in the East *yn the part of any one of the 
Powers, and to secure an open door, not in the 
commercial sense alone, but for the importation of 
our civilization, lest China, waxing fat under in- 

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ereased trade, shall not at the same time acquire 
** the eorreetite and elevating element of the higher 
ideals, whieh in Barope have made good their con- 
trolling inflaenee over mere physical might " ( asing 
his own words). This is delicioos : is it America 
in the Philippines, England in Soath Africa, Russia 
in Manchuria, France in Madagascar, or Germany 
in I^ao-Tong, which is to set China the example of 
non-aggression — a policy which has heen Chinese 
since Egypt hailt the pyramids, and one to which 
her f ahttlons extent of national existence is anqaes- 
tionahly dae. For the United States, oar man of 
war woold have as '^ respect to the atmost the integ- 
rity of Chinese territory, and the individaality of 
the Chinese character in shaping its own govern- 
ment and polity," only <' meddling " ( his own word) 
with their national affairs when << they hecome in- 
ternationally anendarahle." Poor China! 

The Reverend Doctor Condit's hook, « The Chinar 
man as We See Him," says little ahoat the Mon- 
golian race in its own country, and a great deal 
«oneerning its conduct in America, particularly in 
San Francisco, where he has heen laboring among 
the Chinese for years. Tet it deserves careful study 
by those who are shaping our national destinies. It 
proves by absolute demonstration that there are 
more points of resemblance than of difference be- 
tween the white and the yellow races ; and it holds 
op to view, with unsparing hand, the vices of the 
American and his government beside those of his 
£astern brother. Especially significant, in view of 
what is to follow, is the denunciation of the British 
Opium War, and the consequent degradation of the 
pagan by the Christian nation. Few defenders of 
that atrocity are to be found to-day ; but Doctor 
Condit points out the damning fact that the English 
BOW have an annual revenue of forty millions of 
dollars from this international crime — one which 
is beginning to react upon America in the spread 
of the opium habit among us. 

Mr. Joseph Walton's <* China and the Present 
Crisis" is based upon observations made during 
eight months of travel in Japan, Corea, and China, 
during which time ^ve thousand miles were passed 
over in the interior of the last-named country. It 
contains a summary of his knowledge delivered 
before the House of Commons on March 30 last, 
and follows this with a chapter dealing with more 
leeent events, in which certain suggestions are 
made for a betterment of the situation. These 
•QggMtions are four in number, comprising a grant 
io the Chinese government to levy increased duties 
on imports, but only on these conditions (how long 
would the United States permit the outside world 
to dictate its tariff laws ?) : all other taxes on goods 
to be abolished, and a substantial share of the in- 
ereased revenues to be given the provincial govern- 
ments ; all officials to be adequately paid ; all inland 
waterways in China to. be opened to the world*s 
eommeree; and all railways bailt with foreign 
capital to become the property of the Chinese gov- 
ernment upon due compensation being granted. 

These conditions are not wholly selfish, in the 
sense in which the Chinese will not profit by them 
at all ; but it is to be remarked that nothing but 
good will flow from them to Great Britain, while 
the assumption by foreigners of the inland com- 
merce of China would throw many millions of 
Chinese into starvation. 

To a great extent, the interest of Mr. William 
Barclay Parsons's <<An American Engineer in 
China " lies in the account therein given of an ex- 
tended professional journey through Hu-nan, a 
practically unknown province of the empire. This 
expedition was undertaken as the result of an 
American concession for constructing a railway 
from Hankow to Canton, nine hundred miles, which, 
with the mining and other privileges appertain- 
ing, '< make it, in value and in national importance, 
second to no other concession granted by the 
Chinese Government" Four hundred miles of its 
line are to be contained within the << closed " prov- 
ince of Ha-nan, traversing its entire length, so that 
during more than half the author's tour he was the 
first white man ever seen by the resident natives. 
Three other men of European blood had been in the 
province, but only on its waterways ; and the in- 
formation given by Mr. Parsons is of real import- 
ance. The expedition was accompanied by soldiers, 
and was made at some little personal risk, more 
from the childish curiosity of the natives, however, 
than from any ill will. Mr. Parsons remarks that 
our country has the confidence of the Chinese to 
an extent unknown by other nations, because of its 
supposed freedom from international greed; and 
this he thinks is worth retaining, on the principle 
that << honesty is the best policy.'' Chapters deal- 
ing popularly with professional subjects, like archi- 
tectural and railway engineering, add to the value 
of the book, which is well illustrated. 

<'The Oatbreak in China" is due, as the Reverend 
Doctor Pott analyses the situation, to a round 
dozen of causes. Among these are listed the Ger- 
man seizure of Kiao-chao Bay, the f6rced lease to 
Russia of Port Arthur, the forced lease to England 
of Wei-hai-wei and the extension at Kowloon, the 
Italian demand for Sanmen Bay, the general ex- 
tension of the foreign settlements, the introduction 
of railways, the forced concessions to foreigners, 
the subsidizing of Chinese by foreign capital, and 
*< missionary enterprise.*' These provoking causes, 
with others which come from the Chinese, are dis- 
cussed in detail and remedies are suggested. The 
reverend Doctor advises that *< wherever there have 
been anti-foreign uprisings, punitive expeditions 
should penetrate, and the guilty, responsible for 
the massacre of innocent women and children, be 
made to pay the penalty for their barbarous cruelty. 
The arrogance and self-conceit of ages must be 
trailed in the dust" Doctor Pott advances argu- 
ments for and against a partition of Chinese terri- 
tory — after China has been properly humiliated — 
but nothing distantly resembling a moral concept 
can be discerned ; he expresses the conviction that 

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[Jan. 16, 

Scusia, France, and Gennany will eontinne their 
present aggressions; and adyises Ameriea to re- 
member that her part should << not be merely further 
land-grabbing, or the inerease of commerce, bat 
the advancement of Christian civilization in the 
Far East." 

Mr. Alexis Krausse, in spite of his an-English 
name, presents the case of Great Britain in ^ The 
Story of the Chinese Crisis," leading up to the 
present statns by a jns^fication of the Opiam War, 
and setting fortii the two serious mistakes of the 
British foreign office in dealing with China as lying 
in the seizure of Port Arthur by Russia wiUiont 
effective protest, and the assumption of the throne 
by the Dowager Empress. He calls attention, as 
Mr. Walton did also, to the patent fact that the 
interests of the British in China are of vastly more 
consequence than those in South Africa, and that 
present preoccupation with the sturdy burghers is 
likely to result in a tremendous future loss in the 
East — presumably a part of the price which Presi- 
dent Krueger said England would have to pay for 
South African subjugation. 

"The Story of China," by Mr. Neville P. Ed- 
wards, seems intended for the consumption of 
British jingoes exclusively. It deals with the 
question in a flippant and heartless way, setting 
forth the history of England in China with little 
regard to the facts involved, and displaying no 
capacity for dealing with the weighty problems of 
the hour. It is plentifully illustrated. 

The republication, after thirty-four years, of Mr. 
Freeman-Mitford's "The Attach^ at Peking" is 
important for the curious proof it affords that his- 
tory repeats itself, and quite as much so for the 
preface just added to the book, which contains all 
the suggestions of experience and a point of view 
that is quite the author's own. He justifies the 
use of opium in a pipe, and quotes authorities in 
proof of its harmlessness ; he sets forth the virtues 
of the Jesuit missionaries in China with rare dis- 
passion; and* he proposes, as one step toward a 
settlement, that the capital be removed to Nanking, 
which enjoyed that honor during the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The entire book is informing and readable ; 
but the flying bats printed in gold upon its covers 
are a poor symbol of its general freedom from 

For an American reader, the most informing and 
satisfactory work of all is Mr. Chester Holcombe's 
"The Beal Chinese Question." The author has 
had thirty years' experience in the Empire, half of 
it spent in an official connection with the American 
Legation at Peking and half in furthering various 
financial and commercial projects among the 
Chinese. Strange to say, after this wide experience 
he rather admires the people instead of hating 
them, and his book comes nearer disinterestedness 
than any of its fellows. The one important ques- 
tion before the world to-day in respect of China, he 
believes, is the conservation of the integrity of the 
Chinese government, a position in which he coin- 

cides with Sir Robert Hart's recentiy expressed 
views. To this end he proposes three refonns, 
which seem to possess a degree of practicality that 
is absent from most other suggestions. He would 
(first) have an imperial standard of weights and 
measures enforced by the Chinese themselves, pre* 
snmably as a step toward, securing -justice in 
(secondly) paying the Chinese officials an adequate 
salary with consequent inhibition of existing schemes 
for extortion, followed (thirdly) by denying official 
position to all persons found to be addicted to the 
opium habit* holding here, with Doctor Condit, 
that the opium-user is certain to become a moral 
alien, unable to distinguish between right and 
wrong. Throughout his interesting work, Mr. 
Holcombe never loses sight of the Chinese point of 
view, and has no hesitancy in laying bare to his 
readers' gaze some of the numerous infamies which 
Christian governments and their people have prac- 
tised upon the government and people of the 
Flowerj Kingdom. 

Tet, at best, the ten books here reviewed leave 
litUe hope of a future which will make for the 
world's peace or for the continued prosperity of 
the Caucasian race as the conservator of high 
ethical ideals. Might, not right, sits in the high 
places, and the possible adoption by peaceful China 
of the militarism of Europe and the " land hunger " 
of America is indeed a "Tellow Peril" whose 
menace no one may now foretell. 

Wallaob Bios. 

Bbiefs on Nbw Books. 

Mar€0k4vter9 ^'- Julian Corbett's study of the 
t/Bn^md't Tudor navy is brought to a close in a 
nm^ kUtory. ^ork on « The Successors of Drake " 
(Longmans). This volume carries the reader 
through the period of hostilities with Spain which 
extended from the death of Drake in 1696 to the 
conclusion of the war at the accession of James I. 
For the most part, political histories of England do 
not expand the events of these years ; for with the 
defeat of the Armada the British navy achieved its 
greatest glory and is supposed to have crushed 
Spanish sea-power. With Drake's disappearance 
from the stage, much of the picturesque in English 
naval action is lost Mr. Corbett's more thorough 
examination into the history of this period leads 
him to believe that the famous sea-fight, far from 
being a crowning victory, was but a prelude to 
more serious contests, and that it required ten more 
years to so strengthen the British navy that Philip 
would admit his inability to crush England. The 
dying Spanish king advised his son to make peaee, 
but both king and nation were reluctant, and with 
the final peace Spain yielded nothing of the West 
Indian trade. These years were years of change 
and great development in maritime methods. The 
dash and recklessness of the earlier leaders, their 
strange mixture of puritanism and piracy, gave 

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way to a bosinew-like 8yst«m of making war for 
df finite objeets. Teehnieal knowledge oame to be 
rogarded as essential for the eommand of ships. 
The result was altimately a navy more powerful 
than any Spain eoald prodnee, acJcnowledging bat 
one ritid, the Dateh. Thos, while the romance of 
war departed with Drake, it was in the years that 
followed that a permanent British sea-power was 
created. History, says Mr. Corbett, has not justly 
appreciated the importance of this latter period. 
StUl, the present Tolame treats of some characters 
and episodes sorely pictaresqae, if not heroic. Essex 
and Baleigh strove to emolate the brilliant exploits 
of Drake and Hawkins, and in the capture of Cadis 
came near the mark. Essex, indeed, antil political 
intrigne had sapped his infloence and exhaosted his 
patience, is presented as a man of unasaal attain- 
ments, and one unfairly treated by historians. 
Baleigh, on the other hand, has been over-estimated 
by writers. Secure in the Queen's favor, important 
commands were given him ; and these, together 
with his charming writings, served to give him an 
undeserved reputation for naval wisdom. That men 
of the Eliaabethan period were fully conscious of 
the power of the press, is seen in the fact that both 
Essex and Baleigh, upon the capture of Cadis, sent 
off post-haste to London a private messenger with 
a full account of the exploit, written for personal 
glory. Each hero wished to rush into print ; but 
the shrewd Cecil captured and suppressed both 
messages, and issued only the offlciid account of 
Lord Howard. Mr. Corbett has produced a schol- 
arly work. Research and discrimination are evident 
throughout. Extreme detail prohibits popularity in 
a sense, as does also the necessarily technical char- 
acter of much of the work; yet there are many 
pages of brilliant description and of illuminating 

<<The Builders of Greater Britain" 
GtHS^BHt ni n •^"^ (Longmans) is brought to a 

conclusion in the publication of a 
volume on Sir Stamford Rsffles by Mr. Hugh E. 
EgertoD. The book is unmistakably the best of the 
series in literary workmanship and in biographical 
style, though not in intrinsic interest. Sir Stamford 
Biaffles was a poor boy who, by sheer hard work, 
fought his way up to a position of confidence in the 
home office of the East India Company. In 1806 
he was sent to Prince of Wales Island, and sub- 
sequently served in Java, Sumatra, and Singapore, 
in important capacities. He was responsible for 
the English exploitation of Singapore as a check 
upon Dutch influence in the East, and it is mainly 
for this service that he is included in the present 
series. Yet this was not his only claim upon public 
reeognition, for he was endowed in an unusual 
degree with the qualities which have created British 
empire. He was hampered by instructions from 
England, yet, assuming the independence to act 
and to refer afterwards, he succeeded in executing 
his own designs without coming into immediate 

collision with the home office. Fortunately for 
England, Baffles was but one of a host of agents 
who, overstepping the limits set by central authority, 
effected permanent improvement and expansion. 
Mr. Egerton asserts that Baffles was a conscious 
philanthropic expansionist, that a desire to better 
native conditions went hand in hand with business 
administration, and that his term of office was 
marked by decided improvement in native life. 
This actual betterment was undeniably achieved ; 
nevertheless it is not difficult to see that to Bsffles's 
mind England's foreign power, the Company's 
finances, and native improvement, held importance 
in the order stated. Nor did he disdain to use all the 
accustomed methods of doubtful intrigue to secure 
the submission of native princes. Thus after a 
successful war, begun in intrigue, he wrote: ^<A 
population of not less than a million has been 
wrested from the tyranny and opprenion of an in- 
dependent, ignorant, and cruel Prince, and a country 
yielding to none on earth in fertility and cultivation, 
affording a revenue of not less than a million of 
Spanish dollars in the year, placed at our disposaL" 
Baffles was never idle ; he worked hard, aged early, 
and died in retirement in England at forty-six, 
July 6, 1826. He is an excellent illustration of 
the energetic colonial administrator, honest and 
upright in his motives, and in action as humane as 
to him the circumstances warranted. 

The inbred sentiment that moves 
A^^Ji^sadir. ^^^ of US to view with a jealous 

eye the military branch of the fed- 
eral public service has undoubtedly wrought some 
injustice, in that it has prevented dae recognition 
of the fine soldierly qualities, the unswerving good 
citizenship, the arduous services in the policing and 
opening up to the settler of our far- western domain, 
of our regular army ; and we therefore gladly com- 
mend to all American readers, as an excellent his- 
torical sketeh and a temperate though feeling and 
forcible plea for a bedy of men who deserve excep- 
tionally well of their country, the little book wherein 
General George A. Forsyth, a gallant soldier and 
an attractive, virile writer, tells << The Story of the 
Soldier" (Appleton). General Forsyth's story of 
the growth as an establishment of the army, and of 
its more signal exploits in the field, is necessarily 
an outline sketeh, but it is graphic, vigorously 
drawn, and based on wide experience. Its aim is 
to give the reader a correct idea of the soldier of 
the United States army as he really is. The vol- 
ume opens with an account of the inception of the 
army, its raiaon d'etre, and the sources whence its 
officers are commissioned. A chapter is devoted to 
the characteristics and development of the soldier 
— his surroundings, perquisites, and pay. To read- 
ers with a taste for adventure the chapters on the 
various campaigns in our chronic Indian wars will 
prove satisfying. There are a half-dozen striking 
illustrations by Mr. B. F. Zogbaum. — The pen of 
General Forsyth and the pencil of Mr. Zogbaum 

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[Jan. 16, 

lk$ Tmnymn*. 

are again interestiDglj in evidence in the volame 
eontaining fonr Btories of personal experiences in 
Indian Warfare and in the Civil War, and entitled 
<< Thrilling Days in Army Life" (Harper). The 
titles are: <'A Frontier Fight"; <<An Apache 
Raid"; " Sheridan's Bide "; <<The Closing Scene 
at Appomattox Court-Hoase." The title of the 
hook does not belie the contents. The stories are 
*' thrilling " enongh, and they are the better for be- 
ing so modestly and directly told. The book has 
the sharp literalism of the accoant of an eye- 
witness; and its quality is not impaired by any 
straining at rhetorical effect. Mr. Zogbanm's pic- 
tares are decidedly good in their way, and there 
are sixteen of them. 

No one is familiar with the history 
of the Tennyson family, or, more 
specifically, with the *< Memoirs" 
prepared by the second Lord Tennyson, without 
being aware of the intimacy between that distin- 
guished group and the family of the Reverend H. 
D. Rawnsley. << Memories of the Tennysons " 
(Macmillan), from the hand of the honorary Canon 
of Carlisle, will therefore be welcomed as tending 
to cast new light on the individualities of the most 
distinguished band of brothers in English literature. 
The chief concern of the author is, of course, with 
Alfred Tennyson, and many interesting anecdotes 
are given, none of them disclosing any unsuspected 
traits of a man so fully contemporaneous and so 
fortunate in his biographies, yet all rounding out 
toward completeness our knowledge of that com- 
manding personality. The incidents are set forth 
with great good nature and entire frankness, in- 
cluding some corrections of Mr. Rawi^sley*s speech 
by the Laureate, as when he insisted upon the 
pronunciation of *< knowledge " with the <' o " as in 
** know " — an eccentricity of speech due, like many 
others, to his northern English origin. A chapter 
not less interesting than the others is devoted to 
Charles Tennyson Turner ; while the book is pre- 
faced by a series of homely anecdotes rescued from 
servants and villagers who knew the Tennysons of 
old. An interesting photograph of Alfred Tenny- 
son has been reproduced for the frontispiece, and 
the charm of the Reverend Mr. Rawnsley 's style 
makes the book a contribution to literature in more 

senses than one. 

•^TkBlndMdmai P'ofessor N. S. Shalcr, aa a partial 
m8itidy«/Hf€ ' result of thirty-five years of teach- 
md Death,** j,jg^ 1,^ presented, in "The Indi- 

vidual, a Study of Life and Death " (Appleton), 
an application of the theory of evolution to some of 
the greatest concerns of mankind. A consideration 
of the purely physical realm, and then of that realm 
which contains life, shows that the organic form is 
differentiated from the inorganic by its capacity to 
gather and store experience. Thus each successive 
generation of individuals is nourished, the older 
form, after having transmitted its garnered experi- 
ence, disappearing to make room for the newer. 

Even before man is reached in the chain of life, 
death is established as an indispensable corollary 
and condition of advancement. Educableness, then, 
is the differentiating quality of the organic indi- 
vidual. And death is due, not merely to the process 
of natural selection, — the survival of the fittest, — 
but also to the sacrifice needed for the due devel- 
opment of the oncoming race. Though the indi- 
viduality of each man amounts to isolation, it is 
only in mankind that the power of sympathy reaches 
its height. Sympathy finds expression in language, 
and otherwise, and is prompted by natural and 
tribal affection, the religious motive, property, and 
especially by social institutions. It is in sympathetic 
outgoing to the needs of his kind that man best 
conquers the fear of death. Professor Shaler has 
made several suggestive departures from the strict 
scope of his field. War, he says, is waste of the 
young life, that, reared at great cost, is not allowed 
to perfect its contribution to the good of the whole. 
Old age should be secured to larger number, and in 
modem society can be utilised for the general profit 
as never before. Immortality is not denied by the 
discoveries of latter-day science, while there are 
certain observed facts that tally with belief in a 
life beyond death. As a whole, this book is the 
result of such observation, experience, and wisdom 
as a young man could not have had. Its pages are 
frequently illuminating outside the line of their 
direct discussion. The open mind and the rever- 
ence of the writer are everywhere evident. As a 
single word of blame amidst the praise — there is 
room in a second edition for the correction of na- 
meroos small errors, doe to imperfect proof-reading. 

Professor Frank J. Goodnow is a pro- 
lifloSS^ lific writer, as well as a logical and 

forcible one. His magnum opus on 
<' Comparative Administrative Law," published in 
1893, was soon followed by his '^ Muhicipal Home 
Rule" and <* Municipal Problems," and to these he 
has now added a work entitled ^< Politics and Ad- 
ministration, a Study in Government" (Macmil- 
lan). The title corresponds to the author's division 
of the functions of government into the political 
and the administrative — the expression and the 
execution of the state's will — the judicial function 
being classed as a subdivision of administration. 
Like Mr. Bryce, Professor Goodnow lays much 
stress upon extra-legal institutions ; and he gives in 
an interesting way the history and philosophy of 
such spontaneous political growths as the party, the 
spoils system, and the boss. He advises legal rec- 
ognition of political parties, in a way to make them 
and their leaders responsible to tiie public, and 
finds encouragement in England's development of 
responsible government and efficient administration 
out of corrupt bossism and a corrupt and inefficient 
civil service. His other principal recommendation 
is in the direction of a reasonable centralisation of 
the American administrative system, coupled with 
an extension of the principle of self^govemment. 

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^ What we need, in order to obtain harmony be- 
tween the locality and the state, is to g^ant the 
locality more local legislative power than it now 
possesses, and to subject it to central administrative 
control where it is acting as the agent of the state." 

Tht fntatmmi Whatever store the world may set 
€mdiraMng by sovcre academic training, there 

^fehiidrm. ^^ times when the absence of it is 

refreshing. Snch an instance was to be foand in 
Mrs. Charlotte Perkins 6ilman*s ''Women and 
Economics," and another is now afforded by her 
newer work '< Concerning Children " (Small, May- 
nard di Co.). To a degree hardly known ontside 
of that remarkable family of Beechers of which 
ahe is a member, Mrs. Oilman's work possesses a 
quality that provokes discussion. Whether her 
readers find themselves in complete disagreement 
with her and thus forced to set up a position of 
their own, or holding to certain of her tenets for 
reasons the reverse of hers, there is hardly a page 
of her work that does not have its effect from her 
manner of presentation. She announces with some- 
thing of the joy of the discoverer that children have 
rights of all kinds which the adult is bound to re- 
spect She does not believe for a moment that a 
stupid, perverse, or untrained mother is better fitted 
to bring up her own child than an intelligent, re- 
ceptive, thoroughly disciplined instructor. She sees 
no reason — no spiritual or intellectual reason — 
why a man of the highest attainments should re- 
gard it as an honor to instruct youths of twenty, 
when he can do a thousand times more good by 
teaehing infants of two. She does not think women 
bmn the lowest walks in life are the best companions 
for ingenuous youth in kilts; and the Southern 
contempt for ihe negro as an associate, with a 
placid acquiescence in any negro being a good 
enough mentor for the Southern child, she reganls 
AS more than incongruous. But we cannot go further 
into the details of this wholesomely disturbing 
book, which deserves to be read on its own account. 

Mr. earner's Whatever Mr. B. L. Qamer has to 
wimitetmMamg say about our kinsfolk, the Quadru- 
mfMmdmomksift. mana, is reasonably certain to be of 
interest. ''Apes and Monkeys, Their Life and 
Language " (Ginn di Co.) is his most important 
popular account of hb recent work in searching out 
the psychology of the brute creation nearest us in 
development, physical and intellectual. It contains 
a brief narrative of his stay in the wilds of Africa 
daring his attempts to catch the speech and observe 
the manners of the manlike apes in the open forests. 
The account of the words and vocal articulations 
used by these animals for the conveyance of ideas 
is, it may be presumed, to be followed by a less 
popular and more scientifically exact work on the 
•abject It is to be noted with regret that Mr. 
Garner appears to be so unfamiliar with the study 
of phonetics that he has gone to the pains of in- 
ventiDg a system of notation for the sounds used 

by his brute companions, when Mr. Alexander 
Graham Bell's "visible speech" would have an- 
swered every purpose better. Mr. Garner says of 
one of his chimpanzees (page 116) that he "sao- 
eeeded in teaching him one word of human speech," 
a statement not borne out by his fuller account of 
the experiment (pp. 136 et seq.). Doctor Edward 
Everett Hale provides an interesting introduction 
for the book, which is handsomely designed and 


In the preface to his work on " Pre- 
historic Implements" (BobertClarke 
Co.), Mr. Warren K. Moorehead 
warns us that his book is a reference-book for col- 
lectors, not a hand-book for the professional arch»- 
ologist. There are, he informs us, four thousand 
five hundred persons in the United States who own 
collections of relics containing from fifty to twenty- 
five thousand specimens. His book aims to direct 
the efforts of these collectors to profitable ends. 
There is no question that its influence will be help- 
fully felt. The prehistoric relics of the United 
States are described by geographical areas. Some 
of these are discussed by Mr. Moorehead himself, 
but nine assistants, "editors," have presented the 
facts regarding their own local fields. This diver- 
sity of authors has led to a fairly full — though 
uneven — treatment of hitherto somewhat neglected 
areas; but a well-digested, connected, and sym- 
metrical presentation of the same material by one 
person would have been far more satisfactory. It 
is unfortunate that the illustrations are not better, 
and that greater care was not taken with the word- 
ing of the text and in proof-reading. While a long 
list of errata is given in the early part of the book, 
it does not begin to give the errors; there are 
probably more unnoted errors than pages in the 
book. The fact that Mr. Moorehead's health was 
in a precarious condition during the time when the 
book was being prepared is some excuse for the 
unsatisfactory form in which it appears. 

Modem pern '^^ annual extra Winter Number 

drmeimgand of "The Studio " is this year de- 
OrmtghitmeH. ^^^^ ^ ^^ exposition of " Modem 
Pen-Drawings: European and American" (John 
Lane), in a handsomely printed volume issued under 
the editorship of Mr. Charles Holme. The text is 
contributed by special authorities in the various 
countries represented, and forms a comprehensive 
and reliable, though necessarily brief, survey of the 
subject But the main interest of the volume lies 
in the collection of illustrations, which would do 
credit to a much more ambitious and expensive 
work. Every artist commented upon in the text is 
represented, many of the pictures having been 
drawn especially for this purpose. The reproduc- 
tion and general arrangement of the drawings evi- 
dence the same skill and taste that have made 
"The Studio" the most beautiful periodical that 
we have. In the section devoted to American art- 

Digitized by 

Google — 



[Jan. 16, 




bts a number of errors in the spelling of proper 
names are to be foand, and sometimes (as in the 
ease of Mr. Gibson) the drawings selected are not 
always fairly representative of &e artist's ability. 
Bat these are minor blemishes that can detraet bat 
little from one's enjoyment of the work, which is 
really a remarkable one for the price. 

Mr. Frank Hendrick, Bicardo prize 
fellow in Harvard University, has 
written a asefal monograph on 
^ Bail way Control by Commissions" (Patnam's 
<< Qaestions of the Day " series), in which he gives 
an aecoant of railway regalatidn in France, Italy, 
Anstria, Belgium, Germany, England, and the 
United States, describing most fally the Massa- 
ehosetts system, which he especially admires, and 
oondading that the best form of control is secured 
by a permanent commission without power. After 
summarizing the proposals of various writers for 
solving the railway problem, the ttuthor submits as 
his own solution, (1) the permission of pooling, 
(2) the abolition of the quasi- judicial power of the 
Interstate Commerce Commissiou, and (3) a sys- 
tem of state commissions on the plan of the Massa- 
ehusetts board, to work in cooperation with a national 
commission to be organized on the same basis. A 
final chapter gives an account of the state purchase 
of railways in Switzerland. 

Agrapkicnidu^ In " A Captive of War" (McClure, 
«(fu/9 4nCon' Phillips & Co.) Mr. Solon Hyde, 
federaiepHsmu. formerly HospiUl Steward of the 
Seventeenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, tells the suffi- 
ciently stirring tale of his experiences in Confederate 
prisons, notably Libby, Danville, and Andersonville. 
Mr. Hyde was captured by Forrest's cavalry a day 
or two after the battle of Chickamauga, Sept 19, 
1863, and was finally paroled on Feb. 27, 1866, 
after a variety of experiences, in prison and 0n 
T€uU from one prison to another, that are well worth 
the telling. The style of the narrative is terse, 
blunt, and unpolished, and there is a certain bitter- 
ness of tone throughout born of the rankling mem- 
ory of scenes of brutality, and of ill-treatment at 
the hands of ruffians of the Wirz type, whom the 
war clothed with a little brief authority. That 
<< war is hell " Mr. Hyde's book graphically attests. 

« Old Wickf ord, the Venice of Amer- 
ica,'* is the title of a rather attract- 
ively made book of 240 pages, 
wherein Mrs. F. Burge Griswold sets forth pleas- 
antly and intelligently, if with a somewhat exag- 
gerated sense of the general interest of her theme, 
the simple annals of the wave- washed village of 
Wickford, B. I. The little volume seems in some 
sort a labor of love, and the author's manifest at- 
tachment to the scenes whereof she writes imparts 
a tinge of pleasing sentiment to her style. The text 
is printed on paper of a moderate glaze, and the 
score or so of photographic plates are acceptably 
made. (Milwaukee: Young Churchman Co.). 



Messrs. Small, Maynard & Co. have reprinted the 
" Poems " of the late Philip Henry Savage, bringing 
together in a single volume the two small books pub- 
lished during the lifetime of the author, and *'the 
best poems found in his portfolio after his death." The 
whole eolleotion is edited by Mr. Daniel Gregory Mason, 
and embellished with a portrait of the writer. 

«The Listenuig Child," edited by Mrs. Lacy W. 
Thatcher, is a selection of English and American verse 
for "the yoangest readers and hearers." It is, as 
Colonel Higginson says in his introductory note, ** care- 
f ally thought oat and intelligently arranged," and pro- 
vides a great variety of pieces suitable to be placed in 
the hands of readers of sixteen and downwards. The 
Maomillan Co. are the publishers. 

" Orestes A. Brownson's Latter Life," covering his 
last twenty years, has just been published by Mr. Henry 
F. firownson, the author. This is the third and final 
volume of a biography which, although overgrown, is of 
much interest to both Catholic and Protestant readers. 
Nothing could well be uglier than the mechanical 
make-up of these volumes, and it is a pity that so vain* 
able a work should have such a handicap. 

(hnar und kein Ende ! The last thing Omar would 
seem to need is a commentary, but Mr. H. M. Batson 
has thought otherwise, and has gravely explained the 
quatrains one by one. This rather thin performance is 
supplemented by a biographical study of the poet, made 
by Mr. £. D. Boss, and a work of the most admirable 
and scholarly character. FitzQerald's text is sand- 
wiched between these two thick slices of prose, and the 
whole is made into a neat volume by Messrs. Putnama. 

Dr. Edwin Herbert Lewis's <* Second Manual of 
Composition," published by the Maomillan Co., oarriee 
on into the work of more advanced classes the prin* 
ciples and the methods inculcated in the earlier volume. 
It is a helpful and thoroughly practical treatise, in- 
formed by the best scholarship, and deserving of the 
most cordial commendation. 

A rerised edition of the standard Spanish-English 
Dictionary of Velasquez has long been needed, and has 
at last been produced by the Messrs. Appleton. The 
editors are Messrs. Edward Gray and Juan L. Iribas. 
The extent of the revision may be indicated by saying 
that eight thousand new titles have been added, together 
with several hundred idioms. The work makes a toI- 
ume of nearly seven hundred pages of three columns 
each. It will be followed in due course by a revision 
of the English-Spanish section, and by revised editions 
of the other lexicographical and educational books of 

The National Educational Association held its meet- 
ing of last summer at Charleston, S. C, and the annual 
volume of the proceedings now comes to us from the 
secretary, Mr. Irwin Shepard. As the attendance upon 
the meeting fell below the figures of recent years, so 
the volume falls considerably below the standard of 
size set by its recent predecessors. But it contains over 
eight hundred pages, and proves a valuable repository 
of current educational opinion. Among the more im- 
portant subjects discussed are "The Small College,** 
by Presidents Thompson and Harper; « The Problem 
of the South," by Mr. Booker T. Washington; ** Alcohol 
Physiology," by Dr. W. O. At water; and " Educational 
Progress during the Year," by the late B. A. Hinsdale; 

Digitized by 






« Eiemento of Spoken Ffencfa," by Mr. Maurice N. 
Kvliiiy IB a leeent aehool pablioation of the American 
Book Co. 

The American Book Co. send ns ^Selections from 
the Bible/* for nse in schools, as arranged hj Dr. John 
G. Wright 

** iTanhoe,** in two Yolnmes, with pretty colored illus- 
trations, has Jnst been added to the << Temple Classics 
for Young People." 

Longfellow's *« Eyaogeline," edited by Dr. Lewis B. 
Semple, is the latest nomber in the Macmillan Gom- 
pany's ** Pocket English Classics." 

A new Tolnme by Mr. Edward Dowden, entitled 
** Puritan and Anglican," will be published this month 
by Messrs. Henrj Holt & Co. 

«<The Structure of the English Sentence," by Miss 
Lillian 6. Kimball, is a recent publication of the 
American Book Co. It is prepared for use in high 
and normal schools. 

Thomas Shelton*8 translation of " Don Quixote " fills 
thne Tolumes in the "Library of English Classics," 
edited by Mr. A. W. Pollard, and published by the Mac- 
millan Co. The text of 1620 has been followed in this 

Mr. John Lane is publishing a new edition of " The 
Spanish Conquest in America," by Sir Arthur Helps. 
Mr. M. Oppenheim officiates as editor, and the first of 
the four ToJumes of which the work consists has just 

«Onr Bird Friends," described as «a book for all 
boys and girls," the work of Mr. Richard Kearton, has 
just been published by Messrs. Cassell & Co. The text 
is well-written in popular style, and is abundantly and 
beautifully illustrated. 

Buskin's <« Sesame and Lilies" and "The Kmg of 
tbe Golden Bi^rer," supplied with an exceptionally good 
editorial apparatus by Mr. Herbert Bates, is issneid by 
the Macmillan Co. in their ** Pocket Series of English 
Classics " for school use. 

A second series of *< Voyages of the Eliiabethan 
Seamen to America," edited from Hakluyt by Mr. Ed- 
ward John Payne, and including the narratiyes of Gil- 
bert, Amadas and Barlow, CaTendish, and Raleigh, has 
just been published by Mr. Henry Frowde for the Oirford 
Clarendon Press. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer's ''First Principles," written 
forty years ago, has been three times revised by the 
aatbor, and in the edition now published by the Messrs. 
Appleton, the work reappears in what will doubtless 
proTc its definitiTc form. A fine portrait of Mr. Spencer 
dignifies this rolume. 

The •* American Art Annual " for 1900-1901, pub- 
Uahed by Messrs. Koyes, Piatt & Co., is the third issue 
of that useful work of reference. The matter has been 
brought down to date by the editor. Miss Florence N. 
Levy, and seyeral new features may be found in the 
eootents of the volume. 

The « Lyrics " of the late J. Houston Mifflin, rescued 
from obliyion by a friendly hand, have been repob- 
lidied, with a portrait, by Messrs. Henry T. Coates & 
Co. The original edition, never strictly published, was 
dated Philadelphia, 1835. The author died only some 
ten jears ago^ but wrote no verse during the last half- 
century of his life. 

The Rowfant Club of Cleveland will begin in March 
the publication of a reprint of the famous Boston 
" Dial " of 1840-44. The sixteen numbers of the orig- 
inal issue will be reproduced in exact facsimile, and a 
supplementary volume' containing an account of the 
publication by a competent authority, a list of the 
contributors, and an index, will be supplied. The edition 
will be limited. 

Three recent English texts are the following: Addi- 
son's ''Roger de Coverley Papers," edited by Miss 
Laura Jdmson Wylie, and published by the. Globe 
School Book Co.; selections from Tennyson's "Idylls 
of the King," edited by Miss Mary F. Willard, and 
published by the American Book Co.; and Hawthorne's 
"The Gentle Boy and Other Tales," published in the 
"Riverside Literature Series" by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

IjIst of ^xw Books. 

[The foUmwing Utt^ contaimtig 66 titUi^ ineiude* hookt 
rtcnv€d hy Tn Dial tince it$ loit iuue,] 

Life and Letters of Thomas Henrr Huxley. By his sod, 

Leonard Huxley. In 2 vols., illns. in photoinavare, etc., 

8vo, gilt tops, unont. D. Apiiletoa A Go. $6. net. 
Life and Letters of Phimps Brooks. By Alezaader V. 

G. Allen. In 2 toIs., illns. in photogravure, eto., large 

8vo, gilt tops, unout. B. P. Dutton A Co. $7.00. 
Madame: A Life of Henrietta, Daughter of Charles I. aad 

Dnehflss of Orleans. By Julia Gartwright (Mrs. Heufy 

Ady). Bins., 8vo, gilt top, noeut, pp. 406. B. P. Dntton 

A Co. $3. 
Alft'ed Tennyson : A Saintly Life. By Robert F. Horton. 

nius. in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, nnont, pp. 823. 

E. P. Dntton A Co. $2. 
Bmma Marshall: A Biographieal Sketch. By Beatrice 

Marshsll. Bins., 8vo, nnent, pp. 842. E. P. Dntton A 

Go. $2. 
Life of BIrs. Booth, the Founder of the Salvation Army. By 

W.T. Steed. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 2S6. F.H. Bevell 

Go. $1.26. 
The Life of Thomas J. Sawyer, S.T.D., LL.D., aad of 

Gbioline M. Sawyer. By Riohaid Eddy. S.T.D. Bias. 

8vo, gilt top, pp. 468. Universalist Pnblishing House. 

Ulysses a Grant. By Owen Wister. With portrait, 24mo, 

gilt top, unout, pp. 146. '' Beeoon Biographies.'* Small, 

MaynardAGo. 76ots. 
Thomas Jefferson. By Thomas E. Watson. HHth portrait. 

24mo, gilt top, nnent, pp. 160. *' Beeoon Biographies.'* 

Small, Maynaid A Go. 76 cts. 
Le Due de Relchstadt. Far ICadame H. Gastegnier et O. 

Gastegnier. With portrut, 8vo, uneut, pp. 40. Wm. R. 

Jenkins. Paper, 60 ets. 


The Flgrht with Franoe for North America. By A. G. 
Bradley. With maps, large 8vo, gilt top, uneut, pp. 400. 
E. P. Dntton A Go. $6. 

The Last Years of the Nineteenth Century. By Eliza- 
beth Wormeley Latimer. With portraits, 8vo, pp. 646. 
A. G. MeGlnrg A Go. $2.60. 

The Men Who Made the Nation: An Outline of United 
Statee History from 1760 to 1866. By Edwin Erie Sparks, 
Ph.D. Blue., 12mo, gilt top, uneut, pp. 416. Maemillaa 
Co. $2. 

The Germans In Colonial Times. By Luoy Forney Bit- 
tinger. 12mo, pp. 314. J. B. Lippincott Go. $1.60. 

Miscellanies. By Edward FitzGerald. 18mo, nnent, pp. 207. 

" Golden Treasniy Series." MaomUlaa Go. $L 
A Treasury of Canadian Verse. With brief Biogiaphieal 

Notes. Selected and edited byTheodore H. Band, D.G.L. 

12mo, gilt top, nnent, pp. 412. S. P. Dntton A Go. $2. 

Digitized by 




[Jan. 16, 

A Short History of French Literature. Bj L. 8. Ktm^ 
B«r, B.A., and H. O. Atkiiw, M.A. 12mo, pp. 812. 
Heofy Holt A Go. $1.25 mI. 

The World's Orators, ''UniTeisity'* edition. New Tolnmee : 
Vol. VII., Oimton of Sofrlend, Part II., edited by Gny 
GbrietoB Lee, Ph.D.; Vol. VIIL, Orators of Amerioa, 
Part L, edited by Gny Garleton Lee, Ph.D., and Franklin 
L. Riley, Ph.D. Each with photograTnre portraits, large 
8to, ffilt tops, nnent. G. P. Pntnam'e Sons. Per toI., 

Antholocry of French Poetry, 10th to 19th Centnries. Gol- 
leeted and translated by Henrr Garrin^n, M.A. 12mo, 
gilt top, nnent, pp. 301. Oxford UniTersity Press. 76c. net. 

The Treasury of American Sacred Sonff. ^th Notes, 
explanatoiy and biographioal. Selected and edited by W. 
Garrett Horder. KeTised and enlarged edition; 12ino, 
gilt top, nnent, pp. 401. Oxford UniTersity Press. 

The Book Hunter. By John Hill Burton, D.G.L. New 
edition ; 12mo, g^t top, nnont, pp. 427. J. B. Lippinoott 
Go. $1.25. 

On Southern Poetry Prior to 18S0: A Dipertation. By 
Sidney Ernest Bradshaw. 12mo, pp. 102. Published by 
the author. 

TheBigrveda. By E. Vernon Arnold. 18mo,pp.56. "Pop- 
ular Studies in Mythology, etc.'* Lond<m : DaTid Nntt. 

Poems and Fancies. By Edward Everett Hale. library 

edition ; with portrait, 12mo, gilt top, nnent, pp. 380. 

Little, Brown, A Go. $1.50. 
Shakespeare's Kine Henry V.: The Riohard Maasdeld 

Acting Version. lUns., 8to, nnent, pp. 124. MeGlnre, 

Phillips A Go. Paper, 50 cts. fiet. 
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and Other Poems, and Shakespeare's Sonnets. Each 24mo, 

nncut. New York : Dozey's. Per toI., 50 cts. 


Herod: A Tragedy. By Stephen Phillips. 12mo, gilt top, 
nnent, pp. 126. John Lane. $1.50. 

The Poems of Philip Henry Savagre. Edited, with Intro- 
duction, by Daniel Gregory liason. With portrait, 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 170. Small, Maynard A Go. $1.25. 

Ohristus Victor: A Student's RcTerie. By Henry Nehe- 
miah Dodge. Second edition; 18mo, gut top, nncut, 
pp.186. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

Ballad of the UnsucceesftQ. By Richard Burton. 12mo. 
Small, Maynard A Go. Paper, 35 cts. 


The Doers of War: A Romanoe of the Great Gnl War. 
By Edgar Pickering. Illns., 12mo, gilt top, ^pp. 343. 
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In White and Black. By W. W. Pinson. 12mo, pp. 357. 
Macon, Georgia: J. W. Burke Go. $1.25. 

The Lapidaries, and Aunt Deborah Hears " The Messiah." 
By Mrs. Elisabeth Gheney. 12mo, pp. 30. Eaton A 
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A Book of Common Worship. Prepared under the Di- 
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a Gommittee on the Poesibilities of Gommon Worship. 
16mo,pp. 418. G. P. Putnam> Sons. $1.25. 

Helps for the Quiet Hour: Prayers, GoUects, Verses, col- 
lated from Many Sources. By RcT. Jesse Bowman Young, 
D.D. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 167. Eaton A Mains. $1. 

Annual Report of the Smithsonian .Institution for the 

Year EndingJnne 30, 1898. lUus., large 8to, pp. 718. 

Goremment Printing Offioe. 
OutUnes of Himian Physiology. By F. Schenck, M.D., 

and A. Giirber, M.D.; authorised translation from the 

second German edition by Wm..D. Zoethout, Ph.D.; with 

Preface by Jacques Loeb, Ph.D. Large 8to, pp. 330. 

Henry Holt A Go. $1.75 ii€<. 
A Year Book of Kentucky Woods and Fields. Written 

and illns. by Ingram Giookett. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 112. 

Buffalo: Gharles Wells Moulton. 

American Art Annual, 1900-1901. Edited by Florence N. 
Lery. Blue., Urge 8yo, pp. 418. Boston : Noyes, Piatt 
A Go. $3. 

G. Allen GUbert. FoUc^New York: Life PnblSung 

Go. $3. 
Modem Pen Drawinss: European and American. Edited 

by Gharles Holme. lUus., laige 4to, uncut, pp. 216. John 

Lane. Paper, $1.75 net. 
Art, and How to Study It: A Manual for Teachers and 

Students. By J. W. Topham .Vinall, A.R.G.A. With 

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A. P. G. Griifin. Large 8to, pp. 43. Goremment Print- 
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Gity Bo3rs in the Country; or, Weston and Howard at 
Bedford. By Glinton Osgood Burling. Dlus., 12mo, un- 
cut, pp. 229. Abbey Pnss. $1. 

The Stories of My Four Friends. By Jane Andrews; 
edited by Margaret Andrews Allen. Blue., 16mo, pp. 100. 

Letters of Credit: An Alphabet of Finanoe. By Prsaoott 
Bailey Bull; with pictures by Eleanor Withey Willaid. 
Oblong 8vo, pp. 55. Michigan Trust Go. Paper. 



Addresses and Proceedings of the National Educational 

Association at the 39th Annual Meeting, Gharleston, S. C., 

July, 1900. Laige 8fo, pp. 800. Published by the i 

The TecMshingr of Bdathematlcs in the Higher Schools of 

Prussia. By J. W. A. Young, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 141. 

Longmans, Green, A Go. 80 cts. net, 
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E. Munson. ICmo, pp. 236. G. P. Putnam's Sooa. 

Elements of Astronomy. By Simon Newcomb, Ph.D. 

nins., 12mo, pp. 240, American Book Go. $1. net. 
A New Greek Method. By William James Seelye. 12mo, 

pp.166. Wooster, Ohio: Herald Printing Go. 75c. 
The Structure of the Bnirlish Sentence. By Lilian G. 

Kimball. 12mo, pp. 244. American Book Go. 75 cts. net. 
moomhde: TragMie. Par Pierre GomeUle, 1661; edited 

and annotated by James A. Harrison. 16mo, pp. 153. 

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DIAL 53 


Mr. Dooley's Philosophy. 

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9 drmt'^ottt^lF JTournal of Hiterarif Criticism, Di0cu00ion, atiH Infortnattoti* 

••THE DIAL seems at present the most 
unbiassed, it:ood-humored, and sensible orsan 
of American criticism."— BARRETT WENDELL, 
la "Literary History of America,*' 1900. 

'Long live Thb Dial, which 
to draw iU falthfol 
shadow not from the Mrth, bat 
from the aun.** 

OaoBOB W. Cabul 
NoBTRAHrroa, Mass., 
April S, 1900. 

"Ths Dial has shown in all 
ito peat that dignity and eon- 
science and kindliness may go to 
good criticism, withont saorifloe 
of thorooKhnesc or of acumoi.*' 


Kdgbwood, April 11, 1900. 

"One can really tell time by 
Tne Dial : it does not confuse 
mn by heving a looking-glaas 
face.** HoKAca E. Scoddbb. 

Cahkeidob. HAfa., 
April 9, 1900. 

"I have read Twat Dial for years, and it has always given me 
the impreesion of being in the eompeny of refined g«atlemen who 
are agraeably relating the literary ufalrs of the day.'* 

8. Wsnt MlTCHBLL. 

PaiLADiLiinA, Kerch 28, 1900. 

'THE DIAL has a yerj definite aim and seope, 
^ though by no means a narrow one. By con- 
eeming itself, not with Books alone but with 
Literature in the largest sense, following the best 
models of the older oonntries in which the pros- 
perity and standing of journals of its class are a 
measure of the current civilization, it makes itself 
divtinctive in America. It is preeminently **A 
Journal of Literary Criticism, Discussion, and In- 
formation." In addition to its treatment of Books, 
it discusses literary moyements and tendencies, 
giyes information of literary people and events, 
and includes whatever pertains to literary affairs 
and related subjects of higher intellectual concern. 

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120 . THE DIAL [Feb. 16, 1901. 

1765 1895 

Constitutional History 


United States 


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A Landmark History of New York : a sort of historical guide-book 

on a rather nnnsoal plan. By Mr. Albert Ulmann, a New York merohant. It wiU be tnVLj illnstratad. 

Pleasures of the Telescope: a Descriptive Guide for Amateur Astron- 
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All the aboye books ezoept the « SAILOR'S LOG" will be published Maroh 10. 

In Marchj alsOy we shall Publish: 

China! Travels and Investigations in the ** Middle Kingdom" — A Study of its 
Ciyilisation and Possibilities. Together with an Aooonnt of the Boxer War, the Relief of the Legations, 
and the Re-establishment of Peaee. By Jambs Habbison Wilson, A.M., LL.D., late Major-General 
United States Volunteers, and Brevet Major^General United States Army. Third edition, revised 
throughout, enlarged, and reset. 12mo, elotb, 81.75. 

General Wilson has been twice in China and has had extraordinary opportunities of obseryation, so 
that this work, whieh is practically new, will be inyalnable to all who desire to understand the CHINA 

Valuable for a reasonable understanding of Oriental character is Profeaor Giles's 

History of Chinese Literature, i vol., i2mo, 557 pp., index, doth, 91.50. 

" Mind ycur own (imnetf, foUow out your dettiny^ live tn accord with the age^ and leave the rett with 
G^o^."— Maxim of Chu TuKo-Shun (1617-1689). 

** Few recent hietaries of literature are more pregnant with new and intereetmg material than ihu. There 
tff nothing like it in any 2t6rary, and one may eay with aeturanee that there ienota dtdlpagein it," — Bostoh 

The tenth yolttiiie in the Literatures of tlie World Series. 

Mrs. Clyde, by Julien Gordon, a story of '«high life'' in Boston, New York, 
Newport, and Rome, attained its sixth edition almost immediately. It was reeognixed not only as a good 
story, but also as history, and many persons guessed correctly the original study. 

Huxley's Life and Letters, by his son Leonard Hoxley, though in 2 vols., 
and costing 85.00 net, is in its third edition. 

David Harum has been read by probably three million people. More than 606,000 
copies haye been sold! 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, Publishers 


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9 SitmUfbmtSilz Jottmal of iUtrtarg Cr(Ucusm» Msitas»Um, aitti Snfdtmattau 

No. S68. MARCH 1, 1901. Vol. XXX. 





**A Distreastiiff Misqaototion. '* Edmund C. 
Dr. Fitzedwurd Hall : An AppreoUtion, Balph 

Olmsted Williams. 
Prof enor Triggs on Prof eMor Wendell. Octrdner 

Oar Poblio libmriee: A Soggettion. Duane 


Biehards 133 


W. Oookin 137 

LITERATURB IN INDIANA. Jforrifi W. Sampson 138 


Joseph Jastrow 139 

BSCENT POETRY. WiUiam Morton Payne ... 140 
Hnrdy'e Songs of Two. — Miffliu's The Fields of 
Dawn. — Jordan*8 To Barbara. — Hudson's The 
Sphinx. — Keeler*s Idyls of El Dorado.. — Sather* 
land*s Jaointa. — Crowninshield^s Piotoris Carmina. 
— Cole*s In Soipio's Garden. — Thaw^s Poems.— 
Welles's The Late and Lays. — Paioter's Lyrical 
Vignettes. — Knowles*s On Life*s Stairway. — Miss 
Peabody*s Fortune and Men's Eyes. — Mrs. Dorr's 
Afterglow. — Carman and Hovey's Last Songs from 
Vagabondia. — Thomson*s A Day's Song.— Shee- 
han's Cithais Men. — Pooler's Translations. 


The origin and derelopment of the alphabet. — An 
English sailor*s lively narrative. — Writings of a 
royal scribbler. — Babylonians and Avyrians. — A 
handy, laeid book on the Reformation. — An inter> 
esting aoeonnt of the siege of Peking. — A hand-book 
of Havana and Caba.— The art of translating. — 
Pictures of Shakespeare's country. 


NOTES 149 




The attention of the Illinois Legislature will 
soon be occupied by a number of bills relating 
to the State system of public schools, and it 
may be expected that the educational pot will 
boil briskly at Springfield during the present 
month. Besides numerous bills of minor im- 
portance already before the Qeneral Assembly, 
there will soon come up for consideration three 

measures of the utmost significance, for the 
consideration of which the legislative mind 
will need all of its wisdom. The measures in 
question are these : First, the appointment of 
a Commission for the purpose of unifying 
and modernizing the school law of the State, 
second, a revision of the so-called pension law 
of 1896, and third, a comprehensive measure 
prepared for the special needs of the school 
system of Chicago. If the Legislature shall 
deal intelligently and soberly with these three 
great questions, the result ought to prove of 
incalculable benefit to the educational interests 
of the community. 

The resolution for the appointment of a 
State Commission is a recognition of the cha- 
otic and patchwork condition of the existing 
school laws. Made from time to time, as 
special exigencies have arisen, these laws have 
never been subordinated to any set of control- 
ling principles, and leave many essential things 
unprovided for — things demanded by the 
present condition of public education, and in 
many cases already incorporated into the sys- 
tem, although without express statutory au- 
thority. The school law of the State, in its 
existing form, is a thing of shreds and patches, 
at least a generation behind the age in many 
of its aspects, and self-contradictory at more 
than one point. It is greatly in need of in- 
telligent revision, and now seems likely to 
obtain it. To give but a single instance of its 
shortcomings, we may say that it gives no 
specific authority for schools of secondary edu- 
cation, although public opinion long ago settled 
the question of their justification. What is 
needed in this direction is not merely the 
specific mention of high schools, but a declar- 
ation similar to that of the Massachusetts 
statute, which compels high school education 
to be provided throughout the State for all 
who may desire it. 

The other two measures that are to come up 
for discussion relate only to the schools of 
cities having over one hundred thousand in- 
habitants — which means, of course, the schools 
of Chicago alone. This, it may be explained 
to the uninitiated, is the ingenious way in which 
the Illinois Assembly gets around the consti- 
tutional objection to special legislation. Such 
a law, although speciai in its purpose, is gen- 

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[March U 

eral in form, and does not oontraTene the con- 
stitutional prohibition. 

The question of providing pensions or an- 
nuities for retired teachers of the Chicago 
schools does not seem in a fair way of satis- 
factory solution. The existing statute is glar- 
ingly defective, but the substitute about to be 
proposed is very much worse. What is needed 
is a simple law, and the substitute is ridiculously 
complicated. What is needed is a law that 
shall be mandatory in all essential respects, 
and the substitute leaves large discretionary 
powers to an elective administrative board. 
The existing law needs to be amended, but the 
process of amendment should not overload it 
with intricate subtleties, nor should its whole 
spirit and purpose be changed thereby. If the 
Legislature deals wisely with this matter, it 
will make three changes in the present statute, 
and no more. It will make the term of service 
equal for men and women, it will make the 
annuities proportional to the annual assess- 
ments, and it will remove the slight ambiguity 
now found in the paragraph which secures 
permanence of tenure subject to good behavior. 
With these three amendments, the law would 
be made impregnable as far as the courts are 
concerned, and it would work automatically 
for an indefinite period. It would not secure 
a fixed annuity, but it would secure a fair 
division of the funds annually available among 
the annuitants. To secure fixed annuities of 
reasonable amount, a very different method 
must be resorted to; namely, the method of 
supplementing the assessments made upon 
teachers by a diversion of public funds to the 
extent found necessary.. If the Legislature 
really desires to occupy an advanced educa- 
tional position upon this difficult question, it 
will adopt the method here suggested, and 
might do worse than frame its law upon the 
New York model. We could not well conceive 
of anything that would do so much to increase 
the dignity and stability of the teaching pro- 
fession in Illinois as the adoption of a statu- 
tory provision securing reasonable annuities to 
teachers retiring after a quarter*century of 

The third measure, and by far the most 
comprehensive one, to come under the consid- 
eration of the Legislature is the bill drafted 
under the auspices of the Civic Federation of 
Chicago. This bill is the product of much 
thought and investigation, and is, in the main, 
an enlightened and admirable document. Year 
before last, a Commission of one hundred mem- 

bers was appointed by the Civic Federation for 
the purpose of examining the whole question 
of legislation for the Chicago schools and the 
allied question of the methods of their admin- 
istration. This Commission was a representa- 
tive body, including in its membership men and 
women, educators and non-educators, clergy- 
men, lawyers, and men of affairs. It has held 
many general meetings and committee meet- 
ings, has called in a great deal of expert testi- 
mony, has listened to much discussion, and ha» 
at last framed a comprehensive report. A part 
of this report is the bill now before the State 
Legislature ; the remainder consists of admin- 
istrati ve recommendations not suitable for legis- 
lative action, but intended to be addressed 
directly to the Chicago Board of Education. 
It is with the bill alone that we are now con- 
cerned, and a few words may be given to the 
statement of its most important features. 

In the first place, it provides for a reduction 
of the Board of Education from its present 
membership of twenty-one to nine. Such a 
reduction of membership is in accord with the 
best professional opinion in this matter, and 
would bring about the condition of thinga 
happily expressed by President Eliot when he 
said that a Board of ESducation should never 
consist of more persons than could sit around 
a table of moderate sice, and discuss the ques- 
tions before them in ordinary conversational 
tones. The bill then provides for the super- 
intendenoy by giving its incumbent a legal 
status, great administrative powers in edncar 
tional matters, and a long term of service dar- 
ing which he cannot be removed except for 
some gross dereliction of duty. The bnsineae 
manager of the schools is also given a legal 
status, enlarged powers and responsibilities, 
and tenure for a term of years. The appoint- 
ment of teachers is vested in thc^ Superintendent, 
subject to preliminary competitive examina- 
tions to test the capabilities of candidates, and 
subject also to confirmation by the Board of 
Elducation. The certificate of the Chicago 
Normal School is accepted, as is entirely proper, 
in lieu of a special examination, but all appoint- 
ments are made upon probation for three years, 
after which time they become permanent dar- 
ing efficiency and good behavior. 

These are the main features of the plan now 
presented to the Legislature. They are all 
highly desirable features of a school law, and we 
find open to serious criticism only the one pro* 
vision that gives to the Superintendent the 
power, seemingly too arbitrary, of the dismissal 

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of teacheTB, snbjeot to the oonfirmation of his 
aetion by the Board of Education. In this 
reBpeot the law now existing is better than the 
one proposed, for it provides a safeguard for 
the teacher in requiring written charges, to be 
investigated by the Board of Education, before 
a dismissal can take effect. It is no more than' 
simple justice that this requirement should be 
insisted upon.' In voting against it, the Com- 
mission was carried away, in the words of 
«<The School Weekly," by the eloquence of 
one or two vigorous personalities who were 
seemingly controlled by two ideas to the exclu- 
sion of all others. ** One was that the Chicago 
school system was going to tihe dogs because of 
a surplus of incompetent teachers. The second 
was that giving to the Superintendent of Schools 
supreme power would remedy all this." The 
simple fact is that it ought to be difficult to 
dismiss from the schools a teacher who has 
passed the probationary period. Make it as 
difficalt as you will for a person to secure ap- 
pointment, make the tests as exacting as you 
please, but when the appointment is given, let 
there be given with it a sense of security that 
cannot possibly coexist with the power of any 
one officer to destroy a professional career once 
entered upon in good faith. It is only upon 
these terms that a really effective service can 
be built up ; it is only subject to this condition 
that the best class of men and women can be 
persuaded to enter the educational ranks. 

What the fate of this measure will be at the 
haufls of the Legislature we do not pretend to 
say. If we may judge by the fate of the not 
dissimilar bill presented two years ago, the 
outlook is not hopeful. That bill, like the 
present one, was in the main admirable, and 
needed, like its successor, only a little judicious 
amendment to be made a model example of 
educational legislation. But instead of intel- 
ligent consideration, it received only derision, 
it was assailed by interested persons in all sorts 
of mean and petty and unworthy ways, and 
was finally rejected with contumely. Let us 
hope, at least, that the General Assembly now 
in office will have a better sense of its dignity 
and responsibility, and that the new measure 
will be accorded the respectful attention it so 
richly deserves. Its enactment, after some 
slight revision, would set Illinois in the front 
rank, as far as educational interests are con- 
cerned, among our Commonwealths, and would 
doubtless become, as our Library Act of nearly 
thirty years ago has become, a model for the imi* 
tation and the emulation of other communities. 


(To the Editor of Thb Diain) 
A oorreBpondeDt (** S.") in year issue of February 1 
tartly refers to what seems to him a lapse on the part of 
the editor of '< An American Anthology." One of Poe's 
'< gems " he finds to be *< marred by one of the most dia- 
bolical blunders of misquotation in all the annals of 
printing." Quoting, from "To One in Paradise/' — 
** And all my nigrhtly dreams 
Are where thy dark eye ^lanoes 
And where thy footstep grleams," — 

he truthfully sUtes that, •< instead of 'dark' eye, Mr. 
Stedman has gray eye." 

If ••S." will 4Sonsult the Stedman- Woodberry edition 
of Poe's Works (the latest complete text), he will see 
that << gray," and not << dark," was the ad jectiye finally 
used by the author of « To One in Paradise." Doubt- 
less Poe might have stuck to his early draft of that 
ballad, instead of carefully rewriting it, if he could 
haye known that '' S." was to say of « gray eye glances " 
that the '* distressing alliteration would have mined the 
fame of Milton." 

On page 190, Vol. X., of the Edition cited, the mri- 
omm notes show the poet's many radical emendations, 
— one of which is the substitution in question. After 
my labors with Professor Woodberry in the editorship 
of Poe, I could hardly be expected to prefer any text 
before our own, and I would be apt to scrutinize the 
proof of selections therefrom with unusual care. One 
of the claims of our text to the title of *'definitiye" 
b that it follows Poe's own copy of his last book of 
Terse, with the marginal reyision by his own hand. 
Occasionally his changes from a crude early draft are 
open to criticism, but nineteen times in twenty they are 
most felicitous (as in the ballad of '* Lenore "). Poe- 
aibly this n»y not be said of the change from *< dark " 
to ** grtLjf** yet it will be recalled that Poe had a pas- 
sion for alliteration, and, again, that such a change was 
sometimes determined by other than technical consid- 
erations. In standing by the text of the ** Anthology," 
I may be guilty, but certainly not of the ** blunder " 
which is proverbially worse than a crime. 

Edmund C. Stbdmah. 

BranxviUe, N. F., February 19, 1901. 

(To the Editor of Ths Dial.) 

Apropos of the recent death of Dr. Fitxedward Hall, 
some brief public expression of appreciation of his ser- 
yices to students of modern English may be fit and 
proper, especially as coming from a controversial op- 
ponent. My controversies with Dr. Hall, although con- 
tinuing through several years, have passed from notice 
and, except for a few, from memory. But I have long 
wanted to say something of this kind, and I hope it may 
be said in Thb Dial, because most of the discussions 
between Dr. Hall and myself were printed in its columns. 

It is not necessary to enlarge on Dr. Hall's attain- 
ments, his enormous industry, the breadth of his reading, 
the acuteness of his perceptions, the subtiety and truth- 
fulness of his distinctions. Nobody, I suppose, has ever 
examined his printed work in English without astonish- 
ment at the mere labor that produced it. Its solid 
value b unquestionable, — in fact, incomparable. Dr. 
Hall was the first to show how questions of good and 

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S^&je "gtbi §00k8. 

Ths IjIfk of PHrLLiPs Brooks.* 

Dr. Allen has given us a remarkable biog- 
raphy in his **Life and Letters of Phillips 
Brooks.'* He has portrayed a remarkable 
man. Perhaps no richer personality has ma- 
tured on American soil. The biography has 
great excellences and some obvious faults. 

Like most such works in modern times it is 
excessive in bulk. As if Hesiod had never 
lived, writers refuse to consider the half to be 
more than the whole. Publishers protest and 
readers complain, but still the volumes grow. 
Sixteen hundred closely printed pages are a 
good many to devote to one man. They might 
suffice for the chronicle of an important period. 

If Carlyle thought the days of hero-worship 
past he should be living at this hour. On 
every page of these volumes are heard the 
trumpets and shawms. The misfortune of being 
idolized which pursued Phillips Brooks through 
his lifetime follows him to his grave. While 
he lived he overtopped the curling incense, 
and he emerges unharmed above it even now. 
You distinguish the man with all his noble 
features even when set forth as a demigod. 
It may heighten the verisimilitude of the por- 
trait to give it the atmosphere which Phillips 
Brooks breathed for thirty years. Yet above 
his dear remains there are those who would 
prefer to see a more severe and chastened 

Nor did the career and personality of Phillips 
Brooks require copious interpretation. Some 
people neel no introduction. Before a great 
landscape, a great picture, a great man, silence 
is the more reverent homage. The admirable 
cicerone irks us ; our admiration is chilled be- 
cause demanded. We are ready to resent the 
intrusive interpretation and to look the other, 
way. Give us the facts of the great man's life, 
what he said and did, what he enjoyed and 
suffered, the things he liked, the things he 
hated, and let us sift and group them and make 
our inferences from them as we may. 

Let OB not be thought ungrateful. Happily 
in these volumes there is much to praise. After 
throwing out all that is redundant and irrele- 
vant, there remains a true vision of a noble 
man. Dr. Allen knows him as he was.. When 
we doubt the biographer's judgpnent he has 

*Ltn AMD LvrraBS ov Thoufs Bbooxs. By Alex- 
ander V. G. Allen. In two Tolamet. New York : E. P. Dntton 

himself supplied the material upon which to 
form our own. He has made large use of 
carefully kept note- books and diaries whose 
existence was unsuspected by lifelong friends, 
and has drawn so much from them that these 
volumes might bear the old-fashioned title, 
*« Life and I^mains." The notes are not shape- 
less memoranda, but well-wrought paragraphs, 
not to be likened to the scrawls of an artist's 
sketch-book but to delicate and finished draw*- 
ings. They indicate in the writer a character^ 
istic sense of form and instinct for perfection. 
There is wealth without exuberance. Before 
Phillips Brooks was of age he had learned his 
tools and was a master of expression. The 
earliest notes no more spurt with the spasmodic 
cleverness of youth than the latest dribble with 
the enforced parsimony of age. It is the flow 
of a quiet stream, welling up and gliding on. ' 

The letters are numerous, not often import- 
ant or brilliant, but delightful with the charm 
of slipshod ease. They are anybody's letters, 
not a touch of art about them. They are full of 
most gracious fooling. Precisians will regard 
them as unduly frolicsome. They touch and go 
lightly. They are not crammed with wit or 
wisdom. They are not often quotable. Foi^ 
axioms or epigrams yon must look elsewhere. 
They are for a friend's amusement, for the 
writer's relaxation. They are like good talk, 
and especially like Phillips Brooks's good talk, 
which mostly kept the valley road. When he 
would climb peaks or thread crevasses he wrote 
a sermon or made an entry in a note-book. 
The fire kindled when he mused rather than 
when he chatted. He said what came to the 
surface and let his fancy loose. If too many 
began to listen, the talk was apt to dissolve in 

Was the great preacher's nature as complex 
as Dr. Allen imagines ? The public instinct is 
with those who look on it as essentially simple, 
as simple as his career, which was only except- 
ional in its felicity. Born in the Brahmin 
caste of New England, he inherited through 
half a dozen generations piety, scholarship, and 
public spirit. He grew up in a household 
which added deep conviction to plain living 
and high thinking. His mother was a woman 
of rare — almost tragic — intensity of spirit. 
His father was a Boston merchant of the best 
stamp, energetic, orderly, diligent, unpretend- 
ing, a man content with a modest livelihood, 
of sound sense and conservative judgment, glad 
to reserve strength and leisure for public aims. 
Through the Adams School and the Latin 

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School Phillips Brooks passed to Harvard 
College. Unambitious of college rank, but 
alert and eager for knowledge and culture, he 
stood high among his classmates, winning their 
liking while retaining a certain aloofness and 
reserve, which in after years wore off the sur- 
face yet clung to the core of his being. After 
an attempt to teach rough and indocile lads, 
which proved a failure and caused momentary 
discouragement — Dr. Allen has perhaps dwelt 
on the mishap somewhat unduly, — he found 
his lifework in the ministry of the Episcopal 
Church, in which^ from four years old, he had 
grown up. He passed three years at a Semi- 
nary of tiiat church near Alexandria, Virginia. 
They were years of quiet growth, unincumbered 
by too much instruction. Some men are 
their own best teachers, and Phillips Brooks 
* ** browsed on the sprouts of his own mind," 
pursued his own studies, began to value and 
record his thinking, and came into knowledge 
of himself. At his graduation he was so easily 
first among his fellows that there was no doubt 
of his ultimate rank in the ministry. After 
two years in a somewhat obscure post where 
he could not be hid, he took charge of one of 
the foremost parishes in the church, that of 
the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia. He was in 
no haste to assume larger tasks, but he had no 
fear of them. Under the influence of a great 
position at a momentous period, the years of 
the Civil War and of Reconstruction, he grew 
rapidly. He stood firmly for the Union and 
for the Freedmen, when it cost something to 
be outspoken. After ten years of rich service, 
being not yet thirty-five years old, he was 
drawn back to his native city, there for two and 
twenty years to preside over an historic parish. 
But he insensibly widened his pastorate to in- 
clude all who called upon him for his ministries 
in Boston and parts adjacent. In the great 
fire of 1872 his churdi was burned. The 
seeming catastrophe became a blessing. It 
precipitated a difficult decision to remove an 
old parish to a more favorable neighborhood. 
Four years later there had risen, under the 
spell of his eloquence, at the hands of a large- 
minded and generous corporation, using the 
unique gifts of Richardson the architect and 
liafarge the painter, a building that marks 
an epoch in our architecture, the noblest church 
edifice yet built in this country. The building 
and the man who had no smaU part in making 
it what it was went well together. It was 
thronged with all sorts and conditions of men, 
to whom his word was life. There he was as 

if enshrined or enthroned for the rest of his 
days, and now it is his monument. It seemed 
as if no more changes could come to him, but 
upon Bishop Paddock's death in 1891, by 
common consent of city and state Phillips 
Brooks was marked as his successor. Those 
not of his own communion claimed him as ** our 
bishop." There was some delay in the con- 
firmation of the election by the standing com- 
mittees and the bishops. Dr. Allen has told 
the story with little comment. He has declined 
to erect a pillory in his pages, however just 
the right of anyone to occupy it. 

Phillips Brooks did not seek the episcopate, 
yet rather to the surprise of some he welcomed 
it and rejoiced in a new opportunity. He felt 
it also to be a release from crushing burdens. 
But he had not fully measured its own strains. 
He set himself an exacting standard of official 
duty. He was already overwrought when dis- 
ease struck an enfeebled frame and found him 
an easy prey. He died after a few days of 
illness, on the 28d of January, 1898. He was 
fifty-seven years old. 

It was a career whose events were sermons, 
addresses, lectures, changes of rectorships, 
refusals of parishes, professorships, and presi- 
dencies, the building of a great church, and 
the consecration as Bishop. Its relaxations 
were books, friends, and foreign travel. It 
differed from other ministerial careers less in 
kind than in degree. So with the character 
formed and revealed by it. It differed from 
the characters of other men in the range, pro- 
portion, and completeness of its powers. It was 
pure, high-minded, devoted, earnest to enthusi- 
asm yet ever sound and sane, the temperament 
and force of genius combined with saving com- 
mon sense, the habits of industry, fidelity, 
patience, sobriety, which ensure success in 
whatever field. A large intellect, a right con- 
science, a commanding will, a noble heart, were 
fitly tabernacled in a mighty frame that worked 
without jar or friction almost to the end. The 
whole grand nature was subdued and conse- 
crated to the one task of living and proclaiming 
the gospel of Christ. If just balance, and 
equipoise of powers or their concentration upon 
the highest aim, involve subtlety, the character 
may be deemed complex; otherwise it was 
simplicity itself. 

Very early in his life Phillips Brooks recog- 
nized his peculiar powers and the work to which 
they pointed him. It was not the mission of 
the seer who declares truths which perhaps 
only posterity may comprehend at their just 

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valae. It wa& rather that of the prophet who 
discerns in the religion of his time eternal 
verities, needing restatement ; who takes the 
lessons of all time and makes them live again 
to-day. What the marvellous preacher was 
capable of becoming as a metaphysician deal* 
ing with fundamental thought, what he might 
have been as a formal theologian eliciting from 
Holy Writ its essential dogmas and system- 
atizing Christian Truth, it is idle to inquire. 
Genius is a well-nigh incalculable force, and 
may apply itself in numberless directions. 
Anyone who would judge the capacity of Phil- 
lips Brooks for abstract thought upon religion 
may well study the ten pages of the second 
volume of this biography, in which to clear 
his own mind he reviewed his religious experi- 
ence and put on record his inmost convictions 
in theology. Nothing conld be simpler or more 
lucid. But while we may believe his genius 
capable of many things which it left unat- 
tempted, we must see that its special province 
was to take great truths out of the rubbish 
heap of dead phrases, revitalize and freshly 
illustrate them, and cause them mightily to 
prevail over the hearts and lives of men. There 
was power for men to live by, if it could only 
get at them, in the old theology that in this 
period of the New Beformation was everywhere 
finding restatement and elucidation. What 
had grown obscure and was in danger of be- 
coming obsolete, what had been familiar in 
words and was in danger of passing into the 
realm of cant, what was really new in its form 
and was in peril of becoming a heresy by 
standing alone, Phillips Brooks seized with a 
eertain swift and fine apprehension and re- 
deemed for the service of life. That was his 
peonliar province in which he stood peerless, 
the application of truth to common living, 
bringing Jesus Christ, with all the glow of 
divine light upon His face, down among every- 
day men and things. As he believed in Qod 
the Father of a world of men, so he believed 
in man the potential Son of God. For the 
lowest, meanest, most germinal type of hu- 
manity, be cherished an undying hope. 

That large hopefulness was perhaps the 
salient feature in the character of Phillips 
Brooks. Other men were as brave and devoted, 
but who was ever as hopeful as he ? When 
others walked in darkness anxious well-nigh to 
despair, on his face there was no *< glimmer of 
twilight " but ever ^« glad, confident morning." 
Transient sorrows might disturb, immediate 
difficulties might perplex him, but he had 

never a doubt as to the final issue. Such sure 
hope was with him both a native gift and a 
Christian grace. And out of such hope grew 
joyousness irrepressible, lightness of heart free 
and frolicsome as that of a child. It was cheer 
and courage for all about him. It was a per- 
petual fountain sparkling in the sun and water- 
ing every thirsty grass-blade and wilting flower. 
Whether he outstretched his hand to greet a 
friend, to console a mourner, to lead a prodigal 
home, there was a thrill in the grasp as of a 
strong glad son of God, delighting in His 

How quietly Phillips Brooks rose above or 
stood apart from contentions and controversies! 
The unruffled atmosphere of Dr. Allen's biog^ 
raphy is in just keeping with the life por- 
trayed. Some remote murmur of battle past 
seems dying away in the distance, but around 
the great central figure of the scene there is 
truce or peace. Always independent in opinion 
and frank in utterance, Phillips Brooks was 
never bitter in speech nor did he nurse grudges 
in his heart. If he ever seemed to over- 
emphasize a truth or unduly reject what he 
thought an error, his spirit was always gener- 
ous and tolerant. Nor was it the tolerance of 
arrogant unconcern but of honest respect and 
sympathy, of hearty recognition of neighbor's 
right to question what it was his own duty to 
assert or acclaim. He rarely laid stress on the 
things he rejected. He was busy inculcating 
what he believed. Gt)d's truth. There might 
be tempting occasions for firing a volley after 
a retreating foe, or rolling the drums and flut- 
tering the flags after an enforced surrender, 
but Phillips Brooks had neither time nor heart 
for such things. Dr. Allen, with a large wis- 
dom which is habitual to him, tells the story at 
such times without provocative comments. In- 
deed, there are pages where the reader is dis- 
posed to inject a little human temper between 
the mild benignant lines. 

It will be a pity if the younger clergy — the 
young men, indeed, of every calling — fail to 
note the lesson of Phillips Brooks's systematic 
and orderly industry. If ever man might trust 
to slight preparation, it was he. His mind 
worked at lightning speed. Lucid utterance 
seemed instinctive with him, and logical ar- 
rangement. Thoughts never tumbled forth 
from his mind like apples from a barrel or 
jackstraws from a box. They fell in place. 
From a seminal thought sprang with the ra* 
pidity of East Indian juggling the stem, 
branches, and terminal twigs of a shapely tree. 

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[March 1, 

each leaflet and each rootlet where the laws of 
tree life require that they should be. I once 
saw PhiUips Brooks compelled to exercise on 
the instant his faculty of quick choice and in- 
stantaneous mastery of a theme. Before a 
large audience he was suddenly called to his 
feet after a definite promise that he should not 
be. Only on that assurance had he consented 
to be present. Unfortunately the promise had 
come from a venerable presiding officer, and 
the call, peremptory and irresistible, issued 
from a tumultuous throng of young men. As 
the cries for ** Brooks, Brooks ! " rang out, I 
saw his face darken, his eyes seemed to look 
inward for one swift instant, his whole frame 
quivered and his whole being gathered from 
all sides its forces to concentrate them upon an 
intense process of thought. Then he rose, 
drew up that grand form of his to its full 
height, and as quietly as if the scene had been 
rehearsed beforehand seemed to distribute his 
ideas each into its fitting place and began an 
address as logical in order, as substantial in 
matter, and as choice in phrase as if he had 
given hours instead of seconds to its prepara- 
tion. With such electric facility, such gift of 
instantaneous summoning up the forces of the 
brain, most men would have felt diligent and 
laborious preparation for them needless. Phil- 
lips Brooks never trusted to his genius until 
humbler powers had done their part He held 
it in reserve to fuse into a glowing whole what 
diligent study and thought jiad accumulated. 
He was as careful and methodical as if he had 
been dull and undisciplined. His study-table 
was never ^* snowed under." It was as neat as 
a lady's dressing table, as a precise bookkeep- 
er's desk. Its orderliness was typical. 

Dr. Allen very discriminatingly notes the 
autobiographical character of Bishop Brooks's 
sermons and lectures ; how he confided to the 
great popular heart what he would withhold 
from close personal friendship. What he saw 
in himself, with the inward eye which is the 
bliss of solitude, he revealed as if it belonged 
to all mankind. He was not unaware of his 
own genius. He knew well enough his relative 
place among men. But he perpetually lost 
sight of it. He was a somewhat stern judge of 
his brethren in the ministry if they fell below 
his ideal of what a minister should be. So 
easily was he all he was, that he forgot that to 
lag very far behind him might sorely hurry 
the pace of those less gifted. So as he gave 
glimpses of the history of his soul it seemed to 
htm that he was only portraying the common 

processes through which his fellows went, and 
he made it seem to them as if they had already 
trod where he was leading them. Thus his 
noblest sermons, so far from dismaying his 
brethren with the thought of their incomparable 
power, were to many among them but an inspi- 

Justly has Dr. Allen emphasised Phillips 
Brooks's relation to his own church and to the 
Christian world beyond it. So much was he 
at last ** the Bishop of Massachusetts " to mul- 
titudes who regarded Episcopacy askance, to 
whom his orthodoxy was incomprehensible and 
his churohmanship a curious and unaccountable 
accident, that men of his own flock and creed 
were not unnaturally disposed to question his 
fealty to his own flag and to ask. Can this 
man be quite loyal to the Church of the Prayer 
Book, who is the accepted leader of unliturg^cal 
Christendom? If they will read his little 
tractate on *^ Tolerance" they will be better 
able to understand him. His attitude toward 
his own communion and that of others may be 
well illustrated in words of Daudet quoted by 
Ben^ Dourmic. . 

** Truly I belong to my own l>oat and I love it, but 
all those others setting sail or entering port are as dear 
to me as my own. I signal them, I hail them, I try to 
hold oommnnication with them, for all of us, whether 
leaders or followers, are threatened by the same dan- 
gers; for all our barks the currents are strong, the 
winds treacherous, and the night comes down so fast.** 

Ah, too fast that night came down, it well 
may seem, on one so well loved and trusted, 
who bore so dear a light and shone so far. 
The world was indeed indefinitely the poorer 
by his departure as it had been indefinitely 
richer for hi^ sojourn. But for him it was well 
to go. He had done his work. He had sown 
seed of which coming generations will reap the 
harvest. He enjoyed life, — few men more 
keenly. Speaking of one who lingered a little 
late upon the stage, he wrote, *^ One would not 
like to stay quite as long as he has, but, with 
the world such as it is, there is great tempta- 
tion to linger at the feast." ^^ Such as it is," 
the world of men and things was very dear to 
him. It was far from a perfect world, bat 
there was much in it richly to enjoy. His 
Father spread a generous table and he could 
tarry the Lord's leisure about the board. But 
when he heard that Agassiz was gone in hia 
*« fresh, joyous, simple " prime, he thought of 
him as «^ falling without decay and setting 
without twilight." And when Sumner a few 
months later fell, his mood was akin to that of 
Huxley when he said of a friend who had 

Digitized by 





M vanished in the middle of an unfinished ait- 
iele," ** after all, that is the way to die, better 
a thousand times than drivelling off in a fatu- 
ous old age." With Phillips Brooks we might 
have looked for a long autumn of ripening and 
golden days, but God saw otherwise. The 
grand frame crumbled before one touch of de- 
cay had fallen on the splendid intellect, the 
commanding will, the warm throbbing heart. 
So beet. The sun went down unquenched. In 
some memories will long linger a tender after- 
glow. The world will go on and seem to for- 
get Phillips Brooks. His matchless eloquence 
will be but a tradition. His thoughts will 
pass into the common fund, be but an element 
in the air that coming generations breathe. 
But his spirit will not die. His work will last 
in a purer earth and a more open and visible 
Heaven. c. A. L. Richabds. 


From time immemorial the weaving of car- 
pets and rugs has been the chief manufacturing 
industry pursued by the peoples inhabiting a 
large part of southwestern Asia. The fabrics 
produced by these peoples have always been 
highly prisbad both for their serviceable quality 
and as works of art. Few products of human 
skill have equalled the best of them in beauty 
of coloring. Choice specimens are eagerly 
sought after anc^ treasureid by collectors ; lovers 
of them are coimted by thousands, for what 
person of taste iu insensible to their charm? 

Hitherto, accurate information about the 
different makes itnd makers has been well-nigh 
inaccessible. 7Jhe principal source of knowl- 
edge has been the statements of native dealers, 
diemselves not always well informed, nor free 
from the proverbial unreliability of their kind. 
Of books upon the subject there have been 
none ^ave a few costly publications such as 
Vincent Bobinson's *^ Eastern Carpets" ; and 
the sumptuous ** Teppicherzeugung im Orient " 
is'^aed in 1892 by the Imperial and Boyal 
Austrian Commercial Museum, Vienna, com- 
prising five ^^ elephant " folio volumes of litho- 
graphic illustrations of some of the rarest and 
most beautiful rugs and carpets owned by 
European collectors and by the Museum. 
Copies of these books are seldom to be found 
even upon the shelves of the great libraries. 
Instead of serving the purpose for which they 

' *OasmmvAL'B,vaB» By John Kimbezly Mnmlord. lUu^ 
txatMl. New York : Gharlet Soribim's Sons. 

were intended they have been bought for the 
most part by mercantile houses who have uti- 
lized the designs for reproduction in modern 

Mr. John Kimberly Mumford's recent book 
on ^* Oriental Bugs " finds, therefore, practic- 
ally a vacant field, and will be welcomed by 
all who are interested in the topic of which it 
treats. The author has performed his task 
with intelligence and painstaking thoroughness, 
and has accomplished the rare feat of writing 
an entertaining book on a technical subject. 
The history of the art, the rug-weaving peoples, 
the materials, dyers and dyes, method of 
weaving, the designs, and the classifications 
by localities and kinds, are severally dealt 
with in detail and the essential facts set forth 
in a manner which is a model of clearness. 
As an example of Mr. Mumford's style, and 
for its own sake as a graphic presentation of 
the picturesqueness of life in the East, his 
remarks about the dyers are worthy of being 
quoted at some length. He says : 

« This pre6mtnenee in dye-working carries with it, 
in Oriental countries, a dignity almost akin to that of 
priesthood. As a tree is known by its fruits, the dyer 
has place among his fellows by his hues. In proportion 
as the color he excels in is valued in popular judgment, 
the dye-master is honored in his town; and even if 
there were a lotion which could obliterate from dress 
and cuticle the traces of his trade, he would scorn to 
use it. His color is the badge of his ancient and hon- 
orable calling, dear to him as the insignia of rank to the 
soldier, or churchly black to the ecclesiastic. He glories 
in being bedaubed, and the shades of his particular 
color, upon hands, feet, and raiment, are earnest of his 
skill. He is a walking sampler of his dyes; the proofs 
of his proficiency are upon him. 

"Traversing a village street in the East, you are 
aware of the dyer from afar oif . Red, green, or purple 
from head to heels, he challenges sight when he is yet 
half a mile distant. There is the pride of a sultan in 
his carriage, and in his soul, it is plain, a chromatic 
joy which religion cannot give. He is a fine bit of 
color against the tame background of the town. In 
baggy knee-nethers and white camisole, his bead all 
swaddled in a mighty turban, and his fat leathern 
pouch for pipe, tobacco, knife, money, and trinkets, 
belted about his middle, he is a type. But add to all 
these his dye, which in many values of the same color 
illumines him, from the crown of his turbaned head to 
the tips of his bare toes, he is a radiant being such as 
Occidental civilization has not known, save upon circus 

•* The mind of this worthy is pervaded by a profound 
and, in a way, justifiable belief that he is the saving 
clause of the whole carpet industry. The mainspring 
of his life is the conviction that he really lends to the 
fabrics of his bailiwick, and of his native land, for that 
matter, all they possess of high esthetic value. In his 
own view, he is the uplif ter of an otherwise slavish and 
meohanicid craft. Through him weaving becomes an 
art, and all the processes from first to last, are merely 

Digitized by 




[March 1, 

ineidenta] to the main affair — his ooloiing of the jams. 
So he dipa and strats his eomplacent life away, and to 
he an a2 boffofi — a djer of reds — is to he one heloYed 
of the Prophet." 

«* Color," as Mr. Mamford happily phrases 
it, ^* is the Orient's secret and its glory." This, 
if not the whole truth, is at least true of that 
part of the Orient where the rug-makers live. 
It is a singular fact that retrogression in per- 
ception of color harmony should be the con- 
comitant of advancement in the scale of civili- 
zation. Yet the works of primitive peoples 
are almost without exception distinguished by 
excellence of coloring ; while among civilized 
peoples the power of producing color combina- 
tions of the highest order is one of the rarest 
of gifts. To a considerable extent the superi- 
ority in this regard of the products of barbaric 
or semi-civilized peoples is due to simpler and 
more artistic methods. As scientific knowledge 
increases, these methods are gradually sup- 
planted by others which lower the cost of pro- 
duction but also cheapen the product and 
substitute mechanical effects for the more 
artistic results of individual handiwork with 
its freedom of selection and variation. Though 
the mechanism of modem printing presses and 
looms is indeed marvellous, the most beautiful 
color-printing the world has yet seen was done 
by Japanese artizans by simply laying sheets 
of paper face downward upon engraved blocks 
inked with a brush, and pressing them by rub- 
bing with a pad held in the hand ; and some 
of the loveliest fabrics ever produced were 
wrought by Oriental weavers upon looms con- 
sisting of little more than two upright beams, 
— ^^mere trunks of trees roughly trimmed, 
with the shanks of the lopped-off branches left 
to support the rollers." The past tense is used 
advisedly in this connection, for though the 
rug industry, under the stimulus of foreign 
orders, flourishes as never before, and the rug- 
weaving peoples imbued with the inertia of the 
Orient, continue to live as lived their fore- 
fathers before them for many generations, 
nevertheless they have succumbed to the in- 
roads of modern commercialism and have fallen 
victims to the seductive cheapness of analine 
dyes. Fortunately, however, there is at least 
a chance of stemming the tide before it is too 
late. In some of the rug-weaving districts 
there appears to be a growing appreciation, 
which it is to be hoped may continue and in- 
crease, that the adoption of European designs 
and the use of foreign dyes is a fatal error; 
though it must be admitted that so far the at- 

tempts on the part of the Persian and Turkish 
governments to repel the invasion have not 
met with unqualified success. Here at least is 
a real instance of the banal infinence of the 
** money power." 

The illustrations in Mr. Mumford*s book 
are altogether admirable. The only cause for 
regret is that they could not have been extended 
to include reproductions of all, or nearly all, 
of the typical patterns in use, even though it 
were necessary to resort to a cheaper and less 
satisfactory process for the additional cuts. 
This would have made the book of greater 
value to .students. There are sixteen color 
plates by the new photochrome process, whidi 
reproduce in a really marvelous manner the 
color, texture, and quality of the old rugs se- 
lected for illustration. Other plates in mono- 
chrome reproduce typical rug designs, and 
there are several interesting half-tone plates 
from photographs taken by tLe author showing 
scenes in the rug-making districts. 

Frederick W. Gookin. 


Indiana is a State about which it is possible 
to hold very divergent opinions. In the matter 
of general literary standing, it has, among its 
sister States, certainly no enviable reputation ; 
within its own borders, the rather resentful 
attitude toward the foreign opinion emphasizes 
unduly the importance of what the State has 
actually achieved. As might be guessed, 
neither opinion is exactly right : Indiana de- 
serves more credit than she has been given by 
outsiders ; and it will be some time before her 
merits will justify her own present estimate. 
This sort of comment might be made of any 
State that has literary aspirations ; but because 
the very fact that Indiana has literary aspira- 
tions seems droll to the outside world, the com- 
ment or truism is especially in point. Nettled 
by the persistent charge of illiteracy, and hav* 
ing anyway a real liking for literary things, 
the Indianian (Hoosier he calls himself, but 
does not like others to call him so) has set 
himself to the cultivation of literature, and has, 
despite sneers and sarcasms, accomplished 
things that are distinctly worth while. Of 

•Thb H0O8IBB8. By Meredith Nicholson. "NatioMd 
Studies in Ameriean Letteis." New York : The UaomillaaCo. 

P0BT8 AND PoBTRT OF Ikbiana. A RepreseBtattve Coir 
lection of the Poetry of Indiana, 1800 to 1900. Gominled and 
Edited by Benjamin S. Parker and Bnos B. Heiiiey. New 
York : Silver, Bmdett A Go. 

Digitized by 

Google I 




what the State has done ia print, Indiana has 
most emphatically no cause to be ashamed. 
She does, indeed, estimate this production far 
too charitably, but she will arrive at a critical 
apprehension of her actual literary value, 
probably, before the scoffers have done 
with their uncritical sco£Bng. In the mean- 
time, the two books before us, Mr. Nicholson's 
study of letters in Indiana and Mr. Parker's 
selections from Indiana poets, will do a good 
deal toward tempering the extreme views re- 
ferred to. 

Mr. Nicholson's book is a self-restrained, 
conscientious effort to set forth the facts in the 
case. The writer traces the growth of the in- 
tellectual life within the State, from its terri- 
torial beginnings to the present day; the 
varying make-up of its population ; the indi- 
vidual marks of its most characteristic institu- 
tions and towns : in short, he soberly essays a 
chapter in American cultur-geachichte^ dealing 
with the State whose life he knows from within. 
The resalt is an excellent piece of work. The 
chapter on New Harmony (that most interesting 
and charming of Indiana towns), — narrating 
at length the fortunes of a community that 
from the early Rappite days has always kept 
its face toward the light, — must have more 
than local interest. The brief essays, in part 
biographical, in part critical, on Eggleston, 
Wallace, Siley, Thompson, and others, send 
one with an awakened interest to the pages of 
the other volume under review. And yet it 
mast be said of Mr. Nicholson's book, that it 
does not prove its case. It shows beyond cavil 
that things intellectual happen in Indiana as 
weU as elsewhere ; but when all is said, it leaves 
the reader with the feeling that something he 
did not know much about has been made clear, 
rather than that here is something new and 
preeminently worth knowing. 

The second book, the volume of selections, 
has been well managed by its editors. Their 
aim was to show fairly what Indiana has done 
in poetry in a century. No fewer than one 
hundred and forty-six names are on the list of 
writers. A book of one-tenth as many poets, 
with ten times as much from each one as is 
here allowed, would have been a book of far 
better literary quality, but it would have been 
correspondingly less representative. One turns 
the pages respectfully. Here is no revelation 
of new poetic power, but many a verse that 
one is .glad to read, and many more that will 
not attract a second time. The best things 
are already well-known ; the hitherto unknown 

rarely have the unmistakable note of passion 
or of charm. But if they fail to make the 
final appeal, they nevertheless are, as a rule, 
dignified and sincere. They show that Indiana 
has an absolute craving to express itself in lit- 
erary form, and this means that the State has 
encouraged, and will encourage, literature. 
But there 'is too much rushing into print. The 
craving to express oneself is not the same as 
the need to express oneself, and this means 
that much of the Indiana poetry is uncon- 
sciously imitative, and therefore expresses no 
genuine message. That in the three hundred 
or more poems which make up the volume 
there should be so comparatively little that is 
futile speaks highly for the good taste of Mr. 
Parker and his associate. 

Indiana's real contribution to literature is 
Mr. Biley, — a true poet, if I may arrogate 
the right to judge. Of the rest of the choir, 
one notes here and there a genuinely poetic 
voice : of the men, Maurice Thompson, whose 
lamented death has ' been but recently an- 
nounced ; of the women. Miss Evaleen Stein ; 
perhaps half a dozen besides. The many others 
who sing have their reward in singing, and in 
knowing that they have greatly helped to clear 
their commonwealth of an oft-repeated charge* 
The ^' Hoosier literary zeal " is an honest im- 
pulse that no American State may live without. 

Mabtin W. Sampson. 

Novel Views of Nervous Functions.* 

Professor Loeb's manual to which he gives 
the title, ^^ Comparative Physiology of the Brain 
and Comparative Psychology," is not at all a 
compendium devoted to a survey of accepted 
facts and principles in regard to the way in 
which the nervous system performs its func- 
tions, but is an original contribution to the 
fundamental conceptions of what a nervous 
system is and does. 

The work is indeed radical in its tendencies 
and calls into question certain generally ac- 
cepted and basal notions. An elaborate and 
ingenious series of experiments upon the lower 
forms of animal life leads the author to the 
conclusion that the responses which these or- 
ganisms make are essentially physico-chemical 
in their nature; ^Mife-phenomena are deter- 

*CoMPARATivs Phtsiology OF THB Braik, and Com- 
pamtiye Psychology. By Jaeqaes Loeb, M.D. 
Series." New York : G. P. Patoam's Sons. 

Digitized by 




[March 1, 

mined by physical and chemical conditions 
which are outside the realm of histology." In 
accordance with this view, the function of the 
central nervous system is considerably lowered ; 
instead of the currently accepted conception 
of a oentralizing and coordinating power, i^ is 
maintained that ^^ the central nervous system 
does not control response to stii&ulation "; 
^*' the assumption of special centres of coordi- 
nation is superfluous"; the nervous system 
simply acts as a more speedy means of con- 
ducting the impressions, and the nervous sys- 
tem consists of a series of segmental reflexes 
each capable of going through a certain me- 
chanical activity. The essential intellectual 
function is associative memory, and it is in the 
complexity and variety of development of this 
function that comparative psychology finds its 

*^ Accordingly we do not raise and discuss the ques- 
tion as to whether or not animals possess intelligence, 
but we consider it our aim to work out the dynamics 
of the processes of association, and find out the physical 
or chemical conditions which determine the variations 
in the capacity of memory in the various organisms." 

The views thus set forth by Professor Loeb 
are far-reaching in their consequences and 
seem certain to play an important rble in 
biological controversy for the immediate 
future. They particularly antagonize the doc- 
trines of the localization of functions in the 
brain, and for the moment seem to favor the 
position of the uniform value of brain areas, — 
a doctrine in vogue before the ^^localizationists" 
came forward with their brilliant experiments. 
It may be, however, that a reinterpretation of 
these experiments, and a bringing into harmony 
of many puzzling exceptions, may result from 
the changed mode of approach to these prob- 
lems advocated by Professor Loeb. 

In the discussion of the inheritance of ac- 
quired characteristics (and the mechanism of 
all heredity, according to Loeb, must be found 
again in chemical qualities) we have an ex- 
ample of how quickly a view that at first sight 
seems to run counter to current facts and beliefs 
soon comes into good standing and gathers to 
its support au astonishing array of apparently 
unobserved facts. Possibly the same fate 
awaits these well-stated and clearly developed 
views ; and no student of this most interesting 
phase of the problems of life can afford to re- 
main in ignorance of the wide range of facts, 
and the suggestive series of interpretations 
which Professor Loeb has brought together in 
this volume. Joseph Jastrow. 

Becei^t Pobtbt.* 

The perfect typography of the MerrymonnI 
Press, which fittingly enshrines Mr. Arthur Sher* 
barne Hardy's *< Songs of Two," is not more ex- 
qaisite than the verses themselves, with their 
unfailing grace and their crystalline parity of die* 
tion. Mr. Hardy is an infrequent seeker of print, 
for he has the artistie conscience as few possess it, 
and we know that when his name does adorn a 
title-page, what follows will be noteworthy. This 
sheaf of a score of lyrics, aceompanied by a dozen 
miscellaneous pieces, embodies an utteranee of the 
rarest grace and the most absolute sineerity. Here 
is one of the score of *' Songs of Two." 

** We thoogrht when LoTe at last should oome. 

The rose would lose its thorn, 
And eTerjr lip but Joy's be dumb 

When Loye, sweet Loye, was bom; 
That neyer tears should start to rise, 

Ko night o'ertake our mom. 
Nor any guest of grief surprise. 

When Loye, sweet Love, was bom. 

^* And when he eame, O Heart of mine I 

And stood within our door, 
Ko joy our dreaming could divine 

Was missing from his store. 
The thorns shall wound our hearts again. 

But not the fear of yore. 
For all the guests of grief and pain 

Shall serve him everaaore.*' 

*SoNOS OF Two. By Arthur Sherburne Hardy. New 
York: Charles Soribner's Sons. 

Thr Fiblds of Dawn, and Later Sonnets. By Lloyd 
Mifflin. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin A Go. 

To Barbara, with Other Verses. By David Stair Jordan. 
Palo Alto, Cal. : Privately Printed. 

Thb Sphikx, and Other Poems. By W. H. Hudson. San 
Franoisoo : Elder A Shepard. 

loTiiS OF £l DoiiADO. By Charles Keeler. San Fran- 
oisoo: A. M. Robertson. 

Jaoikta, a Caufobnian Idtll, and Other Verses. By 
Howard V. Sutheriand. New York : Dozey's. 

PiOTOBXS Cabmika. By Frederic Crowninshield. New 
York: Dodd, Mead A Co. 

In SoiPio's Gabdbns, and Other Poems. By Samuel 
Valentine Cole. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

POBXS. By Alexander Blair Thaw. New York: John 

The Lute and Lays. By Charles Stuart Welles,' M.D. 
New York : The MaomilUn Co. 

Ltbical Vionbttbb. By F. V. N. Painter. Chieaeo: 
Sibley A Duoker. 

On Life's Staibway. By Frederio Lawrence Knowles. 
Boston : L. C. Page A Co. 

FoBTUNE AND Men's Etbs. Now Pooms with a Play. 
By Josephine Preston Peabody. Boston : Small, Maynaid 

Aftebolow. Later Poems. By Julia C. R. Dorr. Kew 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Last Sonos fbok Vaoabondia. By Bliss Carman and 
Richard Hovey. Boston : Small, Maynard A Co. 

A Day's Sono. By John Stuart Thomson. Toronto: 
William Briggs. 

CrrHABA Mba. Poems by the Rev. P. A. Sheehan. Boo- 
ton : Marlier, Callanan A Co. 

Translations, and Other Verses. By C. K. Pooler. Now 
York : Longmans, Green, A Co. 

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Among Mr. Haidy's miseellaneons pieeee, the Tarses 
called " Iter Sapiemnm " seem to stand oat above 
the reet by force of their sheer imaginative vision 
and their grave beaaty. 

'^Oh, what a night foz a soul to go t 
The wind a hawk, and the fields in snow ; 
No soreenins: ooTor of leaves in the wood. 
Nor a star abroad the way to show. 

*' Do they part in peaee, soul with its elay ? 
Tenant and landlord, what do they say ? 
Was it sigh of sorrow or of release 
I heard just now as the faoe tamed gray ? 

** What if, aghast on the shoreless main 
Of Eternity, it sought again 
The shelter and rest of the Isle of Time, 
And knocked at the door of its house of pain I 

^^On the tavern hearth the embers glow. 
The laugh is dlMp and the flagons low, 
Bat wtthoat, the wind and the trackless sky 
And night at the gates where a soul would go I " 

The sonnets of Mr. Lloyd Mifflin exhibit a con- 
siderable degree of mastery over the mechanics of 
their verse-form, and asaally have enough of sab- 
stanttal thoagh| and imagination to make them ac- 
ceptoble. The collection entitled " The Fields of 
Dawn and Later Sonnets " indades an even hun- 
dred pieces, which are characterized by even excel- 
lence. Since there is little choice among them, we 
select, almost at random, the following : 

''There is a legend the Algonqains tell 

Of power and splendor of the Great White One ; 
'Die God of Light he is, and of the Sun, 
And in their strange lore hath no parallel. 

He, in the Summer, from his citadel, 
Conaes to the gates of his dominion. 
And throws them open when the day 's began. 
And shats them in the CTcning. But a spell 

Saps his puissance when the Autumn base 
Spreads its dim-shimmering silver on the rills ; 
Then to the mountain-tope he slowly wends 
^ And, idly drowsing on the dreamy hills, 

PaflEs at his pipe, and as the smoke descends. 
Behold oar mellow Indian Summer days t " 

The sequence of nearly fifty sonnets from which 
this is taken sings very effectively of the procession 
of the seasons in Southern Pennsylvania, as reflected 
in the youthful consciousness of the poet during a 
single year. 

The modest collection of verses written during 
the past ten or twelve years by President David 
Starr Jordan shows that the more tender and fan- 
ciful sidee of a man's nature need undergo no 
atrophy froai the most strenuous pursuit of severe 
intelleeiiud ideals. These verses reveal an aspect 
of their author that may be strange to those who 
think of hiai in his public character — who think 
of him as the energetic educational administrator, 
the strong toiler in the difficult fields of science, 
the uncompromising upholder of the principles of 
political morality — but they are no surprise to his 
friends, and it is to his friends that they are ad- 
dressed. The opening lines ^* To Barbara " are too 
intimate for discussion, and in view of the writer's 
reeent berearement, too sacred for anything more 

explicit than this veiled comment. Let us quote 
rather from the graceful song of <* Viv^rols." 

** Beyond the sea, I know not where. 

There is a town ealled ViT^rols ; 
I know not if 't is near or far, 
I know not what its features are, 

I only know 'tis ViT^rols.. 

"I only know, should thou and I 

Through its old walls of orumbling 

Together wander all alone. 
No spot on earth oould be more fair 

Than iyy-ooTored ViT^rols I 
No grass be greener anywhere, 
No bluer sky nor softer air 

Than we should find in VIt^coIs. 

^* Lots, we may wander far or near; 

The sun shines bright o'er ViT^rols ; 
Green is the grass, the skies are clear. 
No clouds obscure our pathway, dear ; 

Where love is, there Is ViT^rols, — 

There is no other ViT^rc^." 

Thus Dr. Jordan strikes the. note of sentiment ; 
but a deeper note is struck when his mind contem- 
plates the grave problems of man's destiny. 

** When man shall come to manhood's destiny. 

When our slow-toddling race shall be full grown. 
Deep in each human heart a chamber lone 

Of Holies Holiest shall builded be ; 

And each man for himself shall hold the key. 
Each there must kindle his own altar fires. 
Each bum an offering of his own desires, ^ 

And each at kst his own High Priest must be." 

Here is the expression of a faith that can contem- 
plate undismayed the breaking down of beliefs that 
have had their day, and can find a firm refuge in 
ideals far nobler than were ever revealed to souls 
in the bondage of superstition. 

Another little book of verse from the far West — 
the work of one of Dr. Jordan's associates — is 
taken up with the same deep matters, but reveals a 
mind still restless from the onslaughts of science 
upon superstition, and uncertain concerning the 
ultimate goodness of the soul of things. 

*' Says Science : * Lo, I lift the yeU. Behold I ' 
But when we turn, with eyes that almost fail. 
Before the Face in darkness from of old 
Shrouded, there hangs a yet uulifted Tcil." 

Thus discourses Mr. William Henry Hudson in 
<< The Sphinx and Other Poems." He has no clear 
vision of what may be beyond that other unlifted 
veil. But what the intelligence fails to discern 
seems sometimes to be foreshadowed in dreams. 

"Was it a dream? — I know not. This I know— 
The memory of that evening long ago. 
Though oftentimes I yet haye sought in yain 
To catch that wind-borne melody again. 

Has lingered in my life, a sacred part 
Of all my deepest being ; for to me. 
With some strange hint of some strange mystery. 

That murmur brought a solace for the heart. 
An inward sense that eTcrything was well, 
A touch of peace, of which no words can tell I " 

But the old doubt recurs, and the waking hour dis- 
credits the vision seen in sleep. The author's mood 
is that of the *< Pathetic" symphony of Tschai- 

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kowsky ; it is the mood of Arnold rather than that 
of Tennyson. Let us once more contrast it with 
that of Dr. Jordan, as expressed in << The Babbles 
of Saki." 

** I do rejoioe that when * of me and thee ' 
Men talk no longer, yet not leas hut more 
The Eternal Saki still that bowl shall fill, 
And eyer stronger, fairer babbles ponr. 

" A humble note in the Eternal Song, 

The Perfect Singer hath made place for me. 
And not one atom in Earth's wondrous throng 
But shall be needful to Infinity.*' 

This is the effective major resolotion of the minor 
harmonies of the other poet. 

Mr. Charles Eeeler's << Idyls of El Dorado " are 
Californian lays and legends, pictaresque in their 
portrayal of the Pacific coast in its physical aspects^ 
and reflecting the free expansive spirit of its in- 
habitants. As a bit of local coloring, these Mon- 
terey stanzas are effective : 

** The sea throbs faintly at my feet. 
Amid the rocks it swashes low. 
In pale green sweeps 
And purple deeps 
It undulates with tireless beat. 
It pulses in unending flow. 

*' All green and brown the seaweed clings 
To pallid rocks, waye-wom and grim ; 
The mountains rise 
To misty skies. 
The wind amid the cypress sings 
And sea-birds wander dark and dim." 

Bat the writer is not content with the natural 
beauty of the land which is his home, and his vision 
foresees the added beauty of art in some future day. 

'* Beauty shall here hold court upon the heights 
And men shall fashion temples for her shrine. 
With chantings high of praise and starward flights 
Of silver chords and organ's throb divine. 

** The sculptor here shall hew the formless stone 

To shapes of beauty dreamed on cloud-throned crest, 
The painter shall reveal what he alone 
Saw as he brooded on th' earth-mother's breast." 

All this may well be. Meanwhile, we note with 
more satisfaction than all this prophecy the fact 
that the writer's voice is raised in indignant protest 
agfunst the madness, springing from the lust of 
foreign conquest, that has of late made a mock of 
all our political ideals, and that has infected the 
Pacific Coast more fatally than any other section 
of the country. It is from Alaska that a text is 
taken for the following fine stanza : 

** We who have failed to rule a wilderness 
Now preach of liberty in tropic seas ; 
Forsooth our sway the Orient hordes shall bless 
While politicians trim to every breeze, — 
O Qod, must our dear sons be slain, such men to please f " 

Still another Californian volume is Mr. Howard 
Y. Sutherland's "Jacinta." It is a very small 
volume, and the narrative poem which serves it for 
a title makes up the greater part of the contents. 
A simplicity and a sentimentality that seem to be 
alike luffected are the characteristics of this versified 
tale. Instead of quoting from it, we prefer to 

select one of Mr. Sutherland's miscellaneous pieces, 
and it shall be this «« Prayer for a Man's Passing.'^ 

** Let me not pass till eve. 

Till that day's fight is done ; 
What soldier cares to leave 

The field until it's won I 
And I have loved my work and fain 
Would be deemed worthy of the ranks agam. 

" Let twilight come, then night. 

And when the flnt birds sing 
Their matin songs, and light 

Wakens each slumbering thing. 
Let Someone waken me, and set 
My feet to steps that lead me upward yet." 

Mr. Frederic Crowninshield has written a cen- 
tury of sonnets, and appended to them a few short 
pieces in other lyrical forms, all for the purpose 
of illustrating the thesis that painters have emotions 
peculiar to their own special art, and that they 
alone can give them adequate verbal expression. 
" Pictoris Carmina " is the title of this volume of 
verse, which does not mean that all of its contents 
are poems for pictures, although a series of eight 
illustrations to some extent bear out this suggestion. 
These poems exhibit refinement and the culture 
that comes from wide reading and journeying; 
they also display considerable technical ability. 
That they are far from faultless in this respect 
may be illustrated by such a line as the second of 
these two : 

** We of the East, who you but yester bore, 

Were aliens, and variations facial show." 
Another illustration is this opening of the sonnet 
*< To Science ": 

** In the world's race, O Science, yon sore strain 

Our credence with the miracles that bring 

Cheat gain — perchance not bliss." 
Mr. Crowninshield's diction is not essentially poet- 
ical, and it is the thinker rather than the singer 
whose voice speaks from these pages. There are 
too many words not yet mellowed to poetic usesy 
too many startling and cacophonous collocations, 
and the poet's hand is clearly not subdued to the 
material in which it works. Tet there are frequent 
phrases that arrest the attention by their viyid 
presentation of truth, and a certain not easily de- 
finable pleasure may be derived from these etiff- 
jointed measures. To exhibit the writer at his 
best, we will select the sonnet called *< Decadence.'* 

'' When fields are green with aftermath of Fall, 
When trees parade in rich vermillioned dress. 
Wan exhalations from the vales possess 
The full, ripe forms of Earth, and cast a pall 

Impalliding o'er mellowed hues. Withal 
Not charmless — but the charm that doth impreaa 
Pale fever on some deep-eyed shepherdess 
Near Rome, who croons her morbid madrigal. 

Yet when the waxing sun with lusty rays 
Bums into nothingness the vapors wlute. 
And bares the splendid view of mount and lea. 

Then gladsome Nature chants his ringing praise. 
O, Life, consume the pale malarious blight 
That hangs o'er Art, and give us Sanity I " 

<< Withal not charmless " — this is the final verdict 
upon Mr. Crowninshield's labored but interesting 

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The poems of Mr. Samael YaleDtine Cole open 
with a group of pieces inspired by classical asso- 
cialionsy with a tribate to Lncretios, whose 

" Voiee goes nagiiig through the world. 
And in it the trath-eeeking soul of man," 

a tribate to Virgil, who 

'*In the interval between 
Gbeat Homer end the glorioos Florentine, 
Bnilded his dream of mingled fate and faith, 
Now swaTing toward the dreary pagan doubt. 
Now, by prophetio yimon a mere ohanee, 
Toward the dear Hope lo soon to light the world.*' 

These poems suggest the Tennysonian manner, and 
suggestion becomes somewhat too obviously imita- 
tion in the poems that follow. In << The Song of 
Silenus," for example, we read that 

**So he aang till on the water melted eTening'a golden bar. 
Till the fire died on the hilltope, aang nntil the evening star, 

Till we eaw the silent Aroher olimb his senith- winding stair. 
And aeross the northern heayens stream the dark Egypt- 
ian's hair." 

And in ^< The Bses of Aristnns " we find such evi- 
dent Locksleyisms as these : 

**Snmmeia of the stormleas heayen, snmmeis of the windless 
finkmi together by as little of the winter as eonld be ; 

**Pouitains singing in the ooyert or asleep like liquid glass. 
And no poison in the flowers, and no serpent in the grass ; 

** Meads of nnlaborions tillage, seas without the toiling oais ; 
Magio ships of oloud and sunshine dropped all treasures on 
all shores; 

** And no iron-handed terror smiting at the hearts of men ; 
Jnstioe blindfold ruled the people. War lay chained within 
hia den." 

Mr. Cole*s verse discourses of many themes, but 
the Tennysonian strain is ever recurrent, and the 
daasieal interest reappears on almost every other 
page. The verse is always pleasing, smooth-flowing 
in its morement, and kindled with the fire of the 
idealism that never becomes outworn. 

The «< Poems " of Mr. Alexander Blair Thaw are 
admirable in technique and sincere in feeling. 
They are abstract rather than picturesque, and their 
imaginative quality is of the conventional sort. 
This sonnet to the Venus of Melos is a characteristic 

** We dare not hope to reach thy lofty place, 
Nor with dark Fate to be quite reconciled. 
Thy seeming sightless eyes, benignly mild 
Aa of the early gods, or of some race 
Of men almoet diyine, look into space 
Beycmd our mortal yision ; with no wild 
Swift pasaion torn, so hast thou eyer smiled — 
Great loye immortal lighting thy calm face. 

" Bam of the womb of earth, who doth beguile 
Both gods and man to woo her, for all time 
Thou art a thing of worship. Ah, sublime 
Mother of men I We may not reconcile 
The darknees with the dreaming ; yet still we climb 
The starlit heights to win thy sacred smile." 

The aothor of *<The Lute and Lays," in the 
opening poem of his volume, thus discourses of the 
themes he has sought to set to music : 

** I sing of beauty as the birds 
Awake in gladness and rejoice 
That Qod hath giyen each a yoice 
To sing their joy, though not in words. 

** I sing a heart-felt happiness — 
The glad contentment of the soul 
When joy breaks forth beyond control 
And utters more than words express. 

'* How shall I then my gladness hide. 
As down the drift of life I roam ? 
All nature is my boundleis home. 
And loye my only perfect guide. 

" For in loye's light my song takes wing ; 
Her star peryades my uniyerse. 
And all my rhapsodies are hers — 
It u her beauty that I sing.'* 

Mr. Welles fills something like a hundred pages 
with pleasant little verses of this simple type. They 
are full of tender sentiment, but exhibit little 
variety, and call for no detailed comment. 

The "Lyrical Vignettes" of Mr. F. V. N. 
Painter are simple studies in verse, no one of them 
overrunning a single page, and indicative of a very 
modest ambition. 

*'I would with Wordsworth sing in humble lays. 
But true in eyery tone. 
The simple joys and woes that fill our days 
With merriment on 

This is the sort of thing that Mr. Painter gives us, 
commendable in sentiment and commonplace in 

More than once, in his volume entitled " On Life's 
Stairway," Mr. Frederic Lawrence Ejiowles exhorts 
his fellow-poets to riBe to the height of their great 

'^Unrayel all your tangled cheats. 
Your triple-twisted thread conceits, — 
Your subtle sonnets fling afar I — 
Stand up and show what man yon are I 

" O juggler with the fire divine, 
O hoarder of Qod's bread and wine. 
Your dark and doleful sprigs of verse 
Nod like the plumes above a hearse. 

" We want again the note of joy, 
The immortal rapture of the boy. 
The flame lit quenchless in the dust. 
The lips that sing because they must." 

But in spite of such brave words as these, Mr. 
Knowles has contented himself with the " sprigs of 
verse," very pretty sprigs sometimes, as in his 


**0 Rose, climb up to her window 

And in through the essement reach. 
And say what I may not utter. 
In your beautiful silent speech 1 

"She will shake the dew from your petals, 
She will press you close to her lipe. 
She will hold you never so lightly 
In her warm white finger-tips. 

" And then — who can tell ? — She may whisper 
(While the city dreams below), 
* I was dreaming of him when you woke me. 
But, rose, he must never know.' *' 

Miss Josephine Preston Peabody is one of the 
most promising of our younger group of poets, but 

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we cannot say that her second volnme quite renews 
for OS the pleasure given by ^<The Wayfarers." 
The new collection includes one long piece — an 
Elizabethan play — and a number of essentially 
lyrical compositions. Of the play, in which W. S. 
himself has a part, we must say that it is ingenious 
but not couTincing. The other pieces suffer from 
too much of what may be called pale abstraction. 
They are best when they are most simple, as in these 

"Now the roada, hnahed with dark. 

Lead the homeward way, 

What the weede oan say ; 
Woadering in the afterglow, 

Heart V e ae e of the day. 

"One day more, one day i 

Ay, if it were new I 
There the city amoke goea aof t. 

Melting in the hlne ; 
And the highwaya. Text with dnat. 

Heal them in the dew." 

Mrs. Dorr^s ^< Afterglow," in which her later 
poems have been collected, is serene with the soft 
radiance of the just accomplished twilight The 
writer has been a graceful and melodious singer 
through all her years, and her song is still sweet 
and sincere. We may quote the foUowing sonnet 
as expressiye of the spirit that breathes through 
these chastened pages. 

*' Whom the Goda loye die old ! Oh life, dear life. 
Let the old aing thy praiaea, for they know 
How year by year the aummeia oonie and go, 

Eaoh witii ita own abonndiDg aweetneea rifel 

They know, though froeta be omel aa the knife. 
Yet with eaoh Jnne the perfect roae ahall blow. 
And daiaiea bloaaom and the green graaa ^ww* 

Triumphant atill, nnyezed by atorm or atrife. 

They know that night mdre aplendid is than day ; 
That annaet akiea flame in the gathering dark. 
And the deep wateia ehange to molten gold ; 

They know that Antnmn rieher ia than May ; 
They hear the night-birda abging like the lark~ 
Ah life, aweet life, whom the Goda lore die old I" 

The *<Last Songs from Vagabondia" form the 
third booklet in the series which embodies the 
joint activity of Mr. Bliss Carman and the late 
Richard Hoyey. The poems are credited to their 
respectiTe writers, but this precaution is hardly 
necessary with two men whose lyrical styles are so 
widely diverse. There are few pieces in the book 
which a careful critic could not certainly assign to 
its proper authorship without the warrant of any 
formal indication. Richard Hovey's sonnet *< From 
the Cliff " may be taken as a characteristic example 
of his work. 

'* Here on thia ledge, the broad plain atretohed below, . 
The ealm hilla amiling in immortal mirth. 
The bine aky whitening aa it neara the earth. 

Afar where all the anmmita are aglow, 

I feel a mighty wind upon me blow 
Like God'a breath kindling in my aonl a birth 
Of turbulent mnaie etmggling to break girth, 

I paaa with Dante through eternal woe, 
Quiyer with Sappho^a paaaion at my heart. 

See Pindar'a ohariota flaahing paat the goal, 

Triumph o*er aplendoniu of unutterable light 
And know anpremely thia, O God, ~Thon art. 
Feeling in all thia tumult of my aoul 
Grand kinahip with the glory of Thy might." 

One could not find a better description of Richard 
Hovey's talent than the very phrase which speaks 
of ^< turbulent music struggling to break girth." 
His verse always seems to chafe against the limita- 
tions of form, and he recks little for such minor 
verbal infelicities as the use of "grand" in the 
closing line. On the other hand, the more surely 
artistic instinct of Mr. Carman makes the author- 
ship of such a piece as " Marigolds " absolutely un-> 

**The marigolda are nodding ; 

I wonder what they know. 
Gb, liaten yery gently ; 

You may perauade them ao. 

"Go, be their little biother 
Aa humble aa the graaa. 
And lean upon the hill-wind. 
And watoh the ahadowa paaa. 

"Put off the pride of knowledge. 

Put by the fear of pain ; 

You may be oounted worthy 

To liye with them again. 

"Be Darwin in your patienoe. 
Be Chauoer in your lore ; 
They may relent and tell yon 
What they are thinking of.*' 

Even when the note becomes grotesque or didaetie, 
departing widely from the ordinary lyrical gamut, 
the distinctive qualities of the two poets are none 
the less apparent. He would be a dull observer 
who would not be sure to whom to attribute ** The 

" It waa the little leayea beaide the road. 

"6aid Graaa, ' What ia that aound 
So diamally profound. 

That detonatea and deaolatea the ^ ? ' 
' That ia St. Peter'a beU,' 
Said rain-wiae Pimpimel ; 

* He ia muaie to the godly. 
Though to ua he aounda ao oddly. 

And he terrifiea the faithful unto prayer.* 

" Then aomething yei7 like a groan 
Saoaped the naughty little leayea. 

" Said Graaa, ' And whither traok 
Theae or eatu rea all in black. 
So woebegone and penitent and meek ? ' 

* They 're mortab bound for ohurah,* 
Said the little Silver Biioh ; 

* They hope to get to heaven 
And have their aina forgiven. 

If they talk to God about it onoe a week.* 

" And aomething very like a amile 
Ran through the naughty little leavea. 

"Said Graaa, * What ia that noiae 
That atartlea and deatxoya 

Our bleaaed aummer brooding when we 'rs tired f* 
' That 'a folk a-praiaing God,* 
Said the tonghoU eynie Clod ; 

* They do it every Sunday, 
They *U be all right on Monday ; 

It *a juat a little habit they 've aequired.* 

" And^nghter apread among the little leavea.** 

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And the reader would be no less dnll who should 
hesitate for a moment abont the proper ascription 
of the following sonnet. 

" Our Gothie mindfl have gargoyle fancies. Odd, 
Hiat there will oome a day when yon and 1 
Shall not be you and I, that we shall lie 

We two, in the damp earth-mould, aboye each clod 

A drunken headstone in the neglected sod, 
Thereon the phrase. Hie Jacet^ worn awry 
And then our Tirtnes, bah I — and piety, — 

Perhaps some cheeky reference to QodjI 
And haply after many a century. 

Some spectacled old man shall' driye the birds 
A moment from their song in the lonely spot 

And make a copy of the qmunt old words — 
They will then be quaint and old — and all for what ? 

To fill a gap in a genealogy." 

Mr. John Stnart Thomson belongs to the group 
of yoang Canadian singers who have contributed 
so largely to American literature during the past 
score of years, and who haye helped to bring into 
our poetry that penetrative interpretation of natural 
beauty which is one of the most marked character- 
istics of American song. Beviewing an earlier 
Folnme by Mr. Thomson, we said : *< It is remark- 
able how close to the heart of nature these young 
Canadian poets contrive to keep. They have the 
faculty of observation — minute, accurate, and at 
the same time sympathetic — in a degree quite ex- 
traordinary even to-day, and almost unknown in 
English poetry before Tennyson opened our eyes." 
JBeodling this half-forgotten comment, we wish to 
supplement it by noting in « A Day's Song," Mr. 
Thomson's new volume, something of the quality 
of rich sensuoQsness of which Keats had so imperial 
a mastery* Our warrant for this saying shall be 
an extract from the ode which Mr. Thomson, 
greatly daring, has dedicated to " Autumn." 

** Now dreams fall in the TaHeys of the night ; 

The last red poppy stills its ardent breast ; 

No more the morning, with a hand of light, 
Will wake its petals from their dreamy rest ; 

Sighs from each breeze the sad, sweet slumber song ; 

Sleep, like the dew, falls from the BTcning's wings. 
And eTcry Beauty yeils its eyes in tears ; 

What woes to thee belong. 
Most mournful time, thst not a rpbin sings. 

To melt thy heart shut up in friendless fears. 

** Departing glory leaTCS the world forlorn ; 

K^en as the moon, aboTC the Delian shrine 

Forsaken, through these barren fields of com 
A pallid light, a sorrow half divine. 

Falls on the silent moody wilderness ; 

No harrest beUs, laughter of loyen young. 
No music of the ringing scythe, is heard ; 

Almoet a god's distress 
Haags o'er these yalleys, where of eld was sung 

The fluted joyanoe of a summer*s bird." 

The glorious poem from which these two stanzas 
are taken wodd adorn the coronal of a singer of 
high renovrn; it offers renewed evidence of the 
truth expressed hy him who wrote, << The poetry of 
earth is never dead." 

We read «'My New Curate," by the Rev. P. A. 
Sheehan, » few months ago with so mach qaiet 
satbfaetion that the name of the writer became at 

once a passport to fayorable consideration for 
whatever else he might publish, and when a Tolnme 
of verse of the same authorship appeared not long 
since, we anticipated from its reading a genuine 
pleasure. That anticipation has not been disap- 
pointed, for << Cithara Mea " is a collection of pieces 
that stir the deepest emotions, and appeal to the 
most spiritual part of our being. Technically, they 
are very faulty, but they contain so much of the 
substance of true poetry, that we may well pardon 
the occasional redundancies aud cacophonies. As 
befits the writer's calling, these poems are mainly 
religious in their inspiration, and the note is boldly 
sounded in '< The Hidden " and << The Revealed," 
the two pieces which open the volume. Those 
moods of rapture and mystical exaltation which are 
the very essence of religion are not often imparted 
to readers as this verse succeeds in imparting them, 
and the spirituality of the utterance is no more 
striking than is the imaginative splendor of the 
diction when at its best. 

** God's yestnre enrres and floats around His throne. 
As float ensanguined clouds at eventide ; 
His Heayen it thiokly peopled ; yet alone 
In their majestic solitude abide 

'' The Holy Ones. No angel wing hath swept 
The golden dust of all the centuries. 
Or tears the lonely ^ons haye bewept, 
And sunk into the silence of eternities, 

" There where His footstool stretches thro' the cloud ; 
Yet, the vast silences of God are stirred 
By all the pauseless waves that cry aloud 
In anthems that afar are feebly heard, 

** Although the orbM heaven reels and (luakes 
Under the thunders that are ever rolled 
From shrill-voiced spirits o'er the quivering lakes 
Of spaces populous, or of worlds nnsouled." 

More than once, in reading these companion poems 
of doubt and faith in alternation, we have been re- 
minded of the great central poem of the century 
upon this subject — the supreme expression of 
Tennyson's genius. Father Sheehan*8 blank verse 
is sometimes very fine indeed, as in his story of 
<< Sentan the Culdee," the monk who dallied with 
the imaginings of heathen philosophers until his 
faith was on the point of losing its moorings. He 
is ordered, for the saving of his soul, to become a 
hermit, and these are the words of the Abbot who 
pronounces the decree of exile : 

'' Thy bed —the heather, salted by sea-winds ; 
Thy books — the open manuscripts of God ; 
Thy food — whate'er the sea-fowl bring to thee. 
Once and again, thou majrst near approach 
The cells, where dwell the brethren of Ardmor, 
To shrive thee, and receive the Paschal guest. 
But thou shalt shun all interoourse with men, 
And love the silent solitudes of God. 
Perchance in some far off and distant time, 
When thou, through fires of discipline and prayer. 
The dim mists cleansed from thy half-blinded eyes, 
Hast, in the sacred silence of the seas. 
Pondered the dread exorbitance of God : 
Thou mayest go forth to see the blinding face 
Of Him, to whom the stars are blackened slags. 
And angels' faces blurred and stained with sin." 

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Sach Terse as this is rare enough in oar modem 
timoy as rare, perhaps, as the lost faith bemoaned 
by the poet, when he sings of 

" Theae leaden days, from which the ran 
Of God*8 sweet Face hath yaniBhed into night. 
And in the depthe His Toice hath died away." 
Although religious inspiration gives the breath of 
life to Father Sheehan's Tolame, there are occasional 
pieces of lighter strain, such, for example, as the 
lyric <^ Cosette,** with its pathetic invocation to the 
spirit of a lost child : 

" Across the gray sands of Dinan, 
Cosette t 
Comeet thou, hird of sea and song, 

Thy hatr-cloud streaming far hehind. 
Vexed hy the teasing, amorous wind, 
Light in thy laughing eyes, and kind, 
Finally, to do anything like adequate justice to 
this volume, we must reproduce this noble sonnet 
upon the <* Mer-de-61ace." 

'' Hither God brought His rebel seas to try 

How high His wrath could lash them, unreiieyed 

By sinking spaces or by lowering sky 
But they, by loftiest altitudes deceiyed. 
Leaped to his lash as if they fain belieyed 

They too could sweep the skies, and there decry 
His mandate when the smoking altars heayed 

And sullen waters left the hill-tops dry. 

** But He, resenting such Titanic pride, 

Transfixed them in columnar ice and stone. 
Leaving vast valleys in their solitude. 
There till the scythes of the last laya-tide 
Shall level all things, all .proud things dethrone. 
The spirits of those Stylites dream and brood.'* 

Here is splendor of imagination and to spare. There 
is not a poet living who might not be proud to 
have written this sonnet. 

It is not often that one thin volume displays the 
versatility of Mr. C. K. Pooler's '* Translations and 
Other Verses." Taking the contents in order, we 
find (1) some graceful translations from the Latin, 
ranging all the way from Catullus to Landor, (2) 
a section of pieces, mostly lyrical, in convention^ 
forms, (3) a few ballads in Ulster dialect, combining 
humor with pathos, and both genuine, (4) some 
excellent fooling in the form of parodies on Brown- 
ing, Mr. Kipling, Mr. Swinburne, Morris, Burton 
(of the " Anatomy "), and Bacon (of the «< Essays "), 
and (5) an appendix of neatly-turned Latin verses. 
Three of these sections we leave to be read by title, 
reserving our quotation space for a specimen each 
of the lyric and the parody* Our lyric shall be 
«< The Evening Campion." 

** Thy form will lure no maiden's eye. 

White flower that flowerest free, 
Nor here will flaunt the butterfly, 

Nor hither stoop the bee. 
And faintest airs of the blue sky 

Unsweetened float by thee. 

** Yet lips unknown to morning's light 
Drink here beneath the moon ; 
Scarce mark our eyes the glimmering flight. 

Scarce heed our ears the tune 
Of softer winglets of the night 
Than any wings of noon." 

And our parody shall be an excerpt from ^ Satamis 
Begna," after whom we need not specify. 

'* But too long hath the gold of the merchant been Icdksd 

from the heart of greed. 
Too long hath the haryest whitened for the hand that giTS 

the seed; 
Too long is the palace mosaic and its light of starry Ismps 
Blind to the Cadger and dumb to the honest shuffle of 

And the harp of the Singer of Sigurd wreathed green witk 

the bay-leaves' due 
To ' After the Ball,' and ' Daa«y,' and * Linger Longer Loo,' 
But O, for the Sun that we see not, and the Hoon whertof 

none knows, 
Save the Year of the Flowering Yule-tide, and the Field 

of the Thomless Rose, 
Where the Pen shall be as the Shovel, and the Nightshall 

be as the Day, 
And the Greed of the Heart shall perish and its Lo^m 

pass away; 
Where the lute diall be dumb and the viol, and dumb is 

the happy years 
The music cradled of sorrow, the song that blossomi for 

Thither when comes the Spoiler, what need of a BattU 

Where each hath lees than a little, and little, beUke, haye 

Should he tarry for nought who hath nothing? Nay, hard 

over holt and heath 
He will hie as the Dog to his kennel with all that u his ia 

his teeth. 
So all that is ours shall be all nien*s>-ihe heart and the 

hand and the brain. 
When oyer the ghoet of a nation shall the risen Balder 


This is fooling, no doubt, but it is more than that, 
and we are glad that the socialist is met with his 
own weapons, and shown how effective they may 
prove in hostile hands. 

WnJiiAM MoBTOH Paykb. 

Briefs o n Kkw Books. 

Tk« origin 0°^ ®^ ^^ ^^^ accounts of the origin 

and deveiapmeiu and development of the alphabet is 
nftheaipkabeL ^^^ Edward Clodd's recent contri- 
bution to the «' Library of Useful Stories " (Apple- 
ton), entitled «< The Story of the Alphabet." In a 
volume of two hundred pages, including ninety 
illustrations, he contrives to tell with surprising 
fullness the history of the leading alphabets of the 
world. If any justification of the book were needed, 
Mr. Clodd's, as g^ven in his preface, would suffice: 
that it fills a gap in discussing with comparative 
fullness <* those primitive stages of the art of 
writing, knowledge of which is essential for traong 
the development of the art, so that its place in the 
general evolution of human inventions is mads 
clear "; and in stating the evidence furnished by 
the discoveries of Professor Flinders Petrie in 
Egypt (a summary of which is found in the ^* Jour^ 
nid of the Anthropological Institute," xzix. 204- 
206, 1899) and Mr. Arthur J. Evans in Crete, no 
reference to these discoveries occurring in the 1899 
reprint of Canon Taylor's book. It is interesting 
to note that whereas the first edition of Taylor 

Digitized by 





(1883) dispcMed of the Cretan alpbabet in a foot- 
note of two lines (ii. 64), Clodd has found it neeee- 
iary to devote ^irty-six pages to *<The Cretan 
and Allied Scripts." His able summary of Evans's 
<* Cretan Pietographs and Pre-Pbmnieian Script" 
is one of the most interesting parts of the book. 
He draws no conclusion, but declines to accept M. 
de Roughs theory, which Taylor supports, that the 
PhoBoician letters came from the Egyptian hieratic 
writing, preferring to look for a future confirma- 
tion of Evans's theory that ^'the rudiments of the 
Phoenician writing may after all have come in part 
at least from the iBgean side." He differs further 
from Taylor in regard to the Indo-Bactrian alpha- 
bet of the Asoka edicts, with Burnell considering 
it as of Iranian origin, whereas Taylor regards it 
as coming from the Sabean ; and he does not ac* 
cept Taylor's theory of the Greek origin of the 
runee, leaving the problem unsettled. The book is 
marked by catholicity of view and freshness of 
style. Two misprints have been noted: p. 71,1. 13, 
read Taylor; p. 172, 1. 13, Pdasgia. 

AnMmmHtk That a bundle of manuscript origi- 

sma^*M HMiy nally prepared for publication should 
umrwoim. htLve waited seventy-six years before 

finding a publisher may in general be taken as fair 
presonptive evidence that the matter is scarcely 
worth printing. But such is not the case with the 
memoirs, diary, and correspondence of Captain 
John Boothby, of the Royal Engineers, a British 
oflieer of Napoleonic times, which writings are now 
at laet issued, under the title of ** Under England's 
Fla^ " (Macmillan). Captain Boothby was a gal- 
lant soldier, and a pious, cheery soul withal, who 
aaw maeh picturesque adventure and some hard 
fighting under Sir John Stuart and Sir John Moore. 
Ao a raw young subaltern he accompanied Sir 
James Craig on the expedition to Italy and Sicily 
in 1805. In 1808 he went to Sweden with Sir 
John Moore, and in the same year he sailed to join 
that gallant soldier in the Peninsula. The closing 
chapters of the volume narrate Captain Boothby's 
experiences in the Peninsular campaigns, and in- 
dode an aeeount of the Battle of Corunna. The 
style of the book, notably of the many letters it 
contains, is lively and graphic, and one gets from 
it an impression of a rarely pure and engaging 
character. Some of the Spanish and Portuguese 
adTcntaree remind one not a little of Borrow — 
though we do not mean to charge the Captain, who 
is clearly the soul of truth, with honest Lavengro's 
addiction to the long bow. There are a number 
of illnstrations, including some quaint pen-drawings 
from the author's diary. 

As a literary man King James the 
First of England has fared better 
than many of his contemporaries of 
equal or greater ability. His <* Counterblaste to 
Tohaeeo,'' for example, has been pnbliffhed in no 
less than eight different editions : 1604, 1616, 1619 

(in Latin), 1672, 1689 (in Latin), 1869 (Arbor's 
edition), 1872 (Hindley's edition), and 1900, in 
Mr. B. W. Bait's neat little volume entitled '« A 
Boyal Rhetorician " (Brentano's). To be sure, the 
^* Counterblaste," while of no great literary value, 
is not bad entertainment for an hour's smoke ; it 
is certainly one of the most readable of the king's 
works. With it Mr. Rait has printed <« Ane Schort 
Treatise on Scottis Poesie" and extracts from 
"Essayes of a Prentise'' and «*The Psalms of 
Darid Translated." The texts are those of the 
first editions somewhat modernized, qu being re> 
placed by w, and y being used where Mr. Arber 
printed s, which, whatever its history, cannot now 
stand for the sound of s. On page 12, line 11, 
read aboue ; line 3, f • b. read it ; on page 85, line 8, 
f. b. add the date, 1620. Difficult words are en- 
closed in brackets — an improvement in convenience 
on the ordinary glossary. Prefixed is an interesting 
study of the writings of King James, in which Mr. 
Rait does full justice to his author without losing 
sight of the mediocrity which marked this royal 
scribbler ; and appended is a list of the king's chief 
writings. The volume is embellished with a portrait 
of the king, and with facsimiles of the title-page 
of Bishop Montague's edition of 1616 and of the 
Psalms translation published in 1636. 

jflftiftofimi ^'**** ^^ ^^ "Semitic Series" 

m^Atrjr^t. (Scribucrs) the Rev. A. H. Sayee, 
professor of Assyriology at Oxford, 
puts forth << Babylonians and Assyrians,'' a title 
borne by no less than four volumes of the thirteen 
announced. Mr. Sayce has made an interesting 
book, though he has not been able to escape the 
flavor of the class-room, and he moves slowly amid 
a mass of material that would have been illumina- 
ting if it could have been realised. Among the 
important disclosures of the narrative is the knowl- 
edge given of the great money lending and banking 
firm of Egibi, founded somewhat before the day of 
Sennacherib, and extending its history down through 
the period of the Persian conquest. This institu- 
tion was as dominant a factor in this ancient and 
almost forgotten world as the Rothschilds are in 
the world to-day, its records constituting a most 
valuable discovery. It would appear that in this 
most important branch of commerce, the finance 
of the twentieth century after Christ is no great 
advance upon that of the ninth century before 
Christ, just as the wars of conquest of the two 
periods show " practical " Christianity to be little 
more effective in international morals than the 
worship of Sennacherib's particular Lord of Hosts. 
There is no index — an unpardonable omission. 


The ninth volume of the '* Epochs 
of Church History" series is Mr. 
Williston Walker's work on "The 
Reformation" (Scribners). The purpose of the 
series, in presenting church history, is apparently 
secured by an omission of purely political relations,. 

Digitized by 




[March 1, 

and an expansion of theological aUd doctrinal qaee- 
tions. There is nothing new in the book, either in 
matter, treatment, or arrangement ; it is merely a 
restatement of the essential facts of the period. 
Nevertheless, the author's work is not without merit, 
for his style is lucid and his presentation interesting. 
It was of course impossible, in the limited space at 
his disposal, for Mr. Walker to cover every detail 
of the Reformation, yet he has succeeded in con- 
veying a very fair impression of the intellectual 
and religious side of the movement This has been 
done for all European countries save England, for 
which a separate volume in the series is reserved. 
There is a noticeable impartiality of treatment in 
the inevitable comparison between the principal re- 
forming leaders, though the author falls in line 
with modem church writers in ascribing to Me- 
lancthon a liberality and efficiency not commonly 
attributed to him by political and socialistic students. 
These latter more frequently find his actions not 
in harmony with the elevated and non-partisan 
character of his writings, and criticize him for 
very apparent inconsistencies. Mr. Walker's book 
is very readable, and will be of service for handy 

An imiereHing Doubtless the horrors of the Chinese 
oMotPi/ o/ capital during the recent murderous 

iketieg^o/PekiHff. potest against European aggrression 
are not likely to divest even the most pronounced 
Christians present of the old Adam that is in them. 
Still, it is difficult to see why the Reverend William 
Alexander Parsons Martin, D.D., LL.D., lately 
president of the Chinese Imperial University and 
a mandarin of the second class, should have clad 
himself in heavy marching order, repeating rifle 
and all, and posed before an American camera for 
the frontispiece to <*The Siege of Peking" (Revell), 
— announced by the publishers as ** the first to tell 
the story," and the outbreak it describes as *< the 
most unique event in history." Dr. Martin says 
the siege was the act of the imperial government 
of China itself, and he breathes the threats against 
the Chinese, innocent and guilty alike, which have 
made us wonder recently if Itslam and Christendom 
are not exchanging their places in respect of the 
manner of tenets and propaganda. There is nothing 
in Dr. Martin's work to show what has been done 
by the Christian Powers to provoke the attack, 
though he admits it was not ** wholly unjustifiable." 
His account is a mixture of the old ** Trust in God 
and keep your powder dry," which has proved so 
efficacious upon other occasions in the history of 
the American people, and is interesting, even though 
it does not make the most of its opportunities to 
describe the horrors of the siege. 

A <* Complete Hand-Book of Havana 
i^lSScL. "d Cuba" (Rand,McNally& Co.) 

has been prepared by Mr. Albert J. 
Norton, who made a tour through the island last 
year. Mr. Norton is a firm believer in *^Cuba 
Libre," to which his book is dedicated, and his 


really valuable work, filled with illustrations and 
maps as it is, is noteworthy among its kind for the 
sympathy it shows for the natives. There is no 
attempt at literary expression in the book, but its 
plain, matter-of-fact manner is more praiseworthy 
than much fine writing and false patriotism. The 
hand-book fills a need, and will be useful and 
valuable to all who would know something of the 
island that has played so prominent a part in the 
world's history, and has changed so vastly Ameriean 
policy and traditions. 

Teachers and translators of foreign 
languages will find in Professor 
Herbert C. Tolman's little book 
on <<The Art of Translating" (B. H. Sanborn d; 
Co.) much sound doctrine and helpful suggestion 
agreeably presented. It is plainly inspired by 
Cauer's " Die Kunst des Uebersetzens" a practical 
little manual designed for the use of teachers of 
the classics, which we would like to see translated 
into English, Professor Tolman's work being in no 
sense a translation or an adaptation of it. Professor 
Tolman also acknowledges his debt to Professor 
W. 6. Hale, to whom, he justly adds, " more than 
to any other American scholar we owe the practical 
method of reading Latin now so generally adopted." 
Professor Tolman's eighty odd pages are replete 
with the marks of ripe scholarship, and reflection 
bred of practical experience, and they are so 
brightened with epigram and extract that the reader 
is lured on pleasantly from chapter to chapter for- 
getful of the dtdactive purpose of the author. 

There is nothing pleasanter in its 
kind that we know of than a leis- 
urely jaunt through leafy Warwick- 
shire, rich in shrines and scenic allurements, and 
as a good pictorial substitute, or preparative, for 
such a jaunt we take pleasure in calling attention 
to John Leyland's copiously illustrated thin octavo 
volume entitled " The Shakespeare Country " 
(Scribners' Importation). The work is essentially 
a picture-book, though the plates are accompanied 
by the indispensable quota of descriptive text. Mr. 
Leyland is to be unreservedly complimented on his 
selection of subjects for illustration, and the plates 
are of good quality mechanically. 



Volumes VII. and VIII. of " The World's Orators ** 
(Putnam), edited by Dr. Guy Carleton Lee, have just 
been received. The first of these volumes completea 
the section devoted to Englishmen, and inoludea ten 
examples, from Ershine to Gladstone. The other voU 
nme, edited with the assistanoe of Dr. Frankliu L. 
Riley, is devoted to American secular oratory of tbe 
eighteenth century. Thirteen men are represeuted, 
aiuong them being Otis, Hancock, Warren, Henry, 
Hamilton, Washington, and Samuel Adams. Ten of 
the thirteen have portraits. Two more volumes will 
complete this dignified and valuable work. 

Digitized by 





Tbe thivd Tolnme of Professor A. B. Hart's «• Ainer> 
ieaa History Told bj ContemporaiieSy" published by 
the Mamnilleii Co., eovers the period 1783-1845, and 
has for its svbjeet « National Expansion/' We are 
glad that this work is nearing eompktiony beeanse it is 
of the utmost yalue to teaehers of history in onr schools 
and eoll^esy and eannot too soon be plaoed within their 
veaeh. The Tolnmes are of sveh generons dimensions 
that they really serve to illuminate the subject, whioh 
eannot be said of some of the scrappy soui^ books 
that have reoently appeared. There is little benefit to 
be got from the study of source material unless a large 
amount of it is made accessible lo tbe student It re- 
quires to be delyed in, rather than read consecutively. 

Kot librarians alone, but private collectors of books 
aa well, will find in Mr. Ainsworth Rand Spofford's 
<«Book for All Readers" (Putnam) a helpful guide in 
aaany perplexing matters, and a safe informant upon 
many sul^ects that must be of interest to all who Uve 
among books and use them intelligently. The twenty- 
seven chapters of this volume are rimply packed with 
pertinent facts relating to their several subjects; such, 
for example, as bindings, book plates, pamphlets, cata- 
li^^ning, copyright, and most of the subjects that con- 
eem the professional librarian. The product of ripe 
experience, the work is trustworthy, and has^ besides, 
DO little charm of manner. 

Four new volumes in Messrs. Silver, Burdett & Co.'s 
••Silver Series" of English texts for schools provide 
tibe following material: Ruskin's ** Sesame and Lilies," 
edited by Miss Agnes S. Cook; Tennyson's « Lancelot 
and Elaine" and •^The Phssing of Arthur," edited by 
Mr. James E. Thomas; Goldsmith's <<The Traveller" 
and ** The Deserted Village," edited by Mr. Frederick 
Tapper; and Amcrfd's «'Sohrab and Rnstum," with 
other poems, edited by Mr. Joseph B. Seabury. 


•* A Life in Song," a volume of poems by Mr. Grcorge 
I<ansing Raymond, is issued in a second edition by 
Messrs. 6. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Longfellow's "Giles Corey of the Salem Farms " is 
jrablia&d, with stage directions, by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin ft Co. in their <« Riverside Literature Series." 

MThe Prineiples of Yegetable^Gardening," by Mr. 
Lt. H. Bailey, is still another of the series of books upon 
sig^rienltural and horticultural subjects that this indefa- 
tigaUe writer has been producing during the past few 
years. It is published by the Maemillan Co. 

A new edition of Mr. Robert S. Barrett's « Standard 
dude to the City of Mexico," is published in the city 
-with which it is concerned by Uie Modem Mexico 
Foblishing Co. It seems to be an excellent practical 
li^ndbook, besides being made attractive by a profusion 
of illustrations. 

Mr. Charles L. Bowman, New York, publishes a new 
edition of ^ Hints for Home Reading," edited by Dr. 
Jjynuak Abbott The contents include a series of papers 
bgr sneh men as C. D. Warner, H. W. Beeeher, F. B. 
JPeridns, Mr. H. W. Mabie, Dr. E. E. Hale, which are 
fi^lowed by a classified ** Book Buyer's Guide." 

JL re-issue of •< Madame, a Life of Henrietta, Dangh- 
^eir of Charles L, and Duchess of Orleans," by Julia 
Oai^rfcwrii^t (Mrs. Henry Ady \ first published in 1894, 
wm imported by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. This care- 

fully written biography of a singularly attractive and 
unfortunate princess, with its lesson of courage and 
patience and cheerfulness, is at all times welcome both 
to the student and to the general reader, and is none 
the worse for that tone of perhaps somewhat excessive 
eulogy which attests the writer's interest in her theme. 

M Notes on Speech-making" and ''The Philosophy 
of the Short-Story," both by Professor Brander Mat- 
thews, are two small and readable books published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. The contents of both 
have before been printed in other forms, but we are 
glad to have them in the present convenient shape. 

M Brush and Pencil," of Chicago, which has come to 
occupy a place distinctively its own among American 
art journals, has absorbed *<The Collector and Art 
Critic " of New York, and the latter publication will 
hereafter cease to exist ** Brush and Pencil "is now 
edited and owned by Mr. F. W. Morton, and under his 
supervision the magaaine has of late shown mi^rked im- 
provement in appearance and matter. 

The map reproductions of Mr. B. F. Stevens of Lon- 
don have for years been well known. Of special value 
to Americans and all interested in American history is 
his latest reproduction, «Fac- simile of the Unpublished 
British Headquarters Map of New York and Environs, 
1782." The map is made from the original drawing in 
the War Office, London, and is in 24 sheets whioh can 
be joined and mounted as a whole for wall use, or kept 
separate in portfolio form. But 100 copies are printed, 
and are offered on subscription only, by Messrs. B. F. 
Stevens & Brown, London, England. 

A German edition of an American scientific mono- 
graph is not often met with, although this compliment 
to sound scholarship b not undeserved by a good many 
of our recent academic productions. Such an honor has 
reoently been paid to Professor John H. Hnddilston, 
and we have just received (Freiburg i. Br.: Fehsenfeld). 
a handsomely-printed brochure entitled <* Die Griech- 
ische Tragddie im Lichte der Yasenmalerei," in which 
we promptly recognize the substance of a monograph 
published in English two or three years ago. The trans- 
lation is by Frftolein Maria Hense. 

Fitzedward Hall, one of the greatest of American 
philologists and Oriental scholars, died on the first of 
February, at his home in Marlesford, England. He was 
bom in New York, in 1825, and was educated at the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Harvard College. 
In the latter institution he was a classmate of Childs^ 
Lane, and Mr. C. E. Norton. An unexpected trip to 
India in search of a runaway brother, proved a turning- 
point in his life, and enlisted him in the ranks of orien- 
talists. He remained in India until 1862, occupying 
various government poets, returning only for a vacation 
in 1859, when Oxfoi^ made him a D.C.L. For seven 
years, he made his home in London, where he served 
in various capacities as professor, librarian, and exam- 
iner. In 1869, he removed to Marlesford, where the 
rest of his days were spent. Here he completed hie 
edition of the •< Yishnupurana," and began the series of 
works on English philology by whioh he is best known 
to English and Americiui scholars. His services to the 
•* New English Dictionary " and to the « Dialect Dio- 
tionary " were very great, and were given with no other 
thought than that of advancing the science to whioh his 
life was devoted. Readers of Ths Dial will remember 
the many contributions with whioh he has enriched its 
pages, and will join with the many thousands of scholars 
who deplore his death. 

Digitized by 




[March I, 

Topics in liBABiNG Pjsbiodicals. 

Monk, 1901. 

Afiieft, Along BMlCoMi of. R. H. D»Tia. acrihim. 
Agiionltwt IB Tw«llth Onm. L« Q. Powm*. £«v. ^ Ji«M. 
Am.IitanitDn,ThiMGMitBfiMof. W.ILPajm. iH^mtte. 
Awimali in LttoBntara. QwngA S. Hellman. ^onlie. 
AiMtnlim, Sooiet of Coontfy and Town in. £«v. ^Emn«w%* 
BMi^ngar Indostiy. RayS. Bakor. Bev. <tr itevimw. 
Boer War, Tho. Herbort K. Horwill. Forum, 
Bnhmi, RooolUetioM of . Goorg HoMohel. CiMliffy. 
Biitidi Gonfedontion. J. W. Root. Atlantic, 
BrowniBirt Saatayaaa on. Holon D. Woodard. Poei'Lon. 
BuiBMs SitnatioB ia U. S. C. R. FUat. North Amtriean. 
Canada, Britbh Ralo ia. Sir J. Q. Boarinot. Forum, 
China, ThaSettloBMBt in. T. P. Millard. Scrilmgr. 
ChinaM Diplomaoy, MaohiaTolli of. R. K. Lewis. Forum, 
Colonial Poete, Sarly. A. Kingeley Glover. Poet-Lort, 
Cuba, Independenoe of. F^ank D. Pavey. North American, 
Demoeraey and Effieieney. Woodrow Wilion. AiUaniic, 
Demooratia Ptaiy, The. Charlee Daaby. Forum, 
DnunatieSeaaon,Reeent. W.D.Howells. ^oftA ^laierteaa. 
SdwaidVIL W.T. Stead. Btvicw of Bomcwt. 
Bdwaid VIL, Career of . J. Castell Hopkina. Forum. 
Bmpreei Dowager, Flight of. Lnella Miner. Century, 
Bngliah Language in Ameriea. Brander BCatthewe. Seribncr, 
Pooeil Beda, The. John Day. J. C. Merriam. Harper, 
Freedmen'e Boreaa, The. W. K. B. DnBoia. Atlantic. 
Garden, Making a. Anna L. Metritt. LippincoU, 
Greeian Dieooreriea, Reeent. Chaa. Waldttein. No, Amcr, 
Honueide and Italiane. Napoleona Cohjaani. Forym. 
Immigraata, Among the. Arthur Henry. Serihmtr, 
Iron Mining. Waldon Pawoett. Contwry. 
Japan, Impreenons of* Henry C. Potter. Contwry, 
*' Joomalitm, Tabloid." A. BCanriee Low. Forum. 
King of England, The. %C. W. Dilke. North American, 
lAbor Condition! in Switierland. W. B.Se«fe. Forum. 
Labor Diopntee, Settlement of. J. R. Coaunoas. B. i^E. 
Life after Death, Natme of . J. H. Hyelop. Harper. 
MeKialey as Prasident. H. B. P. Maefarland. Atlantic. 
Map, Tranaf ormatioB of the. JooephSohn. Scribncr. 
Marshall, John. James B. Thayer. Atlantic. 
Mezieo, Native Raoes of . H.S.Brooks. LippincoU. 
MisnoBs, Protestant Foreign. Jndson Smith. No. American, 
Mnnioipal Ownership. Riehard T. Ely. North American, 
NaUooa, Competition among. Jaoob Sehoenhof . Forum. 
Nature, Poetio Interpretation of . C.A.Buik]ey. Poet-Lore, 
New York, Shopping in. liUie H. Freneh. Centmry. 
Pope's CItU Prinoedom. Arehbishop Ireland. No.Amer. 
PoaitiTism. Frederio Harrison. North American. 
Postal Serrioe Perils. H. A. Castle. North American. 
President, Growing Powers of. H. L. West. Forum, 
Qnaker-City Girlhood, A. Mrs. B. D. GUlespie. LippincoU. 
Russia, Hopea and Pears of. Felix VolkhoTsky. Forum, 
Russia's New Beonomie Regime. Henry Noimaa. Scrihner, 
Seiao, Matilda. Henry James. North American. 
Seville. Arthur Symons. Harper. 

Shaksapeare's FMklity to History. T.Williams. Poet-lore. 
Tea-Gsirdens, Ameriean. Leonora B. Ellis. Bev ^Beoiewe. 
Webster as Leader of OppoeitioB. J. B. MoMaster. Century. 

liisT OF New Books. 

[!%€ following liet^ containing 64 titUi^ indudee books 
received hy The Dial <tnee its last issue.] 


The Private Ufo of King Edward Vn. (Prinoe of Wales, 
1841-1901.) By a member of the royal household. With 
portraita, 12mo, pp. a06. D. Appleton A Co. $1JS0. 

lilfie of tbe Emperor Frederiok. Edited from the German 
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Digitized by 




[March 16. 1901. 


New Books for Spring and Summer Season 

Wed by Mighty Waves. ft,7p'i2i'-<t,«^!'^ 

Sue Ore«nU(^f, TUb captiyatln; >tory, bued on fact, presents a picture 
of the greatest disaster in modem times, mingled with the adventures 
of separated and re>unlted lovers. Profusely illustrated from photo- 
graphs taken on the spot. Cloth, inlidd, 75c.; paper, beautiful litho- 
graphed cover in colors, 28c. 

Elizabeth and Her German Garden. 

cess ci Pless Edition. With a new preface and a beautiful frontispiece 
Iqr Joseph G. Levendeoker. Cloth, special cover design by same artist, 
75c.; paper, lithographed cover in live colors, 25c. 

By far the daintiesi edition t^f this delightful book noto in tueh great 
dcMond, awl thut recognized ^ the press. 

Under Fate's Wheel. ^Tl^lSSX^^iSninSff^ 

writer of High-grade Detective Stories. Sple 
beautiful lithographed cover in colors, 25c. 

By f?). 

the greatest American 
' illustrations. Paper, 

An Englishwoman's Love Letters. tSl^'t^m- 

erary sensation of Europe and America. Its sale promises to be larger 
than that of Trilby^ David Harum or To Have and to NeUd. This is 
positively the most attractive edition. Qood print, handsome cover 
m colors. Cloth, 50c.; paper, beautiful lithograph^ cover, 25c. 

I\artt%it riAA/lc -^° unpublished tale recently fonnd in the 
UUrill^ UCCUa. p,per« of the Ute William H. T^omis, the 
author of the most popular boy stories of healthy, exciting adventures. 
The Oeean Rovers, The Gold Hunters in Europe^ etc. Paper, beautiful 
lithographed cover in colors, 25c. 

A new, 

and increased edition of the standard work on the subject. All the 
systems clearly and impartiallv described by pen and picture. 106 illas- 
trations. Rules and Begulauons concerning the operating of Autos. 
Heavy paper, pocket siie, flexible leather, marbled edges, $1 .00. 

Lee's Automobile Annual for 1901. 

Kaiser" Dictionary. §;?«;•;: 



aerman-EnfflUh. A new work of unusual merit, containing the 


USB. Of great importance for Oormao-AmericaBs, teaohera, students, 
and business men. Cloth, special stunp, double index, 25c.; leather, 
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LAIRD a. LEE'S plprirlr QnnrlfG Electricity in sll 
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Rlarlr DatL- ^7 Ralph Connor. A thrilling romance of the 
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The New Century Standard Letter-Writer. 

By Alfred B. Chambers^ author of The 20th Century Handy Cyeiop^ia 
Britanniea. Instructions and hundreds of admirable models for Bnsi- 
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Edison's Vand Encyclopedia, also Conklin's 
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tlons, with all the. flfures of the census of 1900, up to date of publica- 
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the world's latest statistics and maps. Some famous poems and qaot». 
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Opie Read's Qreat Stories — The Flower of American Fiction. 
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Six Select Novels of Splendid Merit : 


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From the 224th edition of Edmondo De Amicis, Ulnstrated with 
A book now read in twenty langrnages. Fine half-tone paper. New, 

THE HEART OP A BOY. Editiom db Luxb. 
26 text etchings and 33 fnll-pnge half-tone enKni^inSB< 
artistic cover design. 

** There are few finer things in the world's literature than The Heart qfa Boy,^* — Denver Republican, 

" The best of its kind.'* — Boston Times. 

Superb binding in gold and colors ; gilt top (in a box), $1.25. 

FIRESIDE BATTLES. By Annie O, Brown. A delightful story for girls. Tme to life and full of sentiment, wit, and 
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In a box. $1.25. 

Syeryday Gonyersation. A new compilation from ancient and modem American and foreign sources. Ali^iabetioally 
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Uttre-Webster PSSaaSSRft Dictionary. 

Maury, A.B., LJLJf.f of the XJDiTenlty of Paria. Entirely new and 
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LAIRD & LEE, Publishers, 263-265 Wabash Ave., Chicago 

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if 9,955, 

CHICAGO, APRIL 1, 1901, 

10eU.a C9p$, ( Furs Abtb Buildiko 

eU. a C9pif, { ] 
2. a ymr, \ 


No. 3. American Novel Series. 


This is a story which has in it all the 
elements which make for a great success. It 
is a love story, a story with a strong religious 
element, and a story of American life. It is 
strongly written and is intensely dramatic. 


No. 2. American Novel Series. 


A Story of East and West, a picture of 
society in a small Missouri town and in Bos- 
ton's most exclusive set. It is an admirable 
study of certain phases of our life of to-day. 


No. 1. American Novel Series. 




A rattling good sporting novel, a strong 
love story, and a sympathetic study of life in 
the South. It is in its fourth edition. 


A Notable English Novel. 


Author of ««Thc Heavenly Twin*." 

Madam Grand's new novel is one of the 
most successful spring books.- It is a story of 
a young English girl who is not unlike Angelia 
in "The Heavenly Twins." It is full of 
humor and is strikingly well written. 

Illustrated. $1.50. 


These are the impassioned love letters written by the great Frenchman to his fiancee, 
Mile. Foucher, during the years 1820-22. The love story which they tell reads like a bit of 
fascinadngly romantic fiction. (Uniform with Browning Letters.) 

Illustrated. $3.00. 



Digitized by 




[April 1, 






Sometime Fellotv in Church Hiitory in 
The Uni'versity of Chicago. 


Albbr HunT NiwxAV, D.D., LL.D., Pntfeuor cS Chttreh Hittery 
In McMatIm' UniverHiy, Toronto, Oumda, in a aigned raylew oororlng 
■omofefaiBg OTor two pacM in tho January laaoa of the AmeHcan 
Journal 0/ Theology (publiahed by the University of Ghloago Frees), 

**It may be said at onoe that he has prodnoed by far the best book 
on the sab|eot in the SngUsh language, and that it would be hard to 
find in any language a better general discussion of the various ques- 
tions ittTolved In the history of monasticisnL*' 

FRAncLiH Jonsov, D.D., LL.D., Prt»/ottor «/ Chtireh HUtwry in tU 
UnivorHiy of CMoago^ says : 

"The book presents by far the best survey of Monastloism with 
which I am acquainted, and it Is the only one which even attempts to 
give a fair and dispassionate estimate of tiie system." 

Paul Hoiibob, Ph.D., Prttfestor of History of BdueaHorif Teaokers* 
CoUogo, Cohumbia UmivoroUy^ Hew York City, says : 

•••Monks and Monasteries* is one of the best brief works on the 
subjeot of which I know. The subject is treated in a clear and popular 
manner, and at the same time is scholarly and accurate. The treat- 
ment is the appreciative one necess ar y to get at the real heart of the 
subject ; and yet, with historical fairness, it sets forth the injurious as 
well as the beneficial Influences resulting from the ascetic Ideal and 
the monastio life. ... It can be reoommended unhesitatingly to both 
olaases [students and the general public] of readers." 

Tko Now York TrUnme says : 

•• Mr. Wisliart*s theme is one which It is not easy to discuss without 
prejudice. In such a matter non-partisanship is almost an impossibility. 
Tb say, as one must, that his treatment of it is marked by unusual fair- 
ness and open-mlndedness is, accordingly, to give him no small amount 
of praise. He is neither an assailant nor an ^Mlogist of monastidsm, 
but seeks to understand it as an historical phe n omen o n, and to state 
without bias both the good and the evil that have flowed from it . . . 
He writes in a clear and pleasing style, and his presentatioa of the 
facts is accurate and instructive.** 

Tho JndopomdeiU (New York) says : 

••The book is in the best sense a Protestant work, done with strict 
sdentiflc loyalty to the best light and knowledge to be had on the 

With four photog^vures, 8vo, hand-sewed, broad mar- 
gins, deckle edges, gilt top, 454 pages, fully indexed. 
Price, $3. 50 NET. Of all booksellers, or sent, carriage 
free, on receipt of price, by 


PUBLISHER Trenton, New Jersey 



Author of ** Upland and Meadow j*" "Notes of 
the Nighty*' " Outings at Odd Times;* " The 
Birds About Us^* " Bird -land Echoes^* etc. 


•• A deli^ktfttl outdoor friend. **-ilmaKoai> ffobrow (New Tork). 

"At once a real art work and a Tolome of positive educational 
-The AroiM (New Tork). 

"Hereisapleoeof fine art in book work. The ooTor draws yon as 
a shady tree in a stretch of beantifttl meadow. Tou open the volnnM. 
What clean, bold type, inviting to read anywhere, such a Joy is It to the 
eye ; what ample margin, and how fascinating are the illnstratioas of 
nature scattered through it. Anyone who hungers now and then for 
a quiet stroll into field and wood will find here a volnme that holds him 
with delight. It has an indlviduaUty of iU own, although It belongs to 
a class. ... He is especially happy in getting a novel point of view.*' 
— The Standard (Chicago). 

**0f the four footed and winged friends he made in his walks, he 
writes not merely with a full understanding, but with evident aifeo- 
tion, describing their peculiarities, their moods and habits, and giving 
a mass of infonnation which could be fmmd nowhere else in more 
pleasing or appreciative language.** — BaUknoro MonUny Herald, 

** Of the artist*s work nothing can be said in criticism ; Its delicacy, 
truth to nature, and decorative efFeot are as admirable as they are un- 
usuaL There are ninety of these little sketches, besides a charming 
frontispiece in photogravure.** ~ The Nation (New Tork). 

** A beautiful and fascinating book for those who enjoj tiie study of 
Nature*s handiwork * afield and afloat* The illustrations are fine, and 
the book is extreme^ attractive in its ap p earance." — The Ob eo rver 
(New Tork). 

"The charm of such books ss theee lies in their essential simplioity 
and naturalness, but the special value of Dr. Abbott's lice in tiie fkot 
that he never becomes so absorbed in tlie study of component parts as 
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NOTES 239 




When the oontroveny occasioned by the 
dismisMl of Professor Boss from Stanford 
UniTersity was still in its early stages, we ez- 
proMod a brief opinion to the effect diat the 
principle of the freedom of teaching had suf- 
fered no injury at the hands of the Uniyersity 
anthorities. We intended to say nothing more 
about the matter, and, in now reyerting to it, 
we haTe* in substance, nothing to do beyond 

reaffirming the belief at first formulated in 
these pages. Since that early writing, howeyer, 
so many statements, of such conflicting tenor, 
haye appeared in the public prints, and so many 
persons have joined in the controyersy, that it 
seems desirable to deal with the question at a 
somewhat greater length than before. 

It need hardly be said, by way of prelimi- 
nary obseryation, that The Dial has always 
held the principle of LehrfreiheU as one of the 
most sacred articles of its faith, and that it 
has championed that principle, upon more than 
one occasion, to the best of its ability. But it 
has also refused to assume the attitude of those 
extremists who consider the charge that Xe&r- 
/reiheit has been attacked as prima facie eyi- 
deuce that the attack has really been made, 
and with whom accusation is tantamount to 
conyiction. Such questions are always delicate, 
calling for the most careful examination and 
the most scrupulous weighing of the eyidence. 
When the Uniyersity of Chicago was made the 
yictim of an attack of this sort a few years ago, 
we happened to be in a position to know how 
absolutely groundless was the case against it, 
and how distorted a picture of sudi a situation 
might be drawn by sensational journalism, and 
impressed upon the minds eyen of sober and 
judicial obsenrers. That incident gaye us a 
lesson in caution by which we hope to profit 
in the present instance. 

The case against the Stanford administration 
has been giyen its strongest statement, no 
doubt, in the report made by a committee of 
members of the American Economic Associa- 
tion. The names of the men signatory to that 
statement must command respect for what they 
say, and entitle their argument to a careful 
consideration. And yet we are bound to say 
that their plea is in certain respects disingen- 
uous. It certainly giyes to a casual reader the 
impression that it is made with the official 
sanction of the Association to which the signers 
belong, whereas the Committee was in fact 
self-constituted, and represents only itself. Our 
suspicions are also aroused by the language of 
the report, in which it is darUy hinted that the 
most damaging facts in the possession of the 
Committee haye not been included^ but are 

Digitized by 




[April 1, 

held in reserye for a poBsible f otare pablioation. 
It was elearly the duty of these gentlemen to 
state their case onoe for all as strongly as pos- 
sible ; as it is« Jtheir action is snoh as to lessen 
confidence in their findings. Again, it must 
be remembered that this Report is the resnlt 
of an investigation at long range, made by 
means of correspondence only, and as such is 
liable to errors of judgment. Moreover, nearly 
all the controversialists who have rushed to 
join in the attack upon the Western University 
are Eastern men who cannot, in the nature ot 
things, have that dose acquaintance with the 
facts which is so essential to the assumption 
of a truly judicial attitude. Their judgment 
seems to be based either upon an unquestioning 
acceptance of the conclusions of the Committee, 
or upon purely a priori reasoning. When they 
take such forms as the grave suggestion that a 
professorial trade union should be organized, 
and the officious warning that the ethics of the 
educational calling will be violated by the ac- 
ceptance of a chair in Stanford University^ 
they certainly do not commend themselves to 
the judicious. 

Turning now to the aspects of the case as 
they present themselves from the Stanford 
point of view, we find more than enough to 
counterbalance the ex cathedra pronounce- 
ments of a wilderness of long range critics. 
We find, first of all, the report of the Com- 
mittee of Alumni appointed to make a special 
investigation of the matter, and this report is 
emphatic in its statement that freedom of 
teaching has not been attacked by the admin- 
istration. Beaching a conclusion diametrically 
opposite to that reached by the Eastern Com- 
mittee, the balance of judgment would, on the 
whole, appear to be in its favor. Against the 
greater experience and reputation of the East- 
em men, the dose familiarity of the Western 
men with all the facts of the situation may 
reasonably be urged as an offset, and the ques- 
tion of possible interestedness does not seem 
likely to have entered into the one report more 
than into the other. Moreover, the findings 
of this Committee id Alumni are approved of 
by an overwhelming preponderance of student 
and faculty opinion. Such men as Professor 
Anderson and Professor Fliigel, to name only 
two of those who have rallied to the defence of 
the administration, are not the sort of men to 
compromise with hypocrisy, or condone an of- 
fence against a principle which they hold 
sacred. Nor is that clear-headed and outspoken 
champion of all good and honest intellectual 

causes, Mr. Charles F. Lummis, who has been 
in close touch with the situation all the time, 
likely to be deceived by any sort of pretence 
or disingenuous evasion of Uie facts. Finally, 
President Jordan himself, who is the very em- 
bodiment of intellectual honesty and moral 
courage, has declared in unequivocal terms 
that the principle of freedom of teaching has 
been in no way involved in the recent occur- 
rences. The attempt to accuse him of palter- 
ing with words in a double sense has no more 
basis than a few casual remarks about the char:* 
acter and ability of the person who has made 
all this disturbance, remarks evidently made 
out of pure kindness of heart, and now twisted 
into the evidence of double-dealing. 

The plain facts of the case seem to be that 
the instructor whose dismissal has raised all 
this pother is a young man who has never been 
able to rise to a sense of the dignity and re- 
sponsibility of his position.- His defects of 
taste and of intellectual balance have long been 
understood and deplored by his associates, 
and at last his services have been dispensed 
with — reluctantly, because of the outcry that 
is sure to be made in such a case, because also 
of regard for the reputation of the instructor 
himself. His position in the University had 
always been probationary, and this fact is in 
itself almost sufficient to dispose of the whole 
controversy. Before a man has received a 
permanent appointment, the authorities of no 
institution are accountable to the public for 
their dealings with him. This distinction 
between permanent and probationary appoint- 
ments is of the utmost importance, but surpris- 
ingly little attention has been paid to it during 
the recent discussion. Theve must be a period 
during which a man's character and capabilities 
are being tested, and while that period lasts^ 
something like arbitrary action concerning him 
must be held legitimate. Upon no other con- 
dition than this can a strong university faculty 
be organised. 

After all, when serious people set themselves 
to discussing the prindple of Lehrfreiheitf 
they are thinking of something very different 
from this tempest in a Stanford teapot. They 
are thinking of the ddiberate attempts of ob- 
scurantist and reactionary authorities to stifle 
intellectual endeavor, and to impede the pro- 
gress of the great creative ideas tiiat from time 
to time transform our modes of thought. .They 
are thinking of such things as the occasion^ 
offidal efforts made in Germany during the 
last century to force all university teaiehing 

Digitized by 





into conformity with the ideas of the monarchy 
and the established chnrch. They are thinking 
of snch things as the effort, made so energet- 
ically in the generation just preceding our own, 
to deny a hearing to the doctrine of CYolation^ 
and to discourage its promulgation in the reb- 
(^nised institutions of learning. They are 
thinking of all sorts of attempts to influence or 
cajole or threaten thinkers of achieved reputa- 
tion, in order that the fabric of conyentional 
falsehood may not be undermined and totter 
to its fall. They are not thinking at all of the 
merely disciplinary questions that must arise 
in every university when dealing with the ec- 
centricities and the lapses from good taste or 
good judgment of its young men, on trial for 
advancement in their academic career. Let 
us remember all the while that the case at 
Stanford is the case of young Professor Boss, 
of whom few people would ever have heard had 
his grievances not been exploited by journal- 
bm, and who was never in permanent appoint- 
ment. It is not, for example, and by way of 
startling contrast, the case of Professor Norton 
at Harvard, or of Professor Sumner at Yale, 
or of Professor von Hoist at Chicago. Nor, 
we may add, is it the case of President 
Jordan at Stanford. All of these gentlemen 
have made public utterances during the past 
two or three years that must have been highly 
objectionable to the constituted authorities. 
But the suggestion that these men have imper- 
iled their positions by their boldness of speech 
is too preposterous for a moment's considera^ 
iion. It is when we try to imagine a case of 
this sort that we come fully to understand how 
securely the principle of Lehrfreih£it is guard- 
ed by tlie authorities of our great universities, 
and how certainly, should they once fail in 
their trust, would they be forced back into the 
path of duty by the overwhelming pressure of 
public opinion. 




(To the Editor of Ths Diai^) 

In yoar issue of Jmnnary 16, there appeared a oom- 

mmiieation regarding the opening of the Bmmbaok 

Library at Van Wert, Ohio, from Mr. £. I. Antrim, 

in which the following lentenoes oeonr: " Most of the 

ddes and many of the larger towns and villages of our 

eoontry have their pablie libraries; it remained for this 

Ohio Coontj to inangnrate a moyement that may 

eventnally bring library priyileges where they are most 

needed, namely, to the rural districts . . . Under the 
stimolos already given, Cineinnati has extended its 
field of library work to all parts of Hamilton County, 
and several other counties have been diseossing the ad- 
visability of imitating the example of Van Wert 

In your issue of March 16, Mr. A. L. Day takes ex- 
ception to Mr. Antrim's statements, and with the 
greatest of respect for the officials of the Van Wert 
library, and the sincerest and heartiest appreciation of 
the noble gift of Mr. Brumbaok, I wish to add a further 
word opposing the idea set forth in Mr. Antrim's com- 
munication, and declared in the address of presentation 
on the occasion of the dedication, that the Van Wert 
library is the pioneer in the matter of furnishing 
<< library privileges to the rural districts." The law 
which made possible the acceptance of Mr. Brumback's 
gift of a library building — for the county must here- 
after support the library — was passed April 26, 1898. 
The agreement with the County Commissioners was 
made July 30, 1898, the building was completed and 
dedicated January 1, 1901, and the residents of the 
county first had the privileges of the library January 
28, 1901. 

The late A. W. Whelpley, for many years the Li- 
brarian of the Public Library of Cincinnati, in his annual 
report for 1892 strongly urged that the privileges of 
Cincinnati's great library be extended to the residents 
of Hamilton County — the county within which Cin- 
cinnati is situate. On April 21, 1898, an act was 
passed by the General Assembly of Ohio (93 O. L. 191) 
by which our library was taken from the control of the 
Board of Education of the School district and placed 
in the hands of a Board of Trustees. This board was 
given power to make a levy of 3-10 of a mill upon all 
the taxable property of the county. In 1900 this levy 
was increased to 5-10 of a mill (9i O. L. 204). The 
act provided : 

8€C. S999a (Rev. St. of Ohio). " Xsoh and every resideat 
of the oouDty within which is litnate any city of the fint 
grade of the fint elaas, haTing therein setablished a pnblte 
library, shall be entitled to the free use of snoh library, lead- 
ing rooms, and any branch of the same, and all the privileges 

iSse. S999h. ''They (the trustees) shall have power and 
it shall be their duty to setablish in said city and thronghont 
the comity Within which is sitaeted eaid Itbrivy, reading 
rooms, branch lihrsrics and library stations in connection 
with said library, and to lease and furnish said rooms, build- 
ings or parts thereof as are required for snch purposes, and 
to pay all neeeeesry expenses connected therewith." 

Immediately upon the passage of the act, the resi- 
dents of Hamilton County were entitled to all the privi- 
leges of the Public Library of Cineinnati. The fitet 
card issued to a oounty resident, outside of the city 
limits, was under date of May 6, 1898. The delivery 
station system provided for in the act, whereby the 
books are delivered at convenient stations throughout 
the county, was opened June 10, 1899. The circula- 
tion through these stations for the year 1900 was 
179^1. There are now in operation forty stations 
and thirteen traveling librariee (the latter in plaoes not 
easily accessible from the stations). After the passage 
of the act of 1900 authorizing the increased levy, £e 
trustees offered to assume the control of each library 
in the county which had been maintained at pnUic ex- 
pense. Under this offer the tmsteee have now under 
their management .four branch libraries. 

The simple statement of the foregoing facts and 

Digitized by 




[April 1, 

datee sbonld be snffioient to refute the claim made for 
the Yan Wert library. The Cincinnati act hjive days 
Mer than the Van Wert act. The priyileget of the 
Public Library of -Cincinnati had been free to eyery 
resident of Hamilton County for nearly three years 
before the residents of Van Wert County had the use 
of a book in the Van Wert library. 

But it is all in the interest of the greatest good fb 
the greatest number, or to use the motto of the Ameri- 
can Library Association, «the best reading for the 
largest number at the least cost." Howeyer, there is 
an honor in being the first to extend to your fellow man 
such a boon as good reading, and if Cincinnati is en- 
titled to that honor for being the first to extend the 
use of her 225,000 yolumes to the « rural districts," 
we most assuredly desire to retain the same, for we are 
proud of haying *« blazed the way." 

W. T. Porter, 
Trustee Public Library. 

Cincmnati^ March 19, 1901. 

( To the Bditor of Thb Dial. ) 

By the death of Mr. Tukichi Fukuzawa, Japan has 
suffered the loss of one of its truly great men. From 
the fact that he liyed in the Mita District of Tokyo, he 
was generally called the "Sage of Mita"; but he was 
often called " the grand old man of Japan." He was 
one of the early Japanese students of Dutch and En- 
glish. Li 1858 he came from Nagasaki to Tedo, and 
opened a school which was the nucleus of the great in- 
stitution now known as the Keiogijiku, with academic, 
collegiate, and uniyersity courses. This school was not 
dosed during the Beyolutionary War; eyen during the 
Battle of Nyeno (1869), his school continued in session 
in another section of the city, and his students were 
studying Wayland's Moral Science. From this school 
haye gone forth hundreds of able young men who haye 
distinguished themselyes in all departments of life. As 
the Japan « Times " says, *' It was in this school and 
under the eye of its great master that the art of public 
speaking was first practiced; in fact, the Japanese word 
for a public speech foration], now so generally used, 
was coined by Mr. Fukuiawa himself. He may, indeed, 
be called a great educator, or teacher." 

In 1882 he estoblished a daily paper called Jiji 
Shiaqw («<News of the limes," or « Times"), which 
holds in Japan the same prominent place that its name- 
sakes hold in London and New York. Although in 
oertain points that paper may be surpassed by some 
contemporary, yet it is, on the whole, what it claims to 
be, •< the No. 1 daily of Japan." The editorials by Mr. 
Fukuzawa could always be recognised by their simple, 
dear, and forcible style, and their instructiye and ele- 
yating tone. In yiew of the influence of his journal, he 
may again be called a great educator, or editor. 

W\& reference to his style of writing, it should also 
be noted that he shares with Mr. Fukuchi *< the honor 
of haying introdnoed what may be called the natural 
style in Japanese literature as distinguished from the 
stilted Chinese style." 

He was a prolific writer: his total output is sud to 
haye been •*B0 different kinds of books, comprising 105 
yolumes." (It must, howeyer, be understood that a 
Japanese <«yolnme" is rather small.) His writings 
were principally on social, political, and moral topics, 
and haye wielded a powerful influence in Modem Japan. 

For instance, he " did more than anybody else to eman;- 
dpate the fair sex from the restraints of the old- 
fashioned code of morality, by the publication of his 
* Criticisms of Kaibara's Great Learning for Women * 
and his own <New Great Learning for Women.'" 
From a third point of yiew, therefore, he may be called 
a great educator, or author. 

He might haye been Minister of Education, or haye 
receiyed a patent of nobility; but he refused public 
ofiBce and despised titles, except such as «<the great 
commoner," which was sometimes conferred upon him. 
His life was pure and blameless; and his moral teach- 
ings were of tiie loftiest type. He practioed what he 
preached, so that he was once more a great educator, 
or exemplar. 

The Japan « Mail " says of him: « As a leader of the 
new ciyilization, it would be difficult to oyer-rate the 
benefits conferred by him on his country." <*He is 
described as the great motiye force of Japan's modem 
ciyilization; the man who did more than all his eon- 
temporaries to promote the spread of a spirit of true 

Whether as teacher, editor, essayist, author, or mor- 
albt, Mr. Fukuzawa deseryes the highest rank among 
the << men of letters of New Japan." 

«, . T, » .« ^^^^ Ebnmt W. CLDinT. 

Tokyo, Feb. 18, 1901. 

(To the Editor of Ths Diai..) 

The efforts of The Dial towards improying the in- 
struction in English in the secondary schools and in the 
uniyersities, haye been highly appreciated by the lan- 
guage teachers of the country, and the agitation thus 
started has certainly been a stimulus in setting many 
a teacher to thinking and to acting. That the subject 
is one of the most important, if not the most serious, 
problems with which educators haye to deal, no one will 

Now and then there appears a case that seems utterly 
hopeless. At a recent examination in English for ad- 
mission into one of the uniyersities, the candidates were 
asked, among other things, to write a sketch of some 
character from literature, no restriction being placed 
upon the choice. One young man, who had << taken " 
English three or more years in a high school, but eyi- 
dently had not been able to retain it, produced an in- 
teresting essay; it appears below verbatim and literatim, 
and with the original punctuation: 

" Lord. Byron, was a briliant writer of prose, he was a 
cripple being crippled both being tamed in he wor a long 
olok to oonseal his feet, but nerer the less for all his defoi^ 
matifls he was a great swimer, he meet alway swam alone, 
he oonld swim for bonis befor beooming tired." 

This, then, represents not only all the young man can 
write about any character in literature, but also his 
sense of accuracy and of form. 

It is needless to say that the candidate was not ad- 
mitted; he was sent back, with the blessing of the ex- 
amining committee, to take a few more doses, and, in 
all probability, will finally be declared incurable. Do<)8 
the fault lie in the training and experience of the 
physician, or is the patient's constitution, on account 
of neglect in early childhood, too weak to bear the 
heroic treatment that seems necessary ? 


Mardi 16, 1901. 

Digitized by 





9;|^je ^tio $00^. 

A JOirByAI.I8 T>8 Bb miniscekcbs.* 

There is an old story of an Irish butler Who 
boasted that he was so skilled in his calling 
that he could put a quart of wine into a pint 
decanter ; and we have often wished that bio- 
graphers could be brought to emulate in their 
proyince this man's powers of compression. 
We do not say this with the intention of cast- 
ing a special reflection on Mr. Stillman's two- 
volume autobiography now before us, but in 
reference to the curious fact that eyen men 
who in other walks of literature are honorably 
distinguished by a Spartan continence of 
speech are apt to throw moderation to the 
winds and go on forever, like Tennyson's brook 
or Mr. Alcott the philosopher, the moment 
they begin writing biography. 

Mr. Stillman's autobiography was begun at 
the instance of the kte Mr. Houghton, the 
publisher, and notwithstanding its occasional 
diffuseness it bears out the opinion of its prob- 
able value of that excellent judge of men and 
books. The story of the author's own doings 
is worth telling, and had Mr. Stillman left un- 
recorded his memories and impressions of the 
many interesting people he has forgathered 
with during his somewhat roving and desultory 
career as painter and journalist it* would have 
been a real loss to the public. 

In his opening chapters Mr. Stillman gives 
an account of his home life during boyhood, 
which is an altogether capital picture of Puri- 
tan family life, abounding in vivid touches of 
characterization, and conveying an adequate 
idea of the spirit and tendencies, for evil as for 
good, of New England Puritanism in its archaic 
severity. After reading this most interesting, 
if in its details at times somewhat repellant 
mnd painful, section of the book one can only 
wonder how the warm humanity and genial 
bohemianism of the author's manhood could 
have germinated in so frosty an atmosphere. 
7he somewhat prolix chapters dealing with 
Sf r. Stillman's school days and his three years' 
«iay at Union College, Schenectady, are fol- 
lowed by a brief account of his art studies in 
America, in England, and at Paris. It was 
ivith the opening of this period of art study 
Chat his rovings (we use the word in no dis- 
respectful or derogatory sense) began. In 

*Tn AuTOBiooaAPHT of a Joitrhaijst. By William 
J. SiiUmMi. In two toIhidm. With portnitB. Boston: 
Bon^toB, Mifflin ft Go. .. 

1849 Mr. Stillman went to England to see 
Turner's pictures, and at Turner's gallery in 
London he had the good fortune to see not 
only the eccentric painter himself, but his elo- 
quent champion, Mr. Ruskin. Griffiths, a 
kiodly, honest man for an art-dealer, had been 
touched by the young stranger's enthusiasm, 
and introduced him one day to Turner as a 
young artist who had a great admiration for 
his work, and would be glad to take him by 
the hand. The response, if not cordial, was at 
least Turneresque. Says Mr. Stillman : 

" It WM difficult to reconcile mj conception of the 
gntit artist with this little, and, to casual ohservationi 
insignificant old man with a nose like an eagle's beak^ 
though a second sight showed that his eye, too,. was like 
an eagle's, bright, penetrating, and restless. Half awed 
and half surprised, I held out mj hand. He put his 
behind him, regarding me with a humorous, maliciouA 
look, saving nothing. Confused, and not a little mor- 
tified, I turned away, and, walking down the gallery, 
went to studying the pictures again. When I looked 
his way again he held out his hand to me. ... He 
gave me a hearty hand-shake, and in his oracular way 
said, * Hmph — (nod) if yon come to England again — 
hmph (nod) — hmph (nod),' and another hand-shake 
with more cordiality and a nod for good-by . I never saw 
a keener eye than his, and the way he held himself up, 
so straight that he seemed almost to lean backwards, 
with his forehead thrown forward, and the piercing eyes 
looking out from under their heavy brows, and his 
diminutive stature coupled with the imposing bearing, 
combined to make a very vivid impression on me." 

Mr. Stillman recalls that Turner said of his 
own pictures in the course of the interview, 
*^ I wish they were all put in a blunderbuss 
and shot off I " but, he adds, *< he looked 
pleased at the simultaneous outburst of protest 
on the part of Grriffiths and myself." 

Mr. Stillman's account of his early ventures 
in journalism, in ^^ spiritism," in political con- 
spiracy (he became associated with Kossuth in 
1852 and went to Europe on a secret mission 
for him), in ^^ roughing it " in the Adirondack 
wilderness, is followed by the charming episode 
of the '' Adirondack Club " — one of the richest 
chapters in the book. The Club was the out- 
come of Mr. Stillman's enthusiastic stories of 
his camping experiences. Its members were 
Emerson, Agassiz, Dr. Howe, Professor Wy- 
man. Judge Hoar, Dr. Binney, John Holmes, 
Horatio Woodman, and the author. Longfellow 
was asked to be of the party, but he declined 
on learning that Emerson had bought a gun. 

<« < Is it tme that Emerson is going to take a gun ? ' 
he asked me; and when I said that he had finally deh 
eided to do so, he ejaculated, < Then somebody wUl be 
shot! ' and would talk no more of going." 

Dr. Holmes also was as^ed to join ; but the 

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[April 1, 

Antoorat had little sympathy with woods and 
savagery, and was loath to leaye his beloved 
Boston. Says Mr. Stillman : 

** He loved his Cambridge friends lerenely, Lowell, 
Agassiz, and Wyman, I think, aboye others; hat he en- 
joyed himself most of all, and Boston more than anything 
on earth. He was lifted above ennui and discontent by 
a most happy satisfaetion with the rounded world of his 
own individuality and belongings. Of the three men 
whom I have personally known in the world who seemed 
most satisfied, with what fate and fortune had made 
them, — namely, Gladstone, Professor Freeman, and 
Holmes, — I think Holmes enjoyed himself the most." 

At Saranao, en route to the camping-place, 
an amusing incident occarred. Burner had 
spread the report of the impending advent of 
the distinguished party of ^* campers," and the 
selectmen of the town had appointed a com- 
mittee to receive them. The community wad 
on the qui vive to see, not Emerson or Lowell, 
but Agassiz — the man who preferred life in 
America to the senatorship and the keepership 
of the Jardin des Plantes offered him by the 
Emperor of the F^nch. The heart of democ- 
racy was touched, and Saranac turned out in 
force to meet the plain man who had slighted 
the advances of an Emperor. 

** A reception was aeoorded, and they (the commit- 
tee) came, having taken care to proiode themselves 
with an engraved portrait of the scientist, to guard 
against a personation and a waste of their respects. 
The head of the deputation, after having carefully com- 
pared Agassis to the engraving, turned gravely to his 
followers and said, < Yes, it 's him '; and they proceeded 
with the same gravity to shake hands in their order, 
ignoring all other luminaries." 

It b not recorded that Emerson used the' 
gun, the purchase of which had caused Mr. 
Longfellow's doleful prediction* His ** hunt- 
ing " seems to have been in the main emblemat- 
ical, like the Emperor of China's yearly plough- 
ing. But on one occasion he developed a trace 
of the primitive longing to ** kill something." 

*' One Sunday morning, when all the others went oat 
for the drive of the deer, Emerson ssked me to take 
him out on the lake to some quiet place for meditation. 
We landed in a deep bay, where the seclusion was 
most complete, and he went into the woods to meditate. 
Presently we heard the baying of the hound as he 
circled round the lake, on the hillsides, for the deer 
were reluctant at that season to take to the water, and 
gave a long chase; and, as he listened, he began to^ 
take in the excitement of the hunters, and finally broke 
out abruptly, « Let us go after the deer '; and down the 
lake we went, flying at our best, but we arrived too 
late, — Lowell had killed the deer. He said to me 
later, and emphatically, * I must kill a deer '; and one 
night we went out 'jack-hunting' to enable him to 
realise that ambition." 

The ^* jack-hunting/' however, came to 
naught, so far as Emerson's ambition was con- 

cerned, for, although three deer were sighted 
successively in easy range, the philosopher 
seems to have had as many attacks of that 
acute paralysis of the faculties known to hunters 
as ** buck fever " — though Mr. Stillman kindly 
ascribes the failure to pull trigger to inability 
to see the game. 

Mr. Stillman was consul at Bome in the 
early sixties, and his chapter on his experiences 
there deals very frankly with the then moral 
and political condition of the papal city, which 
seems to have been unspeakably bad. Brig- 
andage was rife, and common morality, even 
among the native clergy, was rare. When 
ui^ed by the Frendi authorities to license and 
regulate the disreputable houses, Pius IX. re- 
plied that ** every house was a brothel, and it 
was useless to license any." Mr. Stillman 
quotes, with thinly veiled approval, a popular 
saying that *^ if you wanted to go to a brothel 
you must go in the daytime, for at night they 
were full of priests " ; but he adds, ^* Let me 
not be charged with making of this state of 
things an accusation against the Catholic re- 
ligion." Boman misrule was due to priesify 
inexperience in and official incapacity for civil 
administration; and the situation was made 
worse by the ** Italian constitutional indiffer- 
ence to questions of common morality." As 
to Pius IX., Mr. Stillman found him not only 
a devout man, but ^* an excellent and admirable 
one," a profound believer in the divine warrant 
and direction of his pontificate, but incapaci- 
tated for civil mle simply because it could not 
be carried out on ecclesiastical principles. 

Cardinal Antonelli, the real ruler of the 
Papal States, Mr. Stillman roundly describes 
as the *^very impersonation of unscrupulous 
and malignant intellect, subtle with all the 
Italian subtlety, and unscrupulous as any of 
the brigands from the community in which he 
had his origin." 

•< Antonelli had a face which gave one an idea of the 
expression < beauts du Diablo,' lor a more perfect type 
of Satanic intelligence and malignity than it showed at 
times I cannot conceive. If I had been a figure painter, 
I should certainly have painted him as Mephistopheles, 
as he appeared in the audience room in his dose-fittittg 
purple costume with scarlet trimmings, his long coat- 
tails flying behind him when he moved, like the fringe 
of a flame.'' 

One is not a little surprised to find Mr. Still- 
man describing Charlotte Cushman, then a 
member of the American colony at Bome, as a 
sort of spiritual counterpart of the Mephisto- 
phelian AntonellL 

- 1 think she posses s ed an utteriy selflsh nature, was 

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not at all icrapiiloaB in the attainment of her porpoeee, 
and was, in effeet, that moat dangeroae member of 
Mwietyy a strong-willed and large-lnained woman with- 
out a Testige of prineiple. . . . She was an immense 
illnstration of a nuoim of Dante Bossetti to the effeet 
that artists had nothing to do with morality." 

Mr, StiUman goes on to hint darkly at certain 
** terrible" stories told of the actress by an 
artist who, when a scene-painter, had known 
her in New York, and which he cautioned Mr. 
Stillman not to repeat, since if they got to 
Miss Cnshman's ears ** she was qaite capable 
of silencing him (the relator) in the most ef- 
fective manner " ; and, adds the author seri- 
ously, ** I am of opinion that he judged her 
correctly, for she must have been a tiger when 
her passions were roused." This seems really 
too bad of Mr. Stillman. The gifted Charlotte 
was perhaps a woman of imperious temper, 
and by no means a Griselda in point of patience 
under proYOcation ; but that she was capable 
of resorting to the stiletto or the bowl, save as 
stage properties and in the professional way, 
we are by no means inclined to believe. 

Mr. StiUman's second volume is devoted 
mainly to his consular experiences in Crete, 
and his adventures in the Balkan countries 
and the Levant generally as foreign correspon- 
dent of the ^^ Times " and other newspapers. 
Light is shed on Eastern questions, and Greek 
and Italian politics and politicians are inter- 
estingly discussed. An amusing chapter is 
interpolated on Bossetti and his circle. All in 
all, Mr. Stillman has given us a very enter- 
taining book, rich in reminbcences of authors 
and artists, and by no means devoid of charm 
of style and critical value. The volumes are 
inviting outwardly — neat, substantial, and 
well printed. £. 6. J. 

Ths Stobt of FBANGiPAiri'a Ring.* 

The monograph entitled ^« Frangipani's 
Bmg," by Dr. Henry Thode, the celebrated 
SBSthetic philosopher and historian, was origin- 
ally published in London by John Macqueen, 
in 1894, just as its author was leaving Venice, 
after a residence of several years, to accept the 
chair of History of Art in Heidelberg Univer- 
sity. For any other man the solution of the 
problem which the book involves would have 
been a labor of years. To Dr. Thode it meant 
only a few days' casual search through the 

•Feavoipajii** Rnra: Ad S^pinde hi tho life of Hmuj 
llMiao. ThiMlafd hy J. P. 0. L. lUiwtnted. Fhihidal- 
pbia: J. B. Lii»imMott Co. 

manuscripts in St. Mark's, together with a few 
days more spent in other famous libraries and 
devoted to verification and elaboration of his 
results ; and finaUy a gratuitous visit to the 
little village church whose altar-piece forms 
the theme of the concluding chapter. But back 
of these rapid, almost intuitive, deductions, and 
rendering them intelligible, must be understood 
a life-time of research into the history and the 
art of mediiBval Italy and Grermany. 

In these days of books for the many, «* Fran- 
gipani's Bing " is of course emphatically a book 
for the few. Yet its public should not be lim- 
ited to the antiquary, familiar with Dr. Thode's 
more profound works and duly appreciative, as 
the layman cannot but fail to be, of the erudite 
industry and nicety of deduction which the 
elaboration of this little episode displays. No 
less genuine, if less esoteric, pleasure is in 
store here for the reader to whom Jan Schorel 
is an empty name, Diirer none too suggestive 
of a definite method, and Friuli in 1618 as un- 
trodden country as Hungary ten years later* 
The casual reader, to be sure, would be certain 
to find Dr. Thode's enthusiasm too aggressive, 
the romance he unfolds elusive, and die occa- 
sional incisive phrase scarcely worth the cost 
of a passage down the bristluig array of un- 
familiar names and through the droning chron- 
icles, not prone to yield up too easily their 
ghostly memories of dead years. But the 
«' Gentle Beader," to borrow Dr. Crothers's 
delightful connotation for the audience fit 
though few, — he who does not read running, 
who has indeed no great love for the easy 
beaten track but mudi for the nooks and by- 
ways of literature and history, provided he 
may explore them in good company, — the 
Gentle Beader, no less than the antiquary, 
will find an altogether unique pleasure in hunt- 
ing down the legend of the ring through the 
ponderous tomes of the Grerman and Venetian 
chroniclers and the chatty pages of Marino 
Sanuto's voluminous diaries. 

Not that the question of the ring's o¥mer- 
ship is of any great moment, but Uie search 
affords opportunity of forming acquaintance 
by the way with the turbulent, bitter-hearted 
Frangipanis, with the lovely Apollonia, dear 
in her youth to an Emperor and later Count 
Christoph's willing wife, and with her brother 
Matthew Lang, the courtly humanist, arch- 
bishop and cardinal, but best remembered for 
his unchurchly *' What is conscience ? " Less 
intimately do we come to know a pope or two, 
and the sour-faced Emperor Maximilian. And 

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[Aprfl 1, 

oyer all broods the keen-eyed, thin-lipped Doge 
Leonardo Loredano, he whom Bellini painted, 
a spirit of Venice incarnate. For the chief 
charm of all this pageant is the glimpse it gives 
of the inscrutable soul of sixteenth century, 
Venice, whose achievements stand out dearly 
enough on the pages of our histories, but the 
thoughts of whose heart are hidden, except 
from the initiated few. Dr. Thode is of course 
in the secret, which he does his best to share 
with the appreciative reader. 

But it is time to explain that the ring, named 
Frangipani's, upon the chance sale of which to 
Dr. Thode hangs the whole tale, is a hoop of 
finely chased gold, with the legend '^ Willingly 
thine own " graven upon it in Gothic script. 
It was found in the year 1892 by a peasant 
digging near Pordenone in Friuli. Dr. Thode's 
romantic interest in the original owner of the 
ring was immediately focused and deepened by 
his happening upon a mention of the presence 
of German troops in Friuli. The dates, 1518 
and 1514, agreed with that indicated by the 
workmanship of the ring. Unable to find de- 
tailed reference to any officer except the com- 
mander-in-chief, he turned his search, half by 
chance, to Count Frangipani. Almost at once 
he came upon an account of Christoph's loss 
of a relic during the siege of Osopo, ^^ which 
accident seemed to him to bode only the gravest 
disaster." A letter of the Countess ApoUonia 
to her captive husband, which the indefatigable 
Sanuto has copied, was noted by Dr. Thode 
a few days later. Its contents made him prac- 
tically certain that the relic was contained in, 
or perhaps lost at the same time with, a ring 
which the Countess had given her husband, and 
an exact duplicate of which she ^' prays his 
Lordship " to have graven in Venice that he 
may wear it <* for love's sake and in remem- 
brance of me." The words, she explains, '^ give 
the answer to those other words which stand 
in the ring sent me by your Lordship, the 
which I have by me." 

This is bare fact, a commodity in which Dr. 
Thode does not deal. Every stage of his in- 
vestigation is enriched by anecdote and allu- 
sion, and presented against a rich background 
•of national or race history. One of the most 
-spirited chapters is that upon the Frangipani 
family, — passionate, reckless tricksters, faith- 
less heroes, standing with Venice to-day, then 
back on the Emperor's side to-morrow, pos- 
sessed by no fixed policy except reconquest of 
their ancient possessions, and by no fear but a 
' fugitive one for their God. Count Christoph 

comes honestly by his burning hatred of the 
Signoria, honestly too by the disgusting bru- 
tality with which he celebrates his first decisive 
victory, and by the desperate energy whereby, 
seeking to transform Maximilian's listless ag- 
gression upon Venetian territory into a mad 
war to the death, he brings himself, when he 
has played out his hand, a priceless hostage to 
the dingy Torresella. 

No less strongly drawn than this stormy 
warrior, ** heir of all the passions and ambi- 
tions of his race," is the captive Frangipani, 
fretting through years of bitter inaction in the 
city he hates. Watching the gay life below 
him, he comes to appreciate as never before 
the power wielded by the long, resistless arm 
of the Ten, able in the midst of wars with half 
of Christendom to make their city a haven of 
peace and luxurious security. He writes 
lengthy letters to his wife, ApoUonia, and his 
father, the lawless Bemhardin, — curious 
mixtures of thanks to God who will some day 
give him the victory, propitiatory references 
to the noble Signoria (who overlooked his cor- 
respondence), fervent expressions of love 
'^ eternal and unchanging " for his dear wife 
and revered father, and carefully explicit 
statements of his need of bed-linen, short-hose, 
and good Rhenish ducats for his present ne- 
cessities. Once he writes out, for the diversion 
of his keeper, an account of a dream he had, 
and he has no doubt much leisure for medita- 
tion upon the favors of princes and cardinals 
as well as upon the multitude of his own sins. 
For these, in characteristic Frangipani fashion, 
he repents, now that he has nothing better to 
do. He makes a vow to the Madonna of Chi- 
oggia (which Venice never let him pay), and 
devoutly carves his motto, «* My hope is set 
truly in God," over the grim walls of the 
Torresella. Perhaps he even took some part 
in the translation of the Germano-Boman 
Breviary, which was printed in 1518 — three 
years after Maximilian's Prayer-book, 

But before this, in the third year of his im- 
prisonment, came ApoUonia to Venice, sick 
unto death, but ready *^ to endure the very 
uttermost " to be with her dearly loved lord. 
From this point the romance hastens on to its 
tragic finish. ApoUonia died broken-hearted, 
and the count, left to his own passionate de- 
vices, broke prison and spent the eight years 
until his death in harassing the Venetian fron- 
tiers, fighting with the Turks, now as friend, 
now as enemy, and urging to a white heat the 
strife of factions in Hungary, whose throne is 

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evidenily the goal of his lawleas and ill-fated 

The scholarly aocnracj with which Dr. 
Tbode marshalls his folios is relieved and 
lightened by his almost childlike enthusiasm 
over his results. The tracing out of the ring's 
ownership is truly, as the sub-title of his mono- 
graph puts it, *« an event in his life," a vivid 
experience into which he throws all the senti- 
ment of his quamt personality. And if, a better 
lover than his hero, he cannot suppress an oc- 
casional rhapsody over Apollonia, and perhaps 
reads a bit of himself into the moody Croatian 
Count, his story is surely none the worse for 
the fault. 

*' I read the words — no I I heard them I " 
he announces naively of the motto on his treas- 
ured ring. It is this very freshness and dra- 
matic enthusiasm in his point of view that 
makes his book unique, and alive in spite of 
the fact that its complex setting is absolutely 
new ground for the average reader. 

Another quality rare in the antiquary is our 
author's truly epic feeling for the value of di- 
gression. Not without the predilection of his 
kind for citations and footnotes, he relegates 
his bibliography to a brief appendix ; but he 
revels in legitimate episode, and is never in 
too much haste to indulge in a bit of friendly 
chat upon side-issues. Of Marino Sanuto, the 
Boswell of sixteenth century Venice, he tells 
us that his handwriting is *^ not very legible." 
The citations from another chronicler, a love- 
lorn captain of Vicenza, are prefaced by the 
wholly irrelevant information that it was he 
who first set down in writing the sad story of 
the loves of Romeo and Juliet, as it was told 
him by a romantic fellow in his troop. Albert 
Durer's visit to Venice is introduced apropos 
of a possible meeting between him and Apol- 
lonia's brother the goldsmith, while we catch 
a glimpse of the ^' monkish brawl " just con- 
Yulsing Germany as it cast its shadow over the 
joyless death-bed of Maximilian. 

The present edition of ^^ Frangipani's Ring " 
is a sumptuous one, richly illustrated with very 
beantif ul photographic reproductions. These 
indnde portraits of Maximilian and the Doge 
Leonardo Loredano — a comparison of which 
goes far toward explaining Venetian triumphs, 
— odd cuts from Maximilian's and the Frangi- 
pani Prayer-books, and photographs of Jan 
Sohorel's altar-piece ordered for the church in 
Ober-Velhich by Apollonia's daughter and 
representing, with the kindly leniency of the 
old masters, Saints Christoph and Apollonia 

flanking a central panel of the Holy Family. 
For this elegant book with its wide margined 
pages, its curious chapter-headings designed by 
a friend of Dr. Thode, and its choice repro- 
ductions of Diirer and Bellini, the linen cover 
seems a singularly inappropriate housing. 
Edith E^ellogg Dxtnton. 

The Pkbvbbsion op History.* 

Mr. Ernest Belfort Bax is the author of 
many excellent works on socialism, and in par- 
ticular early made a name and a place for him- 
self in an examination of the religious and 
ethical aspects of the modem socialistic move- 
ment. Of late he has turned his attention to 
history, in monographs upon periods of popular 
revolution and the men who created them. In 
this work he has evidently adopted the method 
of the scholar in the study of his subject, and 
that of the partisan in the writing of his book. 
Great labor in research is exhibited, facts are 
accurately stated and citations are exact, but 
deductions from those facts are so colored by 
a bitter socialistic prejudice as to be entirely 
untrustworthy. Mr. Bax's latest effort, a life 
of Marat, is a notable example of this biased 

Marat, the bite noir of the Girondin his- 
torians of the French Revolution, from whom 
other historians have until recently taken their 
cue, has commonly been described as a man of 
little ability, limited influence, unbounded 
ferocity, and a personality disgusting both in 
its physical and mental characteristics. From 
this dictum Mr. Bax rescues his hero. Mr. 
Bax is not alone nor is he first in portraying 
his subject in the newer light. AH careful 
modern historians coincide with the view which 
shows Marat to be in fact a man of education, 
distinguished as a physician and a scientist. 
A disciple of Rousseau, he sacrificed position 
and wealth to the cause of the people, and by 
the integrity of his conduct, as well as the 
radical character of his political views, main- 
tained great influence over the Parisian popu- 
lace. He, far more than Robespierre and his 
friends, led the Jacobin attack upon the Giron- 
dists, standing at first utterly alone in the bit- 
ter struggle, and winning his victory by sheer 
courage and force of will. He was honestly 
convinced of the necessity of the violence which 
he urged. Earlier histories fail to state with 

•Jmajx Paul Masat: Th« People's Friend. Bj Bknevt 
Belfort Bax. Boston : Small, Maynud A Co. 

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[April 1, 

sufficient emphasis the inflaence he exerted, or 
the devotion of the people to his person. 

Mr. Bax brings out all these qualities of 
person and conditions of inflaence, and in do- 
ing so exhibits nnusnal biographical ability^* 
but he goes far beyond other writers in bis 
unbounded admiration for Marat's abilities, 
and in approval of his acts. It is one thing 
to applaud the purity of Marat's motives, an- 
other to approve the motive itself ; one thing 
to uphold his honesty of purpose in the use of 
violence, another to defend Uie results of that 
violence. 'Mr. Bax yields all his admiration 
to all that Marat did or wished to do. He does 
more than this : he defends every act and every 
incident of Marat's life with the ardor of a 
fanatical partisan, while the results of such de- 
fense are published under the guise of a critical 
and a scholarly examination of his subject 
Moreover, Mr. Bax is either dishonest or illog- 
ical in the arguments advanced in Marat's be- 
half, e. g.y Marat denied any honesty of purpose 
or patriotic enthusiasm to the nobles for their 
surrender of feudal rights on the famous night 
of August 4. That Marat should have been 
thus unjust, is explained by Mr. Bax on the 
ground of political necessity ; he could not risk 
tiie loss of political influence by approval of 
this act of the nobles, ** and hence from the 
politician's point of view, rather than the psy- 
chologist's, Marat's caustic criticism appeared 
completely justified." But inasmuch as Mr. 
Bax invariably measures his hero from the 
standpoint of the psychologist, as he must in 
order to defend his acts with any degree of 
success, his inconsistency here weakens his 

Naturally the author's greatest difficulty 
arises from the necessity to explain and con- 
done Marat's continual invocation of the use 
of violence to secure and maintain social and 
political revolution. It is certain that Marat 
believed force necessary to secure these ends, 
and was not only not bloodthirsty, as his 
enemies accused him of being, but was even 
personally distressed at the necessity of using 
such means. But Mr. Bax is not fortunate in 
his treatment of this subject. Writing of 
various exhortations in the Ami du PeupU to 
lop off the heads of arktocrats, he says : 

" There can be no doubt whatever that by siieh atter- 
anoes as these, Marat, whose single-minded object was 
to saTe the Revolution from the yarious plots which 
there is no deujring were at this time being eonstantly 
hatched against it, was only concerned to keep public 
attention idiTe to the mancsuTres of the Court and its 

He concludes with a quotation from a ** Fort- 
nightly Beview " article by Mr. Bowen Graves. 
" Threats of bloodshed are, no doubt, only too fre- 
quent, but always in language such as, to an impartial 
mind, excludes the idea of calculation. One day it is 
ten thousand heads that must fall, the next it is a hun- 
dred thousand, a third it drops to fifty thousand, a 
fourth to twenty, and so on. A few hours before his 
death, he tells us in his journal what he meant by them: 
* I used them,' he says, * with a view to produce a strong 
impression on men's minds, and to destroy all fatal 
security.' " 

Thus Marat is here acquitted of any intention 
actually to carry out his threats. But in an- 
other chapter, treating of Marat as a political 
power, Mr. Bax, in order to prove the personal 
magnetism of hb hero, recounts a conversation 
between Marat and Bobespierre in which the 
latter said he supposed the *^ sanguinary de- 
mands for the blood of enemies of liberty were 
only spoken in the air, and were not seriously 
meant." Marat indignantly denied this. 

<< As to its being no mere rhetorical form, he assured 
Robespierre that, after the horrible aifair of Nancy, he 
could haYC decimated the barbarous deputies who ap- 
plauded it; that he would willingly baye sent the in- 
famous judges of the Chatelet to the stake; that again, 
after the massacre of the Champ de Mars, if he had 
but found two thousand men animated with the same 
sentiments as himself, he would have placed himself 
at their head, poignarded the Grcneral (Liafayette) in 
the midst of his brigand-battalions, burnt the despot in 
his palace, and strangled the traitorous representatiyes 
in their seats, as he had declared at the time. < Robes- 
pierre listened to me with terror,' he says, *he grew 
pale and was silent for some time.' " 

So after having asserted that Marat did not 
really mean to proceed to extremities, Mr. Bax, 
in his desire to emphasise his hero's political 
influence, reverses his previous judgment. 

These extracts refer to a period when Marat 
had not yet had the opportunity of putting 
into effect his threats of violence. When, 
later, Marat really became a leader in the Sep- 
tember massacres, Mr. Bax shifts the ground 
of his defense to an insistence upon the purity 
of Marat's motives, and to a favorite compari- 
son with the acts of Thiers at the time of the 
Parisian commune of 1871. He says : 

" The thousand odd yictims (of the September Mas- 
sacres) were almost wholly well-to-do hangers-on of 
the Court. But who were the twenty or thirty thousand 
yictims of 1871 ? Almost wholly workmen, partisans 
of a cause avowedly hostile to wealth and priyilege, 
and therefore hated by wealth and privilege. Herein 
lies the ground of the divergence in the world's judg- 
ment of the two events. If the < world ' would only be 
candid in the matter, and avow openly that it likes 
well-to-do Royalist plotters, and dislikes Proletarian 
insurgents, we should know where we were, and the 
issue would at least be clear." 

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Patting aside other oonsiderations tending to 
form ^e ** world's " judgment upon these two 
eyents, it is at least clear that a policy of 
▼iolence, solely destmctive in its purpose, and 
failing in its objects, cannot stand in popular 
judgment, with a yiolent constructive policy 
that succeeded • Looking only at the purity 
of motive, as does Mr. Bax in defense of Marat, 
it is difficult to see why an equal purity of 
motive should not be ascribed to Thiers. Yet 
Thiers is a ** scoundrel," while Marat is a hero. 
In a like manner Mr. Bax characterizes each 
of Marat's <q»ponents : Lafayette is a rascal, 
Mirabeau a traitor, Bailly a silly*minded 
savant. The royalists and constitutional mon- 
archists are always denied any patriotic honesty 
of purpose, and Marat is always right in re- 
garding them as intriguing plotters, and fit 
subjects for violent retribution. Surely if the 
** lying Carlyle " has perverted history in the 
interest of a class, Mr. Bax is equally guilty 
in the interest of a social theory. Of Marat's 
assassination he writes : 

** Oh, exponents of a class public opinioni satellites 
of priTileged power and wealth, whose tap of indigna- 
tion and gassy horror is always tnmed on to the full 
whenerer a repreeentatire of privileged class-interest is 
smitten down — jon who can slaver a slain monarch or 
statesman with nndesenred adulation, who can fulmi- 
nate against the author of his death at the top of jour 
Toioes, when will yon find your cant no longer profitable? 
What has been your attitude towards the 'People's 
Friend ' and the dastardly wretch who murdered him — 
her siek and helpless yictim ? As one might only ex- 
pect, your sympathy has changed sides. Your * horror ' 
at assassination has suddenly evaporated. For the man 
who suffered a four years' martyrdom for his convic- 
tions and for the cause of the disinherited, and who 
finally sealed his testimony with his blood, you have no 
words but those of coarse vituperation and the foulest 
ealumnies that malice can divise. ... To every un- 
prejudiced reader of history the deed of Charlotte Cor- 
day must appear as the most dastardly, cruel, and 
wanton political assassination in the world's archives." 

Invective is not the weapon best suited to 
win a hostile '^ world," nor will a denial of 
patriotic motives to the opponents of Marat 
enable Mr. Bax to convince the ^' unprejudiced 
reader of history." Thus his very partisan- 
ship forbids the realization of his object. Has 
he an object? The ''lying Carlyle" did not 
intentionally pervert history, for he gave the 
facts as he Imew them. Mr. Bax, idealizing 
Marat, stating the facts of his life and influence, 
and mis-stating the motives of other patriots, 
seeks to emphasize the rights of a propaganda 
of socialistic reform, as against all constituted 
government, and to deny to such governments 
the right of self-defense. He has not merely 

perverted history ; he has prostituted it, for it 
is impossible to believe that a man of Mr. Bax's 
ability and scholarship, as exhibited in other 
writings, ib in this instance either uncon- 
sciously dishonest or honestly illogical. It is 
unfortunate for the reputation of Marat that 
the author's purpose, evident to the most casual 
reader, casts an unjust doubt on the real great- 
ness of his hero. Epheaim D. Adams. 


In easy and popular style. Professor B. W. 
Moore has presented the main outlines of Ger- 
man literature in his *' History of German 
Literature." The book is a revision and exten- 
sion of a course prepared for English readers, 
which has been tested for several years in col- 
lege classes. Its purpose is to offer in a concise 
and attractive way a covrse for students and 
others who wish to know something about ** the 
great men and the important works of Grerman 
literature." The characteristics of the different 
literary movements are clearly stated; the 
writers of each period are treated according to 
their importance, and brief rSsuntSs give a 
general knowledge of their best works. 

As is to be expected, the main portion is 
devoted to the literature of the modem period, 
beginning with Luther. Luther's work in 
giving to the German nation a uniform, stan- 
dard literary language is justly praised as his 
«« greatest service to literature. Especially 
through his translation of the Bible, which 
same into the people's hands all through Ger- 
many, did this new; High German gain a foot- 
hold, and become the exclusive literary lan- 
guage, that has remained until the present 
time " (p. 69). Perhaps more space should 
have been devoted to hb work, which was the 
most important of any before the classical 
period. His reforms were not confined to re- 
ligious beliefs, but influenced all parts of life 
by exalting the individual and stimulating 
personal effort. His prose writings show great 
variety of style, and contributed much to the 
development of the literature by arousing a 
national feeling and stirring men to mental 

The classical period receives the fullest 
treatment, as it deserves. The opening of the 
period by Klopstock, the development under 

*Hi8TOBT ov OxaxAjr LiTXBATcnEW. By Rohert Web- 
ber Moore, Prolenor of Germao in Colgate UniTenitj. 
Hamilton, N. Y.: Colgate UniTeisity Preat. 

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[Apnl 1, 

LeBBiBg and Herder to the full maturity under 
Goethe and Schiller, are well deaoribed. As 
with special preference the author dwells on 
the two greatest names, the poets of Faust 
and WdUenstein. The latter he calls ''the 
first and greatest poet " in the popular mind. 
**His poetry by its wide circulation and its 
natural genuineness has nourished in the Ger- 
man people the most noble sentiments — love 
for the fatherland, for freedom, for honor, for 
justice and truth, for friendship and fidelity '' 
(p. 176). In Gt>ethe, on the other hand, 
** were united Klopstock's ability to enrich the 
language, Lessing's clearness of vision and 
bold individuality, Wieland's elegance and 
grace. Herder's universality, and Schiller's 
rhythm and rhetoric. His works and his in- 
^uence will endure as long as language lasts " 
(p. 187). 

Of the multitude of authors of the present 
age, the most important are briefly dbcussed, 
and the various literary tendencies are clearly 
brought out. The tendency during the last 
few years is described as a '' revolt of the 
working classes against the middle classes.'* 
Some will miss familiar authors, although the 
list of those mentioned is quite complete. 
Bertha von Siittner*s ^^ Waffen Nieder " might 
have been used as a good illustration of the 
^'novels of purpose" (p. 261). Johanna 
Ambrosius, whose poetry so touched the people 
recently, and Bosegger, whose simple sketches 
are fuU of the breath of nature, seem to de- 
serve some brief recognition. 

Credit might have been given (p. 198) to 
the scholarly labors of Jacob and William 
Grimm in the domain of medissval literature 
and especially in legend and folk-lore. Men- 
tion might also have been made of the cele- 
brated historians of the present age, such as 
Mommsen, Ranke, von Sybel, and Treitschke, 
whose works are ornaments of literature as well 
as of scholarship. But these criticisms are 
slight compared to the merit of the work as a 
whole, which will prove a boon to college 
classes and to many general readers. About 
a hundred illustrations, all of authentic or his- 
torical nature, are an attractive feature. 

W. A. Chambeslin. 

Chablottk M. Yongb, chiefly known for her numer- 
ous books for girls, died March 24, in Wincheflter, En- 
gland, at the age of 78. Miss Yonge's first story was 
published when she was but 21, and her work iias been 
so prolific that the titles of her books now fill eight 
pages in the British Museum library catalogue. 

Bkcbnt Economic I«iTBBATirBs«* 

For several deeades past, studies made by English- 
ipeaktng eeonomists in the theory of distribution 
have been mostly of a fragmentary character. The 
promalgatlon of the law of marginal utility by 
Jevoni and the Austrian writers has been followed 
by a mass of literature dealing with theories of 
value and price, and numerous attempts have been 
made to apply these theories to the valuation of 
labor, the origin of interest, and to explaining the 
existence of sarplns-valnes in the shape of profits 
and rent. Not nntil recent years have there been 
serious attempts made to harmoniae and consolidate 
these theories into a general theory of distribntion. 
Of these attempts Done seems more satisfactory 
or more likely to find a permanent place in the 
literature of economics than the works of Messrs. 
Clark and Hobson now before us. 

Both writers have contributed largely to the de- 
velopment and extension of the Uieories above 
mentioned. Professor Clark's theoretical work 
alone covers a period of twenty-five years, while, 
for at least a decade, Mr. Hobson has been promi- 
nent among the British economists of the newest 

There is not space within the limits of this article 
to do more than give a scanty notice to the theory of 
distribution developed by each author, and there is 
no room to institute an adequate comparison between 
them. Perhaps even a lengthy comparison would 
at present be premature, since Professor Clark's 
work is an unfinished one, and it is only in the 
second volume which he promises that we may ex- 
pect to find work analogous to that done by Mr. 
Hobson in his present treatise. Nevertheless, there 
are some points of resemblance which may be noted, 
and some points of differenee between the theories 
of the two writers which may be briefly touched 
upon. Both writers agree in making the price of 
commodities the starting point in the theory of 
distribntion. Professor Clark takes normal price 
as his starting point, for he is investigating distri- 
bution in a static society in which all disturbing 
forces are eliminated and competition alone has 
free play. Mr. Hobson, on the other hand, takes 
as his starting point the market price of eommodi- 

* Thb Distbibutiom ov Wsalth. By John Bates Clsrk. 
New Tork : The Maomillan Co. 

Thb EooNomcs ov Distbibutiok. By John A. Hobson. 
New Tork: The Maomiilaii Co. 

Thb Tbust PsoBiiSM. By Jeiemiah Whipple Jenks. 
New YoA : MoCinre, PhiUipe <fc Co. 

Thb Tbusts. By WUUam MiUer CoUier. New Yoric: 
Hie Baker <fc Taylor Co. 

SooNOaoo Cbisbs. By Edward D. Jonas. New York: 
The MacmilUui Co. 

RUBA.L Wbalth and Wbutabb. By George T. Fair- 
ehild. New York : The Mawnillan Co. 

Thb CtosPBL OF Wbauth, and Other Timely Essays. By 
Andrew Camegie. New York : The Centnry Co. 

Wab and Laboub. By Michael Anitehkow. New York : 
Lfongmaas, Green, ft Co. 

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. beeaose his study of distribotion begins with 
the barguning proeess whieh goes on in aetaal life 
between boyer And seller. Competition does not 
in taeh a ease fix the price of eommodities, but 
only the limits below which the seller will not go 
and above which the buyer will not go. Between 
these two limits the aetaal price is determined by 
the snperior bargaining power of a single bnyer or 
seller. This leads to an element of forced gain 
that aceraes to that side of bnyers or sellers which 
possesses the shrewdest bargainer. In addition to 
this, there is a differential gain shared in by all 
bnyers and sellers whose subjective valuations lie 
beyond the limits within which the price is fixed. 
In a static state, such as is described by Professor 
Clark, no element of forced gain could appear. 
Bach party to the bargain in fixing a price would 
secure the full measure of its productivity. Applied 
to the case of the factors of production, free com- 
petition tends ^*to give labor what it creates, to 
capital what it creates, and to entrepreneurs what 
the coordinating function creates." In both theories, 
the element of differential gain still remains. If, 
for example, on a given amount of land a number 
of units of labor of equal productivity be applied 
unit by unit, the productivity of the labor will 
diminish after a certain point has been reached. 
As the units of labor are supposedly equal, the 
product of the final unit will fix the wages of each 
and every other unit, and a rent will accrue to land 
as a result of the surplus created by the application 
of the earlier units. This is rent in the Bicardian 
aense, a differential gain secured by land as a result 
of the diminishing productivity of labor upon the 
land. But we may have the same thing in the 
ease of capital. The application of successive units 
of labor to a fixed amount of capital will result in 
differential gains which accrue in this instance to 
capital. Beversing the process and applying units 
of capital to a given amount of labor, we find capital 
aabject to the same law of diminishing returns, and 
labor in this case secures a surplus, rent. This ex- 
tension of rent by Professor Clark to all the factors 
of production is exactly paralleled in the discussion 
by Mr. Hobson. Corresponding to the forced gain 
in the sale of commodities, there may be a marginal 
rent in the sale of the factors of production which 
is not the same as the differentiid rent explained 
by Bicardo as accruing to land and by Professor 
Clark as due to all the factors of production. We 
have already stated that Professor Clark does not 
find this forced gain or marginal rent existing in a 
atatie society. What we here wish to emphasize is 
that both writers agree in extending the conception 
of differential rents to labor and capital as well as 
to land. Mr. Hobson holds that we cannot speak 
of a margin of employment for land any more than 
we can for capital and labor. If we can say that 
the worst land in cultivation bears no rent, we can 
just as well say that the worst placed capital gets 
no interest and the worst employed labor receives 
no wage. If this theory be true that a differential 

gain may under certain circumstances accrue to 
labor, it is clear that we cannot speak of an expro- 
priation of the product of labor by capitalists and 
land-owners. The distribution of the surplus will 
depend upon the relative supply of the three factors 
of production. If labor is scarce as compared to 
capital and land, the surplus will go to labor, and 
we might with equal fairness speak of the exploita- 
tion of capital by the laborer. There is no ex- 
ploitation involved in giving to any factor the share 
which the final unit produces. 

The recent interest in trusts has brought forward 
numerous books, pamj^ets, and magazine articles 
dealing with that interesting and perplexing prob- 
lem. Among the discussions of this topic most 
favorably received have been the recent books by 
Professor Jenks and Mr. Collier, which must here 
be dealt with more briefly than they deserve. Both 
works are written for the generid reader rather 
than for the advanced student in economics, and 
with few exceptions they contain little that has not 
been made available to the student by earlier and 
more complete investigations. The scope of .the in- 
quiry is practically the same in each of the vol- 
umes, and the two authors agree in the main in 
their conclusions. Both writers admit that the chief 
cause of the growth of industrial combinations in 
the past quarter century has been intense and often 
wasteful competition. Both authors also agree in 
the statement that special privileges such as patents, 
tariff legislation, and railway discriminations, have 
often aided in this growth. Professor Jenks is, 
however^ more logical in his attitude toward these 
privileges than is Mr. Collier. For the latter, hav- 
ing admitted that competition is the chief and suf- 
ficient cause of trusts, maintains that the abolition 
of these special privileges would cause the disap- 
pearance of the majority of the trusts. It should 
also be noted that Professor Jenks views with more 
concern the^disappearance of competition as a force 
which controls prices, than does Mr. Collier. Both 
authors, however, regard potential competition as 
in the main a sufficient safeguard for the consumer 
of trust-made commodities in cases where neither 
legal nor natural monopolies exist. A study of the 
prices charged by some of the great industrial com- 
binations such as the sugar, whiskey, kerosene, tin- 
plate, and wire and steel trusts, made by Professor 
Jenks for the United States Industrial Commission, 
leads him to the conclusion that while prices , have 
fallen since the establishment of these combinations 
the general level of prices is somewhat higher than 
would have probably prevailed had competition had 
full play in these industries. The statements often 
made by trust managers that industrial combina- 
tions have made the market for their products more 
steady seems to have little justification. The temp- 
tation to raise prices, or to maintain them at a high 
level, is so strong that when once a monopoly has 
been established few trust managers have been able 
to resist the desire for high profits. This in the 

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[April 1, 

ease of eapitalistie monopolies has inevitably re- 
solted in the bringing into the field of new capital 
to compete with the trast, and before the latter 
oonld regain its former sopremaey it has been ob- 
liged to bay np or coerce these competing estab- 

The most serious menace to the poblic from 
the tmsts is probably to be found in Uie methods 
by which these combinations are being organised 
and manipulated. The prinmpal sufferer is not the 
consumer but the investor. The great success of 
certain of these combinations has brought into the 
field of corporation finance within recent years a 
class of peraons known as promoters, whose business 
eonsists in the efforts to form combinations among 
industrial establishments which have hitherto been 
subject to the control of competition. In ^hh way 
industrial consolidation has been brought about in 
many cases where it would not have taken place, at 
least for some time to come, had natural forces alone 
controlled. The promoter is usually paid for his ef- 
forts by common stock issued beyond the capitalised 
valuation of the property of the consolidated com- 
panies. In addition to receiving preferred stoch, 
whose par value equals the total capitalized value of 
their property, the owners of the establishments thus 
consolidated usually receive a bonus in the shape of 
large amounts of common stock. There is further^ 
more the underwriter, usually a banker, who under- 
takes the sale of the stock. He also receives his pay 
in common stock. It is not difficult to see that tn 
this way tmsts are capitalized far beyond the limits 
which a prudent financial administration would 
warrant. One of the most prominent of our present 
industrial combinations has in this way been cap- 
iUlized at $60,000,000, while the total selling? value 
of the properties consolidated was only $18,000,000. 
Excessive capitalization means stock and bank 
speculation, losses to investors, dangers to consumers 
from an attempt to raise prices so as to pay divi- 
dends on the stock thus issued, instability to busi- 
ness, and perhaps a panic brought about by the 
collapse of these undertakings. 

Of the remedies proposed, the one most insisted 
upon by both the above writers is publicity in re- 
gard to the finances and the methods employed by 
these combinations. Publicity alone would prob- 
ably cause the disappearance of some of the chief 
evils connected with trust organization and man- 
agement, and until we have this publicity, as Pro- 
fessor Jenks well says, we cannot proceed wisely in 
the application of further remedies. Both writers 
apparently admit that the trust has broaght much 
good and that it has come to stay. Prohibition has 
everywhere proved a failure, and is not recom- 
mended by either writer. The abolition of the 
special privileges which have aided in the growth 
of trust formation, and the prevention of over- 
capitalization, are of course advocated wherever the 
removal of these special privileges would not cause 
a serious derangement of industry. Mr. Collier 
would add to these remedies by making directors 

of these great corporations responsible to the fuU 
amount of their property instead of giving to them 
the limited liability conceded to other stockholders. 
In case these remedies proved insufficient, he would 
have acts of monopoly declared a crime, leaving' to 
the courts the difficult task of deciding whether or 
not monopoly really existed. 

Professor Edward D. Jones, of the Univenity of 
Wisconsin, is responsible for a well-written little 
volume on << Economic Crises." This is the first 
systematic treatment of this subject in its entirety 
that we have had in English. Professor Jones 
does not undertake to discuss at any length partic- 
ular crises and their causes. His work is chieAy a 
review of the theories of crises which have been 
brought forward by other writers, and a critieal 
examination of these theories in the light of our 
present economic knowledge. The treatment is 
somewhat fragmentary in character, and the author 
is perhaps a little too dogmatic in his own state- 
ment of opinions, but on the whole the discussion 
of the various theories is made in an impartial 
manner, and the conclusions seem to be the result 
of sound reasoning. There is an able chapter on 
the periodicity of crises in which the author, while 
not denying the existence of periodicity, claims that 
the proof of such regularity in the appearance of 
crises is not yet sufficient, and that no explanation 
for such periodicity has been offered which is at all 
adequate. Professor Jones lays great stress on the 
abuse of credit as the cause of crises, but points out 
that there is a danger in attributing crises to a 
single kind of credit abuse such as biuiking specu- 
lation. In the final chapter on the " Psychology 
of Crises," the author studies the individualistic 
motives underlying crises. These industrial dis- 
turbances he declares to be due in large degree to 
a tendency toward speculation, and to undue optim- 
ism in regard to the outcome of business projects. 
The chief preventives the author finds in the snb- 
^ordination' of economic interests to other motives 
and in such an increase of information concerning 
the facts of the modern industrial world as is to be 
gained through commercial education. These rem- 
edies, however, furnish only a partial solution. 
<<The final extinguishment of crises will come 
through the progress of general economic evolution 
rather than as the result of the application of 
specific remedies.*' 

The title of Dr. Fairchild's book, « Rural Wealth 
and Welfare," the experience of its author who for 
thirty-five years has been connected with agricul- 
tural colleges, and the place of the treatise in 
«< The Rural Science Series," all would lead one to 
expect that the book was a treatise on agricultural 
economics, for which there is at present a genuine 
need. It is extremely disappointing, therefore, to 
find that Dr. Fairchild's book is only another treat- 
ise on elementary economics, differing in no way 
from the average text-book on that subject, except 
that perhaps the majority of the illustrations are 

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taken from fann life. The author has prepared 
some interesting and yaluable charts intended to 
show that oonditions of demand and supply are the 
eontroUing factors in the making of prices of agri- 
eoltaral commodities, and that speculative move- 
ments have exerted bat little inflaence. He is wise 
in his insistence on the valae of aocorate crop sta- 
tistics to the agricaltnral class, and points oat that 
sach information woald ^Mo more to destroy the 
demoralissing force of mere speculation than any pos- 
sible legal enactment" There are some sensible 
chapters on banking, insurance, and the tariff, and 
here and elsewhere there are good suggestions as to 
methods by which farmers may make use of division 
of labor, credit associations, and other means by 
which modern business has attained to successful 
organixation and results. The value of these sug- 
gestions leads one to wish that this part of the work 
had been more fully worked out, leaving to other 
treatises the statement of elementary principles 
common to the whole field of economics. Dr. Fair- 
child takes an optimistic view of the drift of the 
farming population into the cities. He considers 
this merdy a means of readjusting industrial ar- 
rangements, and one which is made possible and 
necessary by the wide use of agricultural machinery 
which has enabled three men to do the work that 
fourteen did forty years ago. Even the abandon- 
ment of New England farms he does not consider 
a great social loss, though it may have injured in- 
dividuals. *< These lands will find a profitable use 
in the wood lots throughout the East and in grazing 
ranches through the West, with slight permanent 
loss. They are not signs of poverty but of a deveU 
oping trait, just as the abandoned country woolen 
mills tell the story of immense growth in factory 

Mr. Carnegie's book, « The Gospel of Wealth," 
consists of a group of essays, all of which have 
appeared in English or American magazines or 
periodicals. They cover a wide range of subjects 
biographical, economic, social, and political, but 
may perhaps be conveniently divided into three 
groups. The first five essays deal with social and 
industrial questions, the next two with the recent 
political tendencies in this country, while the last 
four deal with English political problems and ten- 
dencies. Mr. Carnegie's well-known views con- 
cerning the use to be made of large accumulations 
of wealth are set forth in the essay which gives the 
title to the book. Mr. Carnegie's natural attitude 
as a man who has accumulated an immense fortune, 
toward the accumulation of wealth, leads him to 
attach great importance in the social and industrial 
sphere to individual leadership. He is inclined 
even at this late day to agree with Adam Smith 
that enterprises undertaken by joint stock companies 
are likely to prove failures unless they are con- 
trolled by a few able men. For the same reason 
he does not place much confidence in cooperative 
enterprises as a means of solving the labor problem. 
He takes a Sjrmpathetic attitude toward Trade- 

Unions, and is a firm believer in the justice of the 
sliding scale. Mr. Carnegie deplores strikes, but 
calls upon employers to observe patience when 
strikes occur, and he recognizes the equity of the 
striking man's commandment, *' Thou shalt not take 
thy neighbor's job." Mr. Carnegie's attitude on 
the question of Imperialism is well-known, and 
scarcely requires comment He deals fairly with 
his opponents, and gives them credit for sincerity. 
His views concerning British administration in 
India, and the administraUon of tropical countries 
in general, are doubtless equally sincere, but they 
are opposed, it should be said, to the opinions of 
men who have observed less superficially and have 
studied the question more profoundly. Mr. Car- 
negie opposes the imperial federation of Britain 
and her colonies, a scheme which he regards as 
impracticable as well as undesirable, but he dreams 
of an Anglo-Saxon alliance in which all English- 
speaking nations shall share. Nothing, however, 
has done so much to hasten the realization of such 
a project as the recent cooperation of the two great 
English-speaking nations in the far East, a move- 
ment which could not have taken place had it not 
been for our acquisition of Eastern possessions 
which Mr. Carnegie has so strenuously and vigor- 
ously opposed. 

** War and Labour" is another of the numerous 
attempts made by political philosophers to promote 
aniversal peace. The author, M. Anitchkow, is, 
however, scarcely an idealist He does not think 
that this peace can be made a never-ending one. 
<< War," he says, <* is the lot of mankind and the 
inevitable destiny of nations." In the first part of 
his treatise, the author reviews and criticises the 
various proposals which have been made by other 
writers to secure the same end. He decides that 
neither the increase of armaments, the greater de- 
structiveness of modern artillery, the efforts of 
peace societies, nor international agreements and 
courts of arbitration, will suffice to prevent the 
outbreak of war ; and he supports his statements 
with an abundance of historical evidence te show 
that the above mentioned methods have in the past 
failed to achieve this end. In Chapter I. of Book II. 
the author strikes the keynote of his argument. It 
is his claim that the prime cause of war in modern 
times is no longer religious or ethnographic differ- 
ences, but trade rivalry, which has led to modem 
tariffs, these . imposts being the chief cause of 
international irritation. The administration of 
tariffs, the author endeavors to show, differs in no 
material respect from the preliminaries to war. 
With the improvement in means of communication 
this administration becomes more difficult and more 
warlike in character. The chief use of troops in 
some countries even now, is to protect customs ad- 
ministration. The abolition of tariff restrictions 
would remove the chief cause of modern internat- 
ional hostility. The author in his hostility to tariff 
legislation would not even allow of fiscal tariffs, 
preferring to resort to direct taxation. He is much 

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[Apra 1, 

inflaenced by Henry G^rge, and one of his best 
chapters u little more than a re-statement of Henry 
Gorge's doctrine contained in << Protection and 
Free Trade."- He is also moeh inflaeneed by Leroy- 
Beaalien, bat claims that the great French econo- 
mist has not dared to go the whole way in his 
advocacy of a universal market and absolute free- 
trade. Freedom of trade and freedom of migration, 
says M. Anitchkow, woold remove the only causes 
of contemporary antagonism. The safety of foreign 
investments would &us be guaranteed, for l£e 
cause of jealousy would be removed. The third 
part of the book seems to have little relation to 
what has gone before. It consists in the main of 
loosely constructed arguments for freedom in in- 
dustry, technical education, industrial cooperation, 
government ownership of railways, etc. The author 
wanders in a dreamy sort of fashion from one ideal 
to another, believing them all to be resultants of 
his proposed reforms^ without stopping to indicate 
how these reforms are to realized, or why they are 

to be considered inevitable, 

M. B. Hammond. 

Bri£F8 on Nsw Books. 

jgmjiortjr ^'* Sidney Whitman's '' Life of the 

FnderieVi life Emperor Frederick " (Harper), ed- 
and ckaradtr. j^^^ ^j.^^^ ^^ German of Margaretha 
von Poschinger, appears simultaneously with the 
final instalment of the more voluminous original. 
Mr. Whitman has selected from FraUlein Posch- 
inger's mass of material such portions as seemed 
most likely to interest English readers, and he has 
eliminated so far as possible all second-hand com- 
ment and appreciation. The volume is thus in the 
main composed of conversations, letters, and per- 
sonalia of monarchs, soldiers, savants, statesmen, 
and men of letters, so arranged as to form an ac- 
count of the public and private life of the Emperor 
told in the words of witnesses able in most cases to 
speak directly to the facts. The inherent defects, 
as well as merits, of biography made on this plan 
are obvious ; and Mr. Whitman is at least to be 
credited with a very good piece of literary joiner- 
work, in which the materials are sound and well- 
chosen, and put together in a workmanlike way. It 
may be added that in many eases the documents so 
laboriously assembled by the pious care of FraUlein 
Poschinger have an interest of their own to which 
that which they owe to their bearing on the career 
or character of Emperor Frederick is secondary. 
The life of ^* Unser Fritz " was largely part and 
parcel of some of the most important phases of the 
history of his time ; his character was such as to 
gild with a ray of splendor what future history will 
probably regard as the declining day of European 
royalty of the old type. It may perhaps be urged 
that not absolutism but liberalism is heir to the 
lustre of his virtues ; that in many things he was at 
heart a generous apostate from the tradition of his 

race. It was a true instbct which led the people 
to regard him, not as a being of superior clay, but 
as <• ITtuer Fritz" — our Fritz. Ajd ardent cham- 
pion of tolerance, he, opposed every ezercbe of ar- 
bitrary power; a master of the military art, he 
abhorred war, and the laurels of victory turned to 
the cypress of mourning in his gnup. '^ I detest 
this butchery," he sadly remarked on the morrow 
of triumph ; << I have neyer longed for war laurels, 
and would willingly have left such fame to others 
without envying Uiem." At once the people's choice 
and the representative of the hereditary principle, 
he was indeed ^' every inch a king." His mantle 
has scarcely fallen upon his bustling and eccentric 
successor — who has, however, by no means fulfilled 
the unflattering expectations iformed of him. Mr. 
Whitman's book is interesting and full of meat, and 
it is presentably got up. 

AnmoMmu ^'* Cr«orge Parker Winship's 

hOtUogrofhg <« Cabot Bibliography" (Dodd) is 

^fik4 Oabou, mj exhaustive and scholarly piece of 
work. An introduction of some fifty pages gives a 
concise account of what is actually known about 
the Cabots. Mr. Winship has distinguished clearly 
between the historical value of strictly contemporary 
evidence and that of the later gossip of the histor- 
ians, whose personal acquaintance with Sebastian 
Cabot has blinded us to the carelessness and indi- 
rectness of their testimony. Upon the same prin- 
ciple, he has relegated the legends of the so-called 
*' Cabot map " to a position of secondary importance, 
no certain connection between the map and the 
navigator having been established. The biblio- 
graphy proper consists of two parts, — a list of 
early documents, books, and maps relating to the 
Cabots, and a list of the later books, articles, and 
addresses that have been printed about them, — 
containing altogether nearly six hundred titles. 
The titles are supplemented by excellent explana- 
tory and critical notes, which constitute the chief 
value of the work. We have but one fault to find 
with the bibliography, and that respects its arrange- 
ment in alphabetical order. In our opinion a 
chronological order would have much better served 
the purpose of the lists. It would have disclosed 
the original material in the order of historical se- 
quence, and have distinguished more clearly its 
relative value. It would have grouped the later 
discussions around the successive storm centres of 
the Cabot controversy, and have developed natur- 
ally its origin and subsequent course. An index of 
names would then have rendered the whole easy of 
reference. As it is, the lists are somewhat bewil- 
dering and difficult to read. The order suggested 
would have made them easy and interesting — an 
extraordinary thing for a bibliography. Probably 
it will be said that the book is not intended to be 
read, but it is certainly a distinct advantage to 
make a book readable, if it can be done. Mr. 
Winship's knowledge of Cabot sources and literature 
is so extensive, and his judgment so sound, thatfit 

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woold be a pity for him to rest with this work. 
Mr. Beasley gave us a good popular aecoant of the 
Cabots, bat a definitive statement still remains to 
be written — a book that shall be final as far as a 
book can be. Mr. Winship seems to have every 
qaalification for writing snch a book, and we trast 
Uiat he has it in contemplation. 

The small volume by Dr. David F. 
Lincoln, entitled ** Sanity of Mind" 
(Putnam), is one of those meritori- 
008 works which one is disposed to criticise rather 
harshly because it could so easily have been better. 
It contains good material, served rather indiffer- 
ently well and with no executive skill. It has an 
important and a timely message, and along with 
other works of its class, will serve a good purpose 
in acquainting the interested public wiUi the general 
nature of some of the influences that ma^e for 
mental health and disease. It brings the reader 
* within speaking distance of mental abnormalities, 
and shows him how modern views of physiological 
and psychological functions may be applied in wise 
precept as well as in specific advice. The lesson 
of the volume is essentially practical; its tone is 
educational and sociological. It considers the fac- 
tors of heredity and environment in the production 
of abnormally tending influences, and points out 
where the optimistic reformer may most effectively 
apply his philanthropic energies, and where the 
educator must be most actively upon his guard. It 
does this with moderate success, but not nearly so 
effectively as must be done before this type of ideas 
becomes absorbed into the thinking of the educated 
pablie. One of the points most successfully em- 
phasised is the value of activity in the cure and 
prevention of abnormal tendencies, not merely in 
extreme cases but in little ways. One is at once 
reminded of James's classic chapter on habit, when 
the author, in insisting upon the necessity that ac- 
quisition should leave a tangible deposit in action, 
says : '* Probably the most insidious form of mental 
▼olnptuousness is the hearing of brilliant sermons 
and lectures." On the whole, one forms a more 
faworable impression of the author than of his 
book ; and yet any one interested in the spread of 
tbe point of view which Dr. Lincoln advocates, and 
sympathetic with his sound and practical purposes, 
will be glad to recommend the work as a step in 
the right direction. 

The awakened sense of nationalism, 
resulting in the struggles on every 
hand-of subject peoples to cast off 
the joke of their foreign oppressors, is, together 
with the concomitant spread of constitutionalism or 
democracy, the central fact of nineteenth-century 
political history. The names of the leading heroes 
in the several wars for national independence are, 
or should be, familiar ones to a generation which 
now seems in some danger of forgetting the prin- 
eiplo in defence of whiish so much blood has been 

spilt — the principle, namely, that every people, 
however small, which is fit for sel^-government, or 
is demonstrably well on the way to that fitness, <* is 
and of right ought to be free and independent,'' and 
nnpreyed upon by the commercial greed or terri- 
tprial ambition of its stronger neighbors. In a vol- 
ume of 328 pages, Mr. Edgar Sanderson tells in 
popular style the stories of leading << Hero-Patriots 
of tbe Nineteenth Century" (Crowell). Among 
the names inscribed on Mr. Sanderson's roll of 
honor are Diaz, Hofer, Bolivar, Bozzaris, Garibaldi, 
Kanaris, Abdel-Eader, Schamyl, Manin, Mazzini. 
Mr. Sanderson writes clearly and directly, avoiding 
the pitfalls of florid description and high-flown 
panegyric, and wisely letting the plain facts about 
his heroes speak for themselves. The narratives 
appear to be based on trustworthy sources of infor- 
mation, and the book is on the whole a good one 
for popular reading at a time when the popular 
mind needs a tonic that may. serve to brace and 
fortify its sense of the claims and rights of aspiring 
nationalism. There are several portraits. 

LaMi^iwtM- ^^® traditional text-book of human 
gtoionain physiologv is a bulky volume ill- 

kmmtmpk^Mogrf, adapted to the use of the student 
who desires a concise manual of tbe subject which 
will give a clear view of the entire field. The 
''Outlines of Human Physiology" (Holt), by Drs. 
Schenck and Gtlrber of the Physiological Institute 
at Wllrzburg, aims to lay stress on the undisputed 
facts of the science without extended discussion of 
conflicting hypotheses. The authors* names are a 
sufficient guarantee that the contents have been 
well selected, with due regard to the latest investi- 
gations in the field of human physiology. Little 
attention is paid to the mechanism of experimental 
work in the laboratory, emphasis being laid upon 
the results of such work rather than upon the 
naeans by which they may be obtained. Dr. Zoe- 
tbout's translation makes this very admirable work 
available for English readers. In the preface to 
the American edition Professor Loeb calls attention 
to the extension of physiological research to the 
invertebrates in the now developing science of ex- 
perimental morphology, and to the application of 
physical chemistry to physiological problems. The 
results of this work, though important in their bear- 
ing on the fundamental laws of life, have not as 
yet found their way into medical text-books. 

Atkeiehttf ^'' ^* **• Apthorp has written for 

tk€ Operm, «« The Music Lover's Library " 

pott and tfnMHt. (gcribner) what he calls a "com- 
pendious sketch " of « The Opera, Past and Pres- 
ent" The work is brief, but it serves well its pur- 
pose, and the author has embodied in his not 
numerous pages the result of much historical re- 
search, besides the experience of a veteran pro- 
fessional critic. He states the gist of the whole 
mattei* of operatic history when he says that opera 
was started on the right artistic road three hundred 

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[AprU 1, 

years ago in Florence, that it soon got side-traeked 
from what shonld have been its tme eoarse, and 
that it was not until the mighty genias of Wagner 
appeared in the arena that the long straggle be- 
tween artistic and inartistic principles was ended. 
Even the powerful inflaence of Glack conld not 
avail to restore the lyrical drama to its own, although 
after Glack's epoch-making activity it was only a 
question of time when the triamph of art over 
patchwork should be secure. We do not always 
agree with Mr. Apthorp*s estimates of particular 
composers and works, but his judgment is usually 
well-fortified, and deserving of respect. A more 
serious criticism must be directed toward his style, 
which is often marred by vulgarisms and examples 
of uncouth phraseology. 

Such a career as Mr. William T. 
2L^/^^ Stead descnbes in his " Life of Mrs. 
^""^ ~^' Booth" (Revell) cannot faU to in- 
terest every lover of humanity and believer in its 
eventual salvation. Prefixed by a portrait of the 
good woman whose virtues it celebrates, the 
« mother " of the Salvation Army, this small vol- 
ume, appropriately clad in red, is much more than 
a mere recitation of events or catalogues of virtues. 
It contrives to return to this earth something of the 
personality with which Mrs. Booth once blessed it, 
making it a good book in much the sense in which 
she was a good woman — satisfied when duty is 
done with no nonsense about it Catherine Mum- 
ford was bom in 1829 ; her father was a coach- 
builder, a keen politician, and a Methodist preacher, 
and her mother was a believer in the maxim, << If 
you wish to train a child do it yourself." In 1855 
she was married to William Booth, preacher. She 
was never in good health, but spent no time in 
complaints, bringing up a large family, and so fill- 
ing her days with labor that the amount of it can 
only be estimated in results. Mrs. Booth died in 
1890, deeply regretted, but leaving behind her an 
achievement which fully entitles her to Mr. Stead's 
title of << a Maker of Modem Britain." At times 
a little restraint or praning of enthusiasm might 
have benefitted the work, but it is in earnest, and 
is interesting reading throughout 

It requires treatment of an unusual 
jjT"^^?*!!^ ^^^ ^ JMtify so ambitious a title 
M«« #» oirot. „ « The Bird Book " (Heath), but 
Mrs. Fannie Hardy Eckstorm fairly earns her right 
to use it by the interesting and original work where- 
with she has enlivened the more customary knowl- 
edge included with it It appears to be the design 
of the author to awaken in her readers the desire 
to open their eyes and see birds for themselves. To 
persuade them to alertness of vision she tells of the 
enchanting things she herself has been able to per- 
ceive — with older and wiser eyes, of coarse, yet 
with no more skill than falls natundly to the lot of 
those who will do as they are bid. Some of the 
chapter titles show the inducements held forth for 

A wnodem 

observation. One is called '< White Blackbirds and 
Other Freaks "; another, <' How Birds are Named "; 
while a third takes up ^ The Three Great Prob- 
lems of Bird Life," which are defined to be " Food, 
Safety, and Beproduction." The engrossing topic 
of '^ Protection by Color " receives adequate con- 
sideration, with a most interesting statement of the 
^< law of gradation," recently discovered, and the 
manner of its demonstration. The book is almost 
an encyclopedia in its indusiveness, but lacks the 
index which would make all its information readily 

Mrs. W. E. Clifford calls <<The 
Likeness of the Night" ( Maemillan) 
<<A Modem Play in Four Acts," 
and modem it is, at least in coming to a eondn- 
sion which is tragical to a human soul rather than 
to a human body. The play, with considerable 
modification, has been acted by Mr. and Mrs. 
Kendall, with Miss Madge M'Intosh as the heroine, 
and is to be placed on the Vienna stage in transla- 
tion, as we are informed by the little preface. Ai 
printed, the dialogue is bright, and in the manntt 
of the modern English school; while the construc- 
tion of the play appears to owe its skill quite as 
much to the actors as to Mrs. Clifford's 'prentice 
hand. The theme is of the sort with wlueh Mrs. 
Clifford has identified her writing generally. What 
seems least pleasant about it idl is the inaistencs 
that convention, standing for race experience, car- 
ries with it immediate punishment for all lapses, 
taking the question away from morality as such, and 
leaving it a mere matter of social understanding. 

A singularly grewsome old-time tale 
i;^"!^ oftheseaistbestoryof«T1ieGkAs 

rrtwrnmei^a-uue. j^^^^^^,, (^j^^^y p,^) aS told by 

the two survivors of the adventure, William Lay 
and Cyrus M. Hnssey. The narrative was first 
published in 1828, and u now reprinted with a fae> 
simile of the old title-page. It would have ehamied, 
and perhaps inspired, Robert Louis Stevenson, who 
could certainly have supped fall of its horrors. 
The «« Globe " was a Nantucket whaler which sailed 
in 1822 for the Pacific. During the voyage part 
of the crew mutinied, murdered their offloers and 
some of their shipmates, and then set sail for ths 
Mulgrave Islands, where they landed, and whers 
all of them save lAy and Hussey were sabaeqaentfy 
killed either by the natives or their own blood-«raisd 
companions. The story is quaintly and eireasi- 
stantially told, and contains some curious descrip- 
tions of the Mulgrave Islanders. 

'<The Handy Man Afloat and 
Ashore " (Small, Maynard A Co.) 
is a capital account of the modern 
British tar, his life and ways, by the Bev. G. Good- 
enough, sometime chaplain in the Royal Navy and 
at Greenwich Hospital. Mr. Goodenough knows 
the sailor thoroughly and is plainly in sympathy 
with him ; and we do not know where a batter and 

JAS*o^ way 

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fresher book of the kind is to be found than the one 
he hM gtven ns. The routine of life on the man- 
of-war and the training ship is pietnred in close 
detail, and an abundance of photographic plates 
adds moeh to the graphic quality of the text 
Aside from its descriptiye yalne the best thing 
about the book is the kindly and charitable spirit 
in which it is written. Mr* Groodenough plainly 
has little patience with the ** unco guid " who are 
always trying to curtail poor Jack's little indulge 
encet — even his << baccy." <* Why/' he sarcastic- 
ally asks, ** are good people so eager to bring forth 
sapplements of their own to the Ten Command- 
m«nt8 ? " 

JMkBtariy Hudiet ^^^ Other books by Mr. Frank 
^/•iirgrwK Preston Steams which we have had 

Fnurttn jMteiflrc ^^ pleasure of examining his " Four 
Great Venetians" (Putnam) well repays readmg. 
This volume eontains an account of die lives and 
works of Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, and Paul 
Veronese, together with an introductory chapter 
descriptive of the rise of Venetian art, and the 
methods of its earlier exponents. The four leading 
ays present a judicious mingling of biographical 
entiiils, criticism, and descriptive analysis of 
representative works. Mr. Stearns's studies evince 
a thorough acquaintance with the literature bearing 
on his subject, and his knowledge of technical 
processes appears to be superior to that generally 
possessed by the layman in art On the whole his 
book is one which intelligent readers will appreciate 
for its scholarly independence of view and sugges- 
tave freshness of comment. Pictorially it seems to 
us to fall short of the requirements and deeerts of 
the text, the half-dosen plates being of relatively 


From the pietorial point of view Estelle M. Hnrll's 
little handbook on Mnrillo, m the "Riverside Art 
Series " (Hooghtoo), is very attrsetive, the serenteen 
fnll-page illustrations being both pleasing and repre- 
sentative in snbject, and satisfactory meohanioally. 
Bat Miss Hnrll's " interpretations " sink too often to 
the level of mere prattle about the piotores and the 
pointing out of qn^ties too obvions to escape the eye 
of a ehild. The work, however, eontains some osefiil 
tahnlated matter, and it forms, at least, a oharming 

** National Legislation Conoeming Education: Its 
Inflnenoe and Effect in the Pnblio Land States East of 
the Mississippi River " (Columbia UniYcrsity Press), 
is a v«ry instmetive monograph by Mr. George B. Ger- 
mann, the seme being a thesis for the degree of Doetor 
of Philosophy in Colnmbia Unirersity. llie monograph 
I moeh painstaking researeh, is oleariy written 
logioslly arranged. It is annonnoed as the f ore- 
of a more esdbanstive study along the same lines. 
This monograph gathers in compact form a very striking 
and valoaUe array of facts, and it ought, therefore, to 
pfovn oi great interest to all students of education and 


*<The New Century Standard Letter- Writer," by 
Dr. Alfred B. Chambers, is a recent popular publication 
of Messrs. Laird & Lee. 

<< Anstralasia: The Commonwealth and New Zea- 
land," by Mr. Arthur W. Jose, is a timely addition to 
the •* Temple Primers " published by the Maemillan Co. 

The « Introdaotion to Sociology," first published five 
years ago by Mr. Arthur Fairbanks, now appears in a 
revised edition (the third) from the press of the Messrs. 

«The Government of Minnesota," by Dr. Frank L. 
McVey, is a convenient historical and constitutional 
manuid, intended for school use, just published by the 
Maemillan Co. 

<*The Messages of Jesus according to the Synop- 
tists," by Dr. Thomas Cuming Hall, has just been pub- 
lished by the Messrs. Seribner in their « Messages of 
the Bible " series. 

Walton's « Complete Angler " and « Lives " flllmg a 
single handsome volume, very appropriately take their 
pU^e in the ** Library of Englidi Classics '' published 
by the Messrs. Maemillan. 

A new edition of Edgar Allan Poe's complete works, 
edited by Prof. James A. Harrison of the University of 
Virginia, and other Poe specialists, is announced by 
Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. 

A new edition of the « Hudson " Shakespeare, one 
play to a volume, is in course of publication by Messrs. 
Ginn ft Co. «<Maobeth" and <« Julius Casar" have 
just been received by us, each volume neatly bound in 
flexible leather covers, 

f< Selections from the Prose Tales of Edgar Allan 
Poe" is a « Pocket Classic" published by the Maemil- 
lan Co. The text is that of the authoritative edition of 
Messrs. Stedman and Woodberry, which the publishers 
have courteously permitted to be used, 

'<The Infiuenoe of the American Revolution upon 
German Literature " is an interesting study of an inter- 
esting subject by Professor James Taft Hatfield and 
Miss Elfrieda Hochbaum, reprinted in pamphlet form 
from the pages of ** Americana Germanioa." 

** Songs of Erile," translated from various Hebrew 
poets by Miss Nina Davis, is a small volume recently 
issued by the Jewish Publication Society of America. 
Both the Talmndio and the Midrashic literatures are 
represented, but the chief tribute u leried upon the 
poet Jehudah Haleri. 

*<A Short Introduction to the Literature of the 
Bible," by Mr. Richard Green Moulton, is a reoent pub- 
lication of Messrs. D. C. Heath ft Co. It is not an 
abridgment of the author's *< Literary Study of the 
Bible," but an independent work, although the two 
books naturally have much in common. 

Mr. R. H. Russell publishes a volume of << Stage 
Lyrics," by Mr. Harry B. Smith. They are very famU- 
iar lyrics to the theatre-going public, for they are all 
taken from the author's librettos and musical comedies. 
The illustrations are character portraits of the popular 
stage favorites of the day, and are very numerous. 

The revelations of Sig. Benedetti concerning the man- 
agement of the Villa Giulia Museum, of which some 
account was given in The Dial three months ago, have 
attracted much attention smong arohnolo^ts. A 
pamphlet just published in Rome by Herr W. Helbig 
contains, in Italian translation, npiiards of a score o! 

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[April 1, 

artieles that have appeared upon this sabjeot in Euro- 
pean and American joamaU. Condemnation of the 
methods employed in the management of the Masenm 
in qnoBtion appears to be general, and the pamphlet 
before us offers impressive testimony to this fact. 

The Maemillan Co. publish a new edition, praotieally 
unchanged as to text, of Professor Dean.C. Worcester's 
work on ** The Philippine Islands and Their People." 
Much water has flowed under the bridges since this 
work first appeared three years ago, but it remains one 
of the best accounts of land and people, from a scien- 
tific point of view, that we have. 

A volume of ** Songs of All Colleges," compiled and 
arranged by Messrs. David B. Chamberlain and Karl P. 
Harrington, is a recent publication of Messrs. Hinds & 
Noble. This handsome quarto of over two hundred 
pages includes most of the old favorites, as well -as 
many of the later successes for which one will search 
the old collections in vain. The book should prove 
widely popular. 

Mr. Herbert £. Walter and Alice Hall Walter have 
prepared a list of one hundred birds observed in Lin- 
coln Park, Chicago, during the Spring migrations, which 
they publish in the form of a small pamphlet entitled 
«< Wild Birds in City Parks.'* It is intended to serve 
as a help in identifying these transient visitors, and con- 
tains many useful hints to that end. It may be obtained 
of Mr. F. C. Baker, Academy of Sciences, Chicago. 

*«The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche," by Miss 
Grace Neal Dolsen, is an issue of the *< Cornell Studies 
in Philosophy," and offers a fuller exposition than has 
hitherto been given in the English language of the 
writings of this vigorous and original thinker. The 
treatment is reasonably sympathetic, and the interest of 
the subject is so great that we predict for this essay a 
wider audience than is usually won by a technical philo- 
sophical monograph. 

The Baker & Taylor Co.'s Spring announcement list 
includes the following: «Mr. Chupes and Miss Jenny: 
The Life Story of Two Robins," by Effie Bignell; a 
revised edition of *< With the Wild Flowers, from Pussy 
Willow to Thistledown," by Maud Going; ««The Next 
Great Awakening," by Dr. Josiah Strong; *• The Creed 
of Presbyterians," by Rev. Egbert Watson Smith; «My 
Master," by Swami Vivekananda; and « First Years in 
Handicraft," by Mr. Walter J. Kenyon. 

Professor Mark H. Liddell's ** Chaucer, published 
by the Maemillan Co., is an excellent text for school 
use. It includes the Prologue, « The Knightes Tale," 
and <* The Nonne Prestos Tale," together with an ex- 
position of the principles of Middle English grammar 
and phonology, a glossary, and notes. Much has been 
done of late in Chaucer scholarship, and this book, which 
presents the results of the most recent investigation, is 
necessarily better than its predecessors, excellent as 
some of these were in their day. 

The <* English Readings " published by Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. constitute one of the best series of anno- 
tated school texts that have ever been produced. The 
« Arnold " and «< Newman " of Mr. Gates, the « Burke " 
of Mr. Perry, and the <* Byron " of Dr. Carpenter are 
model books of their kind, and we can bestow a word of 
similar praise upon the *' Swift," recently edited by Mr. 
F. C. Presoott. <« Gulliver" and the <• Journal to 
Stella " are not included in this volume, bat the rest of 
Swift's prose writings are well represented, and the edito- 
rial apparatus is all that we could reasonably expect. 

Topics in liBAoiNG Pbriodicals. 

April, 1901. 

American People, Message to. Count Tolstoy. No. Amer. 
Anthracite Coal Crisis, The. Taioott Williams. Atlantic. 
Anstralian Sqnatter, Tlie. H. C. BCae Dvatne. Harper. 
Babism Religion, The. E. D. Ross. North Amoriean. 
Beaver, Story of the. W. D. Hnlbert. McCluro. 
Bees in Royal Bonnets. Felix L. Oswald. Lippineott. 
Berlin, Rise of. Sidney Whitman. Harper. 
British Expansion, Vio^rian Era of. A. Ireland. No. Amer. 
Carnegie, Andrew. H. W. Lanier. World's Work. 
Confederate Army, Disbanding of. Ida M. Tarbell, lieClure. 
Cordes. Ernest C. Peixotto. Scrilmer. 
Cuba and Congress. A. J. Beveridge. North American. 
Dante's Qaest of Liberty. C. A. Dinsmore. Atlantic. 
Demoeratio Party Radical Movement. W.C. Mains. Forum. 
Doetor, Family, Relation of to Medical Progress. Sev. i^Beo. 
Ednoatiao and Ptodnction. C. W. Dabney. WorldCe Work. 
English Trade Conditions. Chalmers Roberts. World's Work. 
Englishman's Insularity, The. T. S. Knowlson. World's Wk. 
Evarts, W. M., Career of. Albert Shaw. Bev. <^ Reviews. 
Evil, Root of the. Count Tolstoy. North American. 
Federal Bankruptcy Law. W. H. Hotohkiss. No. American. 
France on Wrong Track. P. de Coubertin. Bev, i^Remems. 
Gardens, Old Manor-Honse. Rose S. Nichols. Centwry. 
Grange, The. Kenyon L. Bntterfield. Forum. 
Hague Peace Conference, The. E. E. Hale. Forum. 
Harrison, Benjamin. T. J. Mortan. Review qfBeviews. 
Human Doenment, A Curious. Louis Robinson. No. Amer. 
Indian Territory, The. R. J. Hinton. Beview of Beviews. 
Ireland, Archbishop. Mary C. Blossom. World's Work. 
Iron, Transportation of. Waldon Faweett. Century, 
Isthmian Canal Commission Report. A. F. Walker. jForvai. 
Italmn Politics. H. Remsen Whitehonse. Forum. 
Italy, Political Status of. Sidney Brooks. World's Work. 
Koblenz to Rottenlam. Augnstine Birrell. Century. 
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BLUE SHIRT AND KHAKI by J. F. J. Archibald, a daring a„d uuth- 

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// u tki only €ompuris«u ofthi Anuricau and British armies e^ir published. {Ready in April.) $1 .50. 

THE DUKE OF STOCKBRIDQB by Edward Bellamy. The strange 

Mutiny of the Yankee Farmers against the Aristocrats in 17S6, called Shays' Rebellion, is the back- 
ground for this powerful story by the author of ** Looking Backward.** It is a romance of a Captain 
of the Continental Army and the leader of the Rebellion, who loved the superb and capricious belle of 
Western Massachusetts. Edward Bellamy's best work is here. In style, historic interest, startling 
reality, and delicious humor, it is a masterpiece. 
Mr, fT. D, Ho*wells ranis it as the vety first of our historical romances, $1*50. 

THE HEART OF THE ANCIENT WOOD by Charies Q. D. Roberts. 

Powerful and unlike any other novel you ever read is this new romance of a Forest Maid, her Lover, 
and her Wild Animal friends, all working out their problem together. It is a book that will live. It 
b pure literature. ** One of the most fiiscinating novels of recent days.'* — Boston Herald. ** Dainty 
and delicate as a wild rose ; a breath of the forest put into articulate speech ; unlike Kipling, unlike 
Seton-Thompson, better than either in several respects.*' — Brooklyn Eagle, / 

No other no^el/br years has had such unanimous praise from critics and people, $ 1 .SO. 

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Tangled Flags 


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The story of her own life is as romantic and 
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revelations made in her Histoire de ma vie 
would furnish material for a dozen novels of 
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[April 1, 1901. 

Hougiiton. MHilitt Si Companp'^i^etD iSoo&0 

Autobiography of a Journalist 

By William J. Stillman. With two Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo, gilt top, $6.00. 
A notable addition to the attractive volumes of biography and reminisoenoe which have 
lately appeared. It is one of the richest and follest, for Mr. Stillman is one of the most 
pictnresqne characters of our time. It is a large and distinguished group of friends who 
figure in these volumes — Bryant, Lowell, Emerson, Norton, Judge Hoar, Agassis, Buskin, 
the Bossettis, and Italians and Greeks of great distinction. Mr. Stillman gives his exper- 
iences as U. S. Consul at Borne and in Crete, and as correspondent of the London Times. 

A Soldier of Virginia 

By BuBTON Egbert Stevenson. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, $1.50. 
A strong historical romance of the time of Braddock's ill*fated expedition to Fort 
Duquesne. The hero is a soldier under Washington, and has a long experience of perils 
and hardships. A love-story is threaded throughout the narrative, which describes 
admirably the times, Washington, and a finely attractive hero and heroine. 


A Bomance. By Eugenia Bbook8 Fbothinohah. 12mo, 91.50. JFifih PrinHng. 

** One of the most delightful ftin<mg new romanoes. The story of Iotb Tersos mosieal ambitions is 
told with an nnosnal degree of interest, the eharaoters standing forth with oleamess and distlnetness. The 
natural ease of the story-teller, the grace and swing of the narratiye, the simple foroe of the details and 
the realistic emotional tone of the romanee as the oourse of true Ioto beoomes more and more troubled, 
make this a most attractive Tolume. . . . Altogether it is a love story daintily and happily told, with the 
eharaoters well suited to their parts and the play of incidents sufficiently interesting to hold the attention 
of the eritieal reader." — Bo$ton Herald. 


By Will Patne, author of «< The Money Captain," etc. 12mo, $1.50. (^April 10.) 
Thb is a strong character story. It deals with social conditions not very uncommon, and treats them 
with distinct power and wisdom. The leading characters are a young man from the eastern part of the 
country and a young woman from Nebraska. They meet in Chicago, luiTC yarioos experiences, and Anally 
a fire gives them a moral shock which is the beginning of a higher life. The story is strong in depicting 
the doTelopment of their characters up to their nobler selves. It has a powerful moral sjsd is of high 
literary quality. 


By Alexander Bbown, author of «« The Genesis of the United States," '« The First 
Bepublic in America," ''The Cabells and their Kin." 8vo, 92.00. (^AprillO.^ 
Another sheaf garnered by Mr. Brown from his assiduous and intelligent euUivation of the early his- 
tory of our country. It is a careful study of the sources of the American Government, and especially of 
the conditions under which the colonies established political institutions. This naturally iuToWed a close 
study of the relation of English policies and politics to the colonies. It is a thoroughly scholarly piece of 
work, giving the results of careful iuTestigation. 

For sale by all Booksellers. 
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FRANCIS F. BROWNE. 1 No, 356, ' CHICAGO, APRIL 16, 1901. S2,a'y9ar,'\ Bo<nnB 610:^30-631. 

FiVB Abtb BuiLDiva 


President SCHURMAN of Cornell University, who was 
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Sonnichsen's book : ^' As an illustration of the way in which 
the book takes hold of the reader I may say that I opened it first 
on a railway car, and I became so absorbed that I read it six 
hours, completely carried away by the story, unconscious of the 
surroundings, and almost oblivious to the end of my journey." 

The Outlook says : ^^ This is a book to be read from cover 
to cover." 


By Albert Sopnichsen 

12mo^ $2.00 



By George Meredith 

A new volume which reveals the qualities of brilliancy of 
imagination and power of phrase characteristic of the author. In 
addition to the title poem and numerous shorter ones, there is 
a noteworthy group of translations from the Iliad into English 
hexameter verse, which retain much of the rugged beauty of 
the original. 12mo^ $1.25 



Illustrated by Howard Chandler Christy, 
A collection of vivid stories of Army and Navy and Native Life in the Philippines under 
the American flag. ^ Fiction of the most charming kind," says the Chicago Ttmes^ Herald. 
Six Christy drawings. 12mo^ $1.50 

A Book of Delightful Humor 



Author of "The Green Pigs," "Our Two Uncles," etc, 12mOj $1.25. 
A new hooi. in the field which Mr. Stockton explored in " Rudder Grange," but which 
since then has been neglected. It describes, in a delicious vein of humor, the experiences of 
a young newspaper man and his wife and boy on a small farm which they leased near the 
city. No one who laughed over the adventures of the hero of Mr. Preston's " Green Pigs " 
need be assured of the rich humor or of the exceptional literary quality of this new book. 


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260 THE DIAL [April 16, 

For Early Spring: Publication 

A SUMMER HYMNAL. A Romance of Tennessee. By John teotwood 

MooBB. lUuatrated by Staklbt M. Asthuss. 12 mo. Cloth extra. $1.25. 

Mr. Moore has much of the quality displayed by James Lane Allen in his earlier work, « A Kentneky 
CirJiaal " The scene of his romance is laid in the blue-grass region of Tennessee, and his pages are rich 
with tender sentiment, shrewd philosophy, poetio feeling, and an exquisite humor. Those who haye read 
his charming short story, ** Ole Mistis,** will warmly welcome his first novel, and new readers are sure to 
be delighted. "Old Wash," the negro character who figures in some of Mr. Moore's short stories, 
reappears in this book. 

THE TOWER OF WYE. A Romance. By William Hetoy Babcock. IUos- 
trated by Gbobob Gibbs. 12mo. Cloth extra. $1.50. 

This is a story of early Maryland colonial life, full of incident and interest. Mr. Babeook has, more 
artistically than any other writer, caught the atmosphere of haze and marvel through which newcomers 
to the Western World saw all things. His book is new in treatment, and holds the reader's attention 
fascinated from beginning to end. 

OCTAVE TH ANET says: ** It seems to me the best thing you have done, and Richard Smith a right 
valiant, noble gentleman. You have, I think, caught the very spirit of the time." 

IN SEARCH OF MADEMOISELLE. By Geobge Gibbs. illustrated by the 
Author. 12mo. Cloth extra, ornamental. $1.50. 

Mr. Gibbs the artist, in this his first novel, deals with the romantic and highly picturesque episode 
in American history of the struggle between the French and Spanish for the possession of Florida. This 
furnishes the background for a charming story of the love of an Englishman for Diane de la Notte, a 
French Huguenot of noble family, who has been exiled from her native land. 

CYRUS TO WNSEND BRADY says: ^ Mr. George Gibbs has chosen the most romantic and terrible 
episode in the whole range of American colonial annals as the historical basis of his vivid romance. He 
writes as he paints, with g^phic force and spirit." 

JOHN HABBERTON writes: "I've read your 'In Search of Mademoiselle ' with great interest. 
I must congratulate you on your success in retaining throughout the novel the old-time atmosphere in 
which you began. No writer of historical novels has done this better than yon; few have done it so well." 

The Novels of ELIZABBTH STODDARD (Mrs. Richard Henry Stoddardjf. 



gravure portraits. Each, $1.50. 

<<They are essentially modem and in keeping with the choicest types of recent fiction . . . the 
pioneers of something new and real in the novelist's art. Mrs. Stoddard's novels appeal to us through 
a quality of their own. Style, insight, originality, make books like < Two Men ' and < Temple House ' 
additions not merely to the bulk of reading, but to literature itself." — Edmund Clarence Stedman, 


DEAR DA YS. A Story of Washington School Life. By Abmoub Strong. 

Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth extra. $1.00. 

A book for girls, told in an unusually fresh, natural way; and with the local oolor connected with the 
Nation's Capitol. The author knows Washington thoroughly, and it will be of profit, as well as interest, 
to children all over the country to obtain glimpses of life in the political centre of the United States. 
The school-girls of the story act, and talk, as real children do, in a very natural and attractive way. 

THE KING'S RUBIES. A Story for Boys and Girls. By Adbla™ Puller 

Bell. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, ornamental. $1.00. 
J^ A charming story woven around the romance of « The King's Rubies," and how they came to America. 
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NOTES • 273 



The man of advancing years, who has kept 
his intellectnal ontlook nndimmedi and who 
has escaped the apathy that so frequently en- 
velopes the soul when the meridian of l^e is 
left behind, suffers no little perplexity when 
he seeks to enter into the consciousness of the 
new generation that is growing up about him* 
He feels that the ideals pursued by the finer 
spirits of the race are still the ideak to whose 
pursuit his own early years were given, but the 
books which serve these ideals as vehicles seem 
somehow to elude his sympathies; his most 
penetrative scrutiny cannot find in them the 
same sustenance that was provided by the 
books read in his own youth, his most insistent 
questioning cannot evoke from them the same 
response. The literature of ideas, and to a 
certain extent the literature of artistic form, 
seems to such an observer to have undergone 
a process of subtle deterioration, and the in- 
tellectual influences of the vanished past seem 
to have .been replaced by influences less potent 
than those of old to touch to flue issues the 
human spirit. He flnds it almost impossible 
to realize that the books which appeal most 
strongly to the rbing generation do in truth 
embody a message essentially the same as that 
which came to him a generation before clothed 
in far different modes of phrasing. The epE- 
pression of the new writings has been so shaped 
by the form and pressure of the new time that 
such a reader feels sadly old-fashioned in its 
presence, and shrinks from the contact to bury 
himself once more in the writings upon which 
his own soul has fed ever since Uie impression- 
able time when it was flrst awakened by their 
call. What he forgets is that the years that 
bring the philosophic mind bring also the crit- 
ical habit, and that no one can make a really 
fair comparison between the books that were 
read at twenty and those that are read at forty 
or flfty. 

There are few of us, however, who are suf- 
floiently broad-minded to recognize, to the ex- 
tent of all its implications, the fact that every 
generation is bound to receive its most effective 
and vital guidance from the leaders of its own 
ranks. Some few books there are, of course, 

Digitized by 




{April 16» 

that never grow old — the bibles, the philoso- 
phies, and the great poems. But books of the 
secondary order lose their influenoe after a few 
years, beoanse all saoh books are derivative in 
character, and cannot share in the immortality 
of creative work. This is the truth which we 
fail to grasp when we find the younger men 
growing up about us taking scant heed of the 
masters of our own youth, and serving what 
are apt to seem to us false gods. We find 
ourselves out of touch with the strange new 
prophets who are gaining so great a following. 
Their soothsayings perplex and bewilder us, 
for they put things in unaccustomed ways, and 
we think that the ways long familiar to our 
own thought are the clearest, and should suffice 
those who come after us. It is the old wine, 
no doubt, but the bottles have been renewed, 
and the taste seems diflterent. 

What we have just been saying is illustrated 
by Count Tolstoy's recent response to the re- 
quest that he send a message to the American 
people. ^' If I had to address the American 
people, I should like to thank them for the 
great help I have received from their writers 
who flourished about the fifties. I would men- 
tion Garrison, Parker, Emerson, Ballon, and 
Thoreau, not as the greatest, but as those who, 
' I think, specially influenced me. Other names 
are Channing, Whittier, Lowell, W^lt Whit- 
man — a bright constellation, such as is rarely 
to be found in the literatures of the world. 
And I should like to ask the American people 
why they do not pay more attention to these 
voices, and continue the good work in which 
they made such hopeful progress." How far 
away from us this voice seems, in time as well 
as in space. Two or three of these names still 
mean something in vital power to the younger 
generation, but the others have become merely 
historical. What young man would now think 
of turning to Ballon or Channing or Parker 
for help in shaping his ideals of thought and 
conduct? But the sender of this message is 
himself a powerful factor in the new idealism, 
and the thought of the older men to whom he 
acknowledges grateful indebtedness has again 
become a living force in his burning appeal to 
our better instincts. 

There seems to be no help for it. **The old 
order changeth, giving place to new,*' not only 
in our material and social environment, but in 
our spiritual existence as well. Yet in the 
latter sphere as in the former the change is in 
the accidental, not the essential order. The 
physical world remains the same, and human 

nature remains the same, and truth, beauty, 
and goodness remain the same, if we only con- 
trive to view them 8ub specie cetemUatis. The 
new order of thought is nothing more than a 
new way of stating old truth, and with every 
new form of statement, there comes a better 
illumination ; we see more clearly into the dark 
comers, and we catch the gleam of facets which 
we did not before suspect to exist. The mind 
that has stiffened into particular modes of ex- 
pression misses much that is suggestive and 
inspiring in the restless movement of contem- 
porary Uiought. There is no possession more 
desirable than the plasticity of mind that can 
adapt itself to new forms, and take fresh im- 
pressions year after year. The retention of 
this susceptibility is chiefly a matter of the 
will, and tiie man who succeeds in retaining it 
is much more to be envied than the man who 
allows his sympathies to become atrophied, 
withdrawing himself from the present into the 
past, and cutting himself off from participation 
in the spiritual progress of the race. 


To meddle with theories of art is a good deal 
like making an exeursion into the Arctic regions 
with a purpose of reaching the ultimate North. We 
must carry our provisions with us and expect a 
scarcity of human society. Bat the mystery entices 
and the desire to completely account for things 
urges on explorers in both cases. To change the 
figure, the problems of issthetie bear the same rela- 
tion to artistic products as do the mathematical 
solutions of strategeties to actual warfare. Wars 
may be waged, and poems and pictures made with- 
out conscious use of such underlying principles. 
But they are there and they determine the results. 
In the modern world, at least, artists have usually 
known what they were doing, and why. Groethe 
indeed said that he had never thought about think- 
ing, but there are many volumes of his art speeola- 
tions to contradict him. 

The great problem of nsthetic is this: What is 
the relation of art to existence? Is it an imitation? 
Is it an interpretation? Is it something added? Is 
it a carryall of utility and morals? Is it the univer- 
sal filtered through the human mind? Is it the 
particulars of experience arranging themselves into 
a new order of life ? On our answers to such ques- 
tions depend our judgment of individual works of 

The two great philosophers of Greece gave a 
curiously different account of the origin and value 
of art. To Plato, himself a poet, artist, and creator 
of vital figures, art, or at least poetry, was a delud- 
ing lamp to men's eyes and a snare to their feet ! 

Digitized by 





It was inferior to shoexnakiDg ! It wm a poor eopy 
of the world which was itself only a paltry shadow 
of the Diyine Ideas. Like Omar he would have 
burned all books, because if they resembled life 
they were unnecessary, and if they did not they 
were false. To AristoUe, on the other hand, crabbed 
logician, natural phUosopher, Baconian before 
Bacon as he was, art was the concentrated image 
of the best of real existence. He thought it could 
react in a moralistic way on man, and purify and 
exalt him. Hence he considered it about the highest 
and most important human concern. 

The word ssthetic is only of late application to 
the theory of the fine arts, and it is defined as the 
philosophy of the beautif uL As the Greek word 
from which it comes primarily means feeling or 
sensation, the narrowing of the derired term to sig- 
nify matters of beauty is rather singular, more 
especially as it was first so used during £e romantic 
outburst of the last century. Certainly other things 
than the beautiful can give us feelings and sensa- 
tions — even pleasurable ones. The ideal of Greek 
art may hare been the regular, the harmonious, the 
perfect ; but eren in Greek art what a wide range 
of creations, gorgons hydras and ehimfsras dire, 
fell outside the limits of this ideal. Unless we can 
accept such conceptions as the perfection of horror, 
the delightfulness of the ugly, and the fascination 
of evil, we cannot even explain Greek art. And 
Grothic or Romantic art may be said to wreak itself 
on the autrS, the extravagant, the impossible, and 
the humanly imperfect Modem or realistic art, 
rebelling from the abstract perfection of the Greek 
and the abstract imperfection of the Mediisval 
Schools, has striven to be simply true. But truth 
without bias or selection is in art an impossibUity 
— and so what modern art has really done is to 
copy life in lower relief than it has itself. The 
commonplace good has become the insipid and the 
commonplace evil has become the base. Both are 
wanting in the greatness with which the older 
schools of art endow them. But what I wish to 
remark is that beauty is not really the aim of any 
of these art methods. What the first two strive for 
is the characteristic, the significant, the effective. 
What the last thinks it is striving for is truth. As 
men are constituted I believe that their emotions 
and intellect tend to stagnate and stiffen, and that 
art is the most powerful agency to shock or startle 
them into motion, and make them realize the full- 
ness and vividness of existence. Things of beauty 
administer these shocks in rhythmical and harmoni- 
ous order, and so they charm. Things of power 
give them with sudden impetus and uncertain 
breaks, and so they fascinate. The great artists of 
the world wield both kinds of electricity, ^schylus 
is as romantic as Shakespeare and Shakespeare as 
classic as ^ichylus. But the artist who deals in 
the commonplace and the inanely true does not 
yield us any shock at all, for his art is the essence 
of the stagnation in which we mainly dwell. 

As I have said, Flato and Aristotle view art 

mainly from a moralistic standpoint We moderns 
have tried to change all that We have looked 
through the rose-colored spectacles of beauty and 
the reversed opera glass of intellectual indifference, 
but after all the tiling we are regarding will not 
budge or alter. Art does deal overwhelmingly with 
mond ideas, deals with them as life itself deals with 
them — for or against Roughly speaking the gen- 
erations of the sons of men can be divided into 
generations of acquiescence and generations of re- 
volt When auUiority is paramount, when the 
great issues of thought seem settled, when every- 
body is content with that station in life in which it 
pleased God he should be born, then we get a lit- 
erature like that of Cowper and Jane Austen. 
When the great deep of humanity is broken up 
and the whirlwind is abroad, we get an art like 
that of Byron. We have late instances of these 
arts of peace and war. For half a century Tenny- 
son charmed the world with his serene or but 
slightly troubled verse. He gave us what has been 
called the clerical idyll ; he announced the banns 
of quasi-science and the Established Church. He 
was the Defender of Conservatism. '*Proputty, 
proputty, proputty, that 's what I 'ears him say." 
Bat discontent was stirring at his mild moralities 
and domestic virtues. And this discontent has 
drawn to a head in the prodigious vogue of Fitz- 
gerald's Omar. A good many people have won- 
dered at this vogue. Mere Uterary beauty does 
not explain it Literary beauty never did explain 
any widespread popularity. Gray was half right 
when he said that the Elegy would have been just as 
popular if written in prose. But the Persian poem 
has matter in it It is an expression of revolt Not 
of violent revolt like that of Byron's, but deep and 
hopeless. It is the doctrine of God damn. The ship 
of the world is sinking, so let's get at the liquor 
room ! It has seized upon and temporarily satidied 
the needs of thinking minds. I do not wish to say 
that literary expression always follows or precedes 
a general mood of thought That is Taine's rather 
cast-iron theory. No ! Solitary voices for good or 
evil are always crying aloud in the world. But the 
measure of their acceptance is the mark of the tides 
of thooght The supreme artists, indeed, sum up 
both sides, and usually find some way of recon- 

I have gone over two parts of the content of art 
— images and morality. There is, I think, a third — 
intellectual intuition. Or, in other words, art re- 
lates itself to concrete nature, or action, to the moral 
life, or character, and to the pure intellect These 
three divisions correspond to the old names for the 
poet He has been called the Maker, the Priest, 
and the Seer. In its highest reaches art is nothing 
less than revelation. The poet has gone up into 
the mountain and seen God. To speak in terms of 
philosophy, he has pierced beyond the phenomena 
of existence to the noumena — to the thing in itself. 
And hence he sheds on mere phenomena a splendor 
and a radiance which is not their own. 

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[April 16, 

So fftr for the Bnbjeet matter of art Now for 
its presentation. What is artistic perfection ? This 
is a somewhat analogoos question to that of finish 
in punting, abont which Raskin has written some 
final pages. Bat a great many people who are 
willing to admit that the proper finish for a pictare 
is the amount adequate to express the artist's par- 
pose, hesitate to carry the same principle into the 
consideration of literatare. They expect an epic to 
hare the f aaltlessness of a sonnet and a drama to 
be always on its best behavior and avoid low ways. 
The good Homer mast nerer nod. Byron very 
sensibly said that there was no long poem in ex- 
istence the half of which was good. Of coarse he 
meant supremely good. Perfection itself is a matter 
of relatiTcty and contrast Where all is perfect 
nothing is known to be so. Mr. Palgrave remarks 
in one of his journals : ^< How unequally h vrai 
dire is Hamlet written." That is the judgment of 
a lyric technician. And John Bright is said to 
have rcTolted at the changes of style in Shake- 
speare — the alternation of high and low, the ad- 
mission of the humorous and the vulgar, — and to 
have considered Milton the greater peet because of 
the unvarying level of his work. Milton's dignity 
comes largely from his subject, and when he has 
to deal with familiar facts in polysyllables there is 
in him at least a suspicion of that pomposity of 
which Wordsworth was to be the awful example — 
« And at the Hoop alighted, famous inn." Homer 
certainly varies his manner. He does not attempt 
to give to Ajax and Diomede dining off of huge 
shins of beef the same splendor that he casts upon 
Apollo striding through the sky with the arrows 
rattling in the quiver on his back, or upon Achilles 
raising the grief-stricken Priam from the ground. 
And Dante, too, relaxes the tight-strung bow of 
language, again and again. In the Inferno there 
is vulgarity, coarseness, bestiality. And in the 
Paradise he is so intent upon his argument that he 
forgets to write poetry at all. The most pervad- 
ingly elegant and in the ordinary sense poetic part 
of his poem is the middle section. Here he does 
not have to deal with the powers of darkness or the 
domain of the brute, nor does he soar into regions 
where ecstasy is tuned to utterance beyond human 
recognition — and so he can be equable and pure 
and perfect. But he is greatest elsewhere. Neces- 
sarily it is in the drama that the contest between 
the varied content of reality and an even ideal 
presentation is the sharpest. The old French tragic 
poets cut the question short by deciding that life 
must conform to art, that Queens, confidants, heroes, 
and servants must all talk in the same elegant and 
elevated strain, and passion and desolation and 
death wear the chains of an equal etiquette. Groethe 
in his later years came to adhere to this method 
under the persuasion that he was following the 
Greeks. The poet who gave us Auerbach*s cellar 
and the domestic scenes in Egmont tried to turn 
Borneo and Juliet into a perfect piece on this model. 
He smoothed out all the vulgarities and colloquial- 

isms, and made it as prettily insipid as a wool lamb. 
Fortunately we have in Shakespeare the ultimate 
power in the art of unity in contrast He gives us 
just enough of commonness and coarseness to be a 
foil to his nobleness and perfection. What poems 
in the world are so bathed and fused in a single 
atmosphere as The Tempest or Twelfth Night, 
Bomeo and Juliet or Macbeth. 

And this brings me to my conclusion. I have 
questioned, tentatively indeed, the theory that would 
limit art to the beautiful. And indeed, its most 
powerful elements are such as, taken separately, 
horrify and terrorize and confuse. But in good art 
they never are taken separately. The artist leagues 
together his beauty and his ugliness, his shadows 
and his lights, his melodies and his discords, and 
gives us a whole which is calm in all its agitation. 
In it pain has become painless, evil innocuous, death 
immortal, and the transitory figures of joy and 
beauty are fixed in faultless form and unfading color. 
Chablbs Lbonabd Moobe. 


(To th« Editor of Turn Dial.) 

While library workers are g^tified at the inereased 
attention given library work and use, by students, critics, 
and writers, believing that, as a result of any public 
agitation, additional knowledge of these institutions 
will bring inereased opportunities for good, they cannot 
but object to the plan which seenns to be so generally 
adopted, of measuring the work accomplished by the 
percentage of the different classes of books issued for 
home use. Writers in recent pnblieations take the 
« home use statistics " of a number of prominent libra- 
ries, and because they find, from the circulation tables, 
that an average of three-fourths of the volumes so 
issued are classed under the heading of fiction, argue 
that it is questionable whether the public library is 
really a good thing for a community. 

It is unfortunate, perhaps, that library reports do 
not give the exact ** quality " of fiction circulated; that 
they do not say whether the library is closely classified 
or not; whether a great many or a few titles are placed 
in fiction which properly belong in other classes; 
whether juvenile fiction is placed under fiction pure and 
simple, or is reported under the general heading ** ju- 
venile books "; for without this information, and a few 
other things which will be here referred to, no one can 
accurately judge of the work being done by any given 

The main point, however, is the injustice done the 
library by the attempt to measure its value to a com- 
munity solely by the books issued for home reading. 
A visit to any library of considerable size will reveal 
the fact that most of the real work is done in the library 
rooms; that for every book other than fiotion taken 
home, from eight to fifteen will be used in the building; 
and that in certain seasons, and especially in educational 
centres, this proportion will be largely increased. This 
is true especially of the library small in comparison 
with the population of the city in which it is located 

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fund with limitod meaos — this latter a eoodition all but 
ehronio waat of the Allegheny moontaiiifl. A large 
proportion of this use of books in the library is com- 
pulsory (if they are to be, nsed at all), for various rea- 
•onsy ohief among whioh is the inability of the library 
to supply a sufficient number of copies of a given book 
o9 to provide enough other works upon the same sub- 
ject to meet a large but temporary demand. For in- 
stance, a study club with an extensive membership, or 
a high school or college class, is given a subject to look 
op, with references to comparatively few volumes. The 
library could increase the « home circulation " of books 
other than fiction by issuing these few volumes to the 
first comers of either the club or the class, while the 
other, for various reasons, later applicants at the library 
would be deprived of the use of any of them. The 
role in most of these libraries, in these emergencies, is 
to reserve these volumes for use in the library, on the 
basis of ** the greatest good for the greatest number.** 
With a number of such clubs and classes, one may 
readily see how a library could change its circulation 
statistics if it would. Again, these libraries, unable to 
purchase more than one copy of valuable works or one 
set of periodicals, place them in the reference room for 
use in the library exclusively, where no record is kept 
of their use, these rooms and shelves usually being open 
io the pnblks. Here at times they have a wonderfully 
-extensive use. 

Thus, a library of 25,000 volumes in a city of 100,000 
inhabitants may be doing a large amount of commend- 
able work, of lasting value to a community, while its 
published statistics may show a ** home use ** of more 
than 80 per cent fiction. Another library of 76,000 
volumes in a similar city may not be doing any better 
work, yet its home circulation may be but 60 per cent 
fiction, or less. • 

Figures are often more than misleading, but in noth- 
ing else so much as in so-called •< library statistics.'* 

PuRD B. Wright, 
Librarian Free Public Library. 

St. Joieph, Mo., April 5, 1901. 



(To the Editor of Turn THal.) 

In your issue of March 16, there appeared from the 
pen of Mr. A. L. Day a short letter which gave me 
three addresses I might write to and gain further in- 
f omiation on the subject of county libraries. In your 
usne of April 1, Mr. W. T. Porter has a letter advanc- 
ing the claim of the Cincinnati Library to priority in 
the matter of inaugurating the county library move- 
ment. Since reading these tuo letters, and collecting 
«I1 available data, I still remain by my statement in 
flay letter in The Dial of January 16 that the Brum- 
baek Library of Van Wert County, Ohio, is America's 
first real county library. 

The Norris Jewett Library, to which Mr. Day re- 
ferred in his letter, is far from being a county library. 
The latest catalogue, which lies before me, makes the 
simple statement that the Norris Jewett Library is a 
library whose privileges are extended to all the resi- 
dents of Grundy County, Mo. No law makes it a 
eoonty library, no county tax supports it, and no sys- 
tem of branch libraries has been put into operation by it. 

It will take a little more space to show that the Cin- 
eimufcti Library is likewise, strictly speaking, hardly a 

county library. Granting, however, that it is a county 
library, let me briefly consider the act that created it a 
county library as well as the act that created the Brum- 
back Library of Van Wert County a county library. 

Libnuy Bill of the Guein- 
n%ti Library. House BUI No. 
753. In the House : Aprill, 
1896, latxoduoed ; Afyril 15, 
1898, passed. In the Senate: 
April 15, 1808, Introdnoed; 
April 21, 1898, Passed. 

Libnuy Bill of the Bmm- 
baok Libnuy of Van Wert 
Gonntj. Senate BUI No. 436. 
In the Senate: Maieh 26, 
1898, Introdnoed ; April 14, 
1898, Passed. IntheHonse: 
April 15, 1898, Introdnoed; 
April 26, 1898, Pa«Md. 
We thus see that the biU of the Brumback Library 
of Van Wert County was introduced first, and passed 
the senate before the bUl of the Cincinnati Library 
passed either the senate or the house. In this connection 
I should like to add that the bill of the Brumback 
Library was published in four or five of Ohio's leading 
papers nearly two months before the bill of the Cincin- 
nati Library was introduced in the Ohio legislature. 
See, for example, ** The Commercial Tribune ** of Cin- 
cinnati, for Feb. 13, 1898. 

I have given a brief history of the two bUls. Let 
me next say a word regarding their contents. Again 
I will place my facts side by side. 

BUI of the Bmmbaok Li- 
brary of Van Wert County. 
(1) Called a t^0fwra/aot,8inoe 
it applies to all Clio's oonn- 
ties. (2) Tax levied on the 
county by county offioials 
(oommissioaerB). (3) Phrase 
** county Ubraiy" does ap> 
pear in the biU. 

BUI of the Cueinnati Li- 
brary. (1) Called a special 
act, sinee it appUes praotie- 
ally only to Uie Cineinnati 
Libraiy. (2) Tax is levied 
on the eonnty, not by county 
officials, but by trustees of 
the library. (3) Phrase 
** eonnty library*' does not 
appear in the bUl. 

From the preceding facts we see that, strictly speak- 
ing, the Cincinnati act does not create a county library. 
It simply extends the privileges of the Cincinnati Li- 
brary to Hamilton County. The fact is, the Cincinnati 
Library is more like the libraries in several of our 
larger cities, which have elaborate systems of branch 
libraries, than a county library in a county with a rural 
population, since the corporate limits of Cincinnati are 
almost coextensive with the lines of Hamilton County. 

What Mr. Porter says regarding the Cincinnati Li- 
brary having been put into operation first is all true. 
The Brumback Library had to be bnUt after the passage 
of its act. The Cincinnati Library was already bmlt 
The only claim made by the Brumback Library of Van 
Wert County is that it toas the fint to inaugurate the 
county library movement. e. I. Antrim. 

Van Wert, Ohio, April S, 1901. 

The first publication of the Bibliographical Society 
of Chicago is a chronological list of << Bibliographies of 
BibUog^phies," edited by Mr.* Aksel 6. S. Josephson. 
The number of titles included is 156, and the list fills 
a neatly printed pamphlet of about forty pages. The 
title of this work is to be taken literally, for each entry 
deals, not with the bibliography of a subject, but wi^ 
the bibliographies of that subject. It requires some 
effort to grasp this idea, but less than the effort that 
wUl be requirod, at some future time, to grasp the idea 
of a « Bibliography of Bibliographies of Bibliographies " 
with the work now before us as the pioneer production 
of its class. The earliest date of the present entries is 
1654, but only eight of the whole number antedate the 
nineteenth century. 

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Google -^ 



[April 16, 

t It^to $0060. 

The Beginnings of a Famous Career.* 

Professor Max Miiller's autobiography is a 
fragment that takes us little beyond the thresh- 
old of his career, namely, into the early days 
at Oxford, and not out of the period during 
which Sanskrit was his sole pursuit. But it is 
an important fragment biographically, since it 
deals with a portion of the writer's life rela- 
tively little known, and shows how and why 
the current of his career and work first took 
the direction it did. 

Friedrioh Max Miiller was bom on Dec. 6, 
1828, in the ducal town of Dessau in Central 
Gerniany. His father, Wilhelm Miiller, libra- 
rian at Dessau, was one of the most popular 
poets of Germany — hardly one of the greatest, 
perhaps, though Heine ranked hb lyrics second 
only to Goethe's, and we find that in the critical 
anthology of Echtermeyer sixteen pieces of his 
are given, which is a large quota relatively. 
At the age of thirty-three Wilhelm Miiller 
died, leaving but scanty provision for his widow, 
*^ fabulously " so, his son says, when one con- 
siders that she had to bring up two children 
on it. But even aside from Uie stress of the res 
angusta domiy life seems to have been rather 
a sad sSsAt for the fatherless little ones at the 
Miiller home. For years it was a house of 
mourning, the widow nursing her grief with a 
pious if inconsiderate constancy that cast a pall 
over the lives of her children. Miiller says : 

" All I remember of my mother at that time was 
that she took her two children day after day to the 
beaatifal Oottesacker (God's Acre), where she stood 
for honrs at our father's grave, and sobbed and cried. 
It was a beaatifal and restful place, covered with old 
acacia trees. The inscription over the gateway was one 
of my earliest pozzies: Tod i8t nicht Tod, ist nur Ver- 
edlung menscklicher Natur (Death is not death, 'tis bat 
the ennobling of man's nature). . . . When my mother 
said she wished to die, and to be with our father, I feel 
sure that my sister and I were only anxious that she 
should take ns with her, for there were few golden 
chains that bound us as yet to this life." 

Passing by the author's pleasant chapter on 
Dessau life and manners, over which the re- 
viewer is tempted to linger, we find that at 
twelve he was sent to the famous NicolaiSchule 
at Leipzig. The school was then under Dr. 
Nobbe (known in England through his edition 
of Cicero), and it had an excellent staff of 
masters, among them Palm, Forbiger, and 

* Mt Autobioorapht : A Fsaqmekt. By the Rt. Hon. 
PfofeMor F. Max Mttller, K.M. With portraits. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Funkhanel, sound classical scholars all, and 
men of more than national reputation. Clas- 
sical studies were naturally given the prece- 
dence at the Nicolai-Schule, all else, modem 
languages, mathematics, physics, etc., having 
comparatively a poor chance of it. While the 
author, as he says, «« liked his classics,'^ and 
went as in duty bound into the stock raptures 
^^ about Homer and Sophocles, about Horace 
and Cicero,'' he was nevertheless haunted by 
the suspicion that there was a tbge of cant in 
the praises lavished by the masters on the old 
authors at the expense of the new. 

«The ezag^ration in the panegyrics passed on 
everything Greek or Latin dates from the classical 
scholars of the Middle Ages, who knew nothing that 
could be compared to the classics, and who were loud 
in praising what they possessed tiie monopoly of selling. 
Successive generations of scholars followed suit, so that 
even in our time it seemed high treason to compare 
Goethe with Horace, or Schiller with Sophocles." 

In 1841 the author left the Nicolai-Schule, 
and soon after passed his examination for ad- 
mission to Leipzig University. He had deter- 
mined to study philology, diiefly Greek and 
Latin; but, delighted as he was with such 
guides and teachers as Prof essbrs Hermann and 
Haupt, he found little in the chiefly critical 
work assigned him to rouse his enthusiasm. 
Everything, he felt, had already been done, 
and there was no virgin soil left on which to 
try one's own spade. So, dissatisfied with what 
seemed a mere chewing of the cud in Greek 
and Latin, he betook himself to systematic 
philosophy, joining the philosophical societies 
of Weisse, Drobisch, and Lotze. For a time 
he dreamed of becoming a philosopher, and it 
was while indulging in this dream that he began 
to feel that he must know something special, 
something that no other philosopher knew; 
and thus his thoughts gradually turned to 
Sanskrit as to a key to the possible infinite 
riches of systems yet little known to the think- 
ers of the West. He had read the explanatory 
and somewhat fanciful books on the speech 
and philosophy of India by Schlegel and Win- 
dischmann, and these, he says, *^ had left on 
me, as they did on many, that feeling which 
the digger who prospects for minerals is said 
to have, that there must be gold beneath the 
surface, if people would only dig." The needed 
impulse to the latent inclination came with the 
founding at Leipzig of the new professorship 
of Sanskrit, which was given to Professor 
Brockhaus. Max Miiller then determined to 
see what there was to be learnt in Sanskrit, 
and to gratify, he admits, his desire to study 

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flomething which his friends and fellow-stndents 
did not know. Calling upon Brockhaus he 
fonnd that there were then but two students 
besides himself who oared to attend the new 
lectures, for the prejudice against Sanskrit was 
still strong among classical scholars, although 
among those who stood up for it were men like 
von Humboldt and the two von Schlegels. The 
author confesses that the champions of the new 
learning gave vent in their first enthusiasm to 
many exaggerated opinions. 

'* Sanskrit was represented as the mother of all lan- 
guages, instead of baing the elder sister of the Aryan 
familj. The beginning of all language, of all thought, 
of all religion, was traoed back to India, and when 
Greek scholars were told that Zeus existed in the Veda 
under the name of Dyaus there was a great flutter in the 
dovecotes of classioid scholarship. Many of these en- 
thusiastic utterances had afterwards to be toned down." 

The author's zeal for his new studies met 
with small encouragement at Leipzig, and he 
had to be chary of his supposed Sanskritist 
heresies in the seminary of Gottfried Her- 
mann, or in the Latin society of Haupt — in 
the latter particularly, for Hermann saw there 
was a new light and refused to obstruct it. In 
him learning begot a liberality that is not 
always its offspring. Hermann saw that the 
verbal coincidences between Greek and Sans- 
krit could not be casual, and made generous 
concessions to the new learning. He did not 
discourage Miiller (as his colleagues probably 
did) when he determined in his third year at 
Leipzig to go to Berlin to bear Bopp. 

After some nine months at Berlin the author 
went to Paris, and his stay there, from March, 
1845, to June, 1846, proved a useful inter- 
mezzo as well as a main factor in determining 
his future career. His object in going to Paris 
was of course largely to hear Burnouf, then 
lecturing to a select class at the College de 
France on Indian philosophy and religion. 
Burnouf, a charming man and a fine specimen 
of the real French savant, encouraged the 
young German scholar in every way, lent him 
his own Vedic MSS. to copy (when the great 
edition of the Big-veda was, at Burnouf 's in- 
stance, really begun), guided him to the MSS. 
at the Biblioth^que Boyale, and, what was then 
of no small moment, cheered his droopiug 
spirits at times when the patent difficulty of 
finding a publisher for his huge and commer- 
cially unpromising forthcoming work loomed 
large and disheartening. ^^The commentary 
must be published, depend upon it, and it will 
be," said the cheery Frenchman, and so the 
drudgery of copying and collating went on. 

Ordinary copying is dreary work, but copying 
Sanskrit for hours at a stretch from manu- 
script, was deadly. Mistakes were inevitable 
under the usual process of transcribing, so a 
new one had to be invented. 

** This new process," says the author, « I discovered 
bj using transfMtrent paper, and thns tracing every let- 
ter. I had some excellent papier venial made for me, 
and, instead of copying, traced the whole Sanskrit MS." 

As the work progressed the question of a 
publisher tended to become the engrossing one. 
An effort by Humboldt to secure the aid of 
the King of Prussia in the enterprise came to 
nought, as did a rather vague and imprac- 
ticable offer from St. Petersburg, which Bur- 
nouf advised the author not to accept. The 
solution of the problem was brought about in 
a rather fortuitous way during a visit of Miiller 
to England. He had long felt the necessity 
of making a trip to London in order to copy 
and collate some MSS. which were in the Li- 
brary of the East India Company, but had 
lacked funds for the journey. In June, 1846, 
he was enabled to start, and on arriving at 
London he at once began work in the Com- 
pany's library in Leadenhall Street. He had 
been employed there for nearly a month when 
it occurred to him that he ought to call upon 
the Prussian Minister, Baron Bunsen. The 
visit proved the turning-point of his life. He 
found in the Baron a friend, a social sponsor, 
and, what was practically most important, a 
fellow-Sanskritist who as a young man had 
proposed to himself as the work of his life the 
very task upon which he, Miiller, was engaged, 
namely, the editio princepa of the Big-veda. 
Drifting into diplomacy, the Baron had given 
up his early design ; but he at once warmly 
entered into Miiller's project, and his interest 
happily took a practical turn. He saw that 
the East India Company was the proper body 
to publish the work. It was of course no easy 
task to get the Board of Directors — all keen 
and practical men of business — to authorize 
the printing, at great expense, in six volumes 
quarto of a thousand pages each, of an old 
book that none of them could understand, and 
many of them had never even heard of. But 
Bunsen's name was a power in England, and 
his efforts were ably seconded by Professor 
Wilson, the Librarian of the Company; so 
that it was at last settled that the East India 
Company was to bear the cost of the printing 
of the Veda, and to defray the editor's expenses 
while the work was preparing for the press. 
The financial difficulty thus settled, the rest 

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[April 16, 

was comparatively plain sailing for Miiller. 

It was decided that the Rig*veda should be 
printed at Oxford, and thither the editor con- 
dnded to migrate. His first visit there had 
filled him with enthusiasm for the beautiful 
old town, where, as he says, ^' even the under- 
graduates, dressed in their mediaeval academic 
costume, looked to me very grand, and so dif- 
ferent from the German students at Leipzig 
or still more at Jena, walking about the streets 
in pink cotton trousers and dressing-gowns." 
It is pleasant to note that Miiller was deeply 
impressed with the ** real friendliness " shown 
him, an unknown German scholar, at Oxford ; 
but the idea of settling permanently at that 
^^ academic paradise " did not for some time 
occur to him. 

« I was there to print m j Rig-veda and work at the 
Bodleian; that I should in a few years be an M.A. of 
Christ Church, a Fellow of the most exclusive of col- 
legesy nay, a married Fellow — a being not even in- 
vented then — and a professor of the University, never 
entered into my wildest dreams." 

Reminiscences, in the vein of the author's 
pleasant volumes on *^Auld Lang Syne," of 
Oxford and Oxonians in early days, form the 
staple of the two closing chapters of the Auto- 
biography. Among the early friends at Ox- 
ford of whom mention is made is Matthew 
Arnold. Says the author : 

<<It strikes one that while he was at Oxford, few 
people only detected in Arnold the poet or the man 
of remarkable genius. . . . Then suddenly came the 
time when he returned to Oxford as the poet, as the 
professor of poetry, nay, afterwards as the philosopher 
also, placed high by public opinion among the living 
worthies of England. What was sometimes against 
him was his want of seriousness. A laugh from his 
hearers or readers seemed to be more valued by him 
than their serious opposition, or their convinced assent. 
He trusted, like others, to persiflage^ and the result was 
that when he tried to be serious, people could not for- 
get that he might at any time turn round and smile, 
and decline to be taken au grand serieux,** 

The view of Matthew Arnold as an incurable 
persifleur seems to us a rather novel and not 
wholly sound one. To banter, indeed, he was 
sometimes given ; and everyone knows how 
effectively he used to rally that peculiarly im- 
pervious and self-satisfied class of his country- 
men devoted, he thought, mainly to chapels, 
business, tea-meetings, comfort, and the phil- 
osophy of Sir Daniel Gooch. But if it be true, 
as we suppose it is in a measure, that people 
declined to take Matthew Arnold quite seri- 
ously, was it not rather because the social 
remedies he preached seemed to them ludi- 
crously disproportionate to the ills he proposed 
to cure? ^^One does not," says Danton, 

^^make revolutions with rose-water"; and so 
Mr. Arnold's faith in the saving efBoacy of 
culture may well have seemed to sterner spirits^ 
as he admitted, *< a religion proposing parma- 
ceti, or some scented salve or other, as a cure 
for human miseries." 

The editor of the Autobiography, Mr. W. G. 
Max Miiller, has acquitted himself well in the 
plainly difficult task df putting in shape the 
fragments and jottings at his disposal. Much 
of the matter was written or dictated during 
the last weeks of the author's life, his desire 
being to leave as much as possible ready for 
publication. That the end came so soon no 
reader of this cheery record of the morning of 
a changeful and bustling, if studious, life will 
fail to regret. E. 6. J. 

The Storm and Stbbss in the Black 

From the dark world beyond the Color-line 
come usually only faint murmurs to the world 
without — so faint that some deny altogether 
to this world, word and thought. But now 
and then there comes a wild discordant note, 
which sets men wondering not so much at the 
words said as at the pitch and passion of the cry. 

So it is with Mr. Hannibal Thomas's ''The 
American Negro." The voice of a Negro 
talking of Negroes has not yet ceased sounding 
unusual to our ears. The actual content of his 
message is of no great intrinsic importance ; 
there is some history of the encyclopaedic order, 
many general observations showing thought 
and reading, and passing evidence of eccentric 
originality and no little ability. But all this is of 
transient interest compared with the tone of the 
book : its cynical pessimism, virulent criticisms, 
vulgar plainness, and repeated and glaring self- 
contradictions. The reader instinctively feels 
that the book means more than it says. 

And so it does. Mr. Thomas's book is a 
sinister symptom — a growth and development 
under American conditions of life which illus- 
trates peculiarly the anomalous position of 
black men, and the terrific stress under which 
they struggle. And the struggle and fight of 
human beings against hard conditions of life 
always tends to develope the criminal or the 
hypocrite, the cynic or the radical. Where- 
ever among a hard-pressed people these types 
begin to appear, it is the visible sign of a bur- 

• The Ambbioan Nbgbo, What he Was, What he Is, and 
What he May Become. A Critioal and Praotioal Disonssion. 
By \^lliam Hannibal Thomas. New York : MaomiUaii Go. 

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den that is threatening to overtax their strength, 
and the foreshadowing of the age of revolt. 

The American Negro is still as a race too 
hopefnl of his future, and able to point ont too 
many undeniable evidences of progress, to 
harbor as yet any well defined thoughts of 
spiritual or physical revolt. And yet among 
the incompetent,' the impatient, and the dis- 
appointed — among those black men who al- 
ready in the severe struggle for existence have 
fallen by the wayside, the sinister types that 
war with society are beginning to appear : the 
ignorant contemner of law and order, and the 
sly deceiver ; and the better trained man who 
has lost faith either in the coming of the Good 
or in the Good itself. 

Mr. Thomas is peculiarly the type of the 
Negro cynic. He may speak of virtue, and 
interlard a few general phrases of goodness 
and hope, but they are lost in his general des- 
pair, they have a hollow, unreal sound beside 
the rest of his words. At bottom his book is 
without faith or ideal. He is one of those 
embodied disappointments of Eeconstruction 
times ; one who went South to show the World 
and the Negro how to do everything in a day, 
and succeeded only in shattering his ideals, 
and becoming embittered and dissatisfied with 
men. Wandering from place to place and 
from occupation to occupation, he finally set- 
tled in Boston, where in 1890 he published a 
pamphlet* which now, re-written, appears as 
'' The American Negro." This pamphlet fell 
unnoticed from the press, and the inner striv- 
ings of the Negro people soon lost him what 
influence he had possessed among them. 

The new spiritual longings of the Negro, 
and the outreaching for real progress, has de- 
veloped in the last decade a higher type of 
race leadership than formerly, and ousted 
many of the demagogues and rascals. A new 
race literature of promise has appeared, and a 
race consciousness such as the modern world 
has never before seen among black folk. These 
results have been bitterly resented by many 
men, and it seems to be this resentment that 
has caused Mr. Thomas's pamphlet of 1890 to 
be le-written for the book of 1901. The 
pamphlet was a defense of the Negro, with 
severe criticisms on the whites, and laid down 
the thesis that land owning and education — 
boih industrial and higher — would solve the 
Hegro problems. In the re-writing the criti- 

* ** Lud and Ednoation : A Critioal and Praotioal DiBona- 
noD of the Mental and Physioal Needa of the Freedmen.*' 
By I^Uiam Haniubal Thomaa. Boaton, 1890. 

cisms on the whites were toned down, and then 
with a sort of cool ferocity, without pity or re- 
straint, there was added a denunciation of the 
Negro in America unparalleled in vindictive- 
ness and exaggeration. The result is natur 
ally a contradictory book, for alongside the 
new anathemas lie the old schemes for ameli- 
oration and grounds for hope. Many passages 
illustrate this, but perhaps two will sufi&ce : 

Thomas ik 1890 : 
** I Tentnxe the opinion th»t 
of thoae who deacant ao glibly 
on Negro inferiority, not one 
haa an aeonrate knowledge of 
f aeta on the aocial aide of hia 
life. . . . I take it upon my- 
aelft therefore, to any that • 
oonaiderate inyeatigation 
through peraonal contact will 
diacloae aa mnoh of the aa- 
eredneaa of Hying, aa aompn- 
lona regard for truth and 
▼irginal honor, aa keen an 
appreciation, and aa mnch of 
the praotioe of Ghriatian in- 
tegrity, with aa intimate a 
familiarity with the beat lit- 
erainre and the higheatfonna 
of eiTiliaatioD, wheneyer op- 
portunity permita, aa charao- 
terixea the more pretentioua 
white race" (pp. 7, 8). 

Thomas ik 1901 : 
**In fact I doubt if any 
white peraon liyea who hata 
an adequate comprehenaion 
of Negro eharaoteriatioa, not- 
withatanding the many who 
deacant ao glibly on the pree- 
ent and future of the freed 
people" (p.xix.). 

" Soberly apeaking, Negro 
nature ia ao crayen and aen- 
Buoua in eyery fibre of ita 
being that a Negro manhood 
with decent raapect for ohaate 
womanhood doea not exiat" 
(p. 180). 

** Fully 90 per oent. of the 
Negro women of America 
[are] laaciyioua by inatinct, 
and in bondage to phyaieal 
pleaaure. . . . The aocial 
degradatio'n of our freed 
women ia without a parallel in 
modem eiyilization *' (p. 195). 

'' . . . We may take the 
word yirtue, whoae exact aig- 
nifioaace no Negro compre- 
henda — who faila therefore 
to engraft ita import into the 
fibre of hia being. . . . The 
aame ia true of the worda 
like truth, honor, and intci^ 
rity. Theae are meaningleaa 
expreaaiona, and becauae the 
Negro cannot connect worda 
wi<^ ideaa and ideaa with 
realitiea, he liea with ayidiona 
readineaa without undergoing 
the alighteat remorae, and 
often without any apparent 
aenae of preyarication " 
(p. 118). 

'* Therefore it may be 
frankly and fearleaaly aaid 
that the Negro when honeaily 
meaaured through the amen- 
itiea of aocial contact, either 
in the induatrial department 
or intellectual field, diapela 
much of the falae knowledge 
with which an unreaaoning 
prejudice haa inyeated him. 
. . . Studied in the light of 
hia paat, I think it will be 
found that he haa no greater 
yirtuea nor groaaer yicea than 
are common to other racea of 
mankind, and like them in 
manhood true and good, in- 
telligent and upright " 
(pp. 8, 9). 

It is, of oourse, conceivable that a man 
should utterly change his opinions in ten years; 
but when opinions formed after twenty-five 
years of dose contact with actual conditions 
are radically altered after ten years' absence 
from those conditions, the later testimony is 
certainly less valuable than the earlier. And 
when, too, this conversion is marred by so evi- 
dent bitterness and recklessness, and when 
one remembers that the writer himself is a 
Negro, born of a Negro mother, then his book 
can only be explained as a rare exhibition of 
that contempt for themselves which some Ne- 
groes still hold as a heritage of the past. 

Before such an attack as this, nine millions 

Digitized by 

Google — 



[April 16, 

of human beings stand helpless. The swift 
defense which social groups have ever exer- 
cised against the malignor is not theirs to 
wield. They cannot edit the things said about 
them as can other races and people. But it is 
possible for the most discredited of their race 
to gain now and then by singular accident and 
the exigencies of the book market, respectful 
hearing and wide advertisement. One dis- 
couraging cause of this, is the more or less un- 
conscious Wish for the Worst in regard to the 
Negro, to satisfy the logic of his anomalous 
situation. If the Negro will kindly go to the 
devil and make haste about it, then the Amer- 
ican conscience can justify three centuries of 
shameful histof y ; and hence the subdued en- 
thusiasm which greets a sensational article or 
book that proves all Negroes worthless. 

All men know that the American Negro is 
ignorant and poor, with criminal and immoral 
tendencies. And some of us know why. Never- 
theless the Negroes are not as ignorant as the 
Russians, nor as poor as the Irish, nor as crim- 
inal as the English and French workingmen, 
nor sexually, as incontinent as the Italians. If 
there is hope for Europe there is abundant 
hope for the Negro. And if there is hope, 
then in the name of decency let the American 
people refuse to use their best agencies for 
publicity in distributing exaggerations and 
misrepresentations such as *^The American 
Negro." YT. E. Bubgharot DuBois. 

Atlanta Univenity^ AtlaniOf Ga. 


The optimistic scientist is wont to regard 
Occultism as a kind of feeble intellectual para- 
site, unfit to cope with the strenuous conditions 
of modem life and consequently doomed to 
speedy extinction. To the dispassionate ob- 
server, however, certain contemporary tenden- 
cies suggest in the surviving species of the 
occult a tenacity of life, which threatens a 
serious postponement of the scientific millen- 
ium. One certainly cannot view such psychic 
epidemics, as the spread of Spiritualism during 
the years 1848-60, and the wave of Christian 
Science and Faith Healing in the present de- 
cade, without discerning that for large portions 
of even the educated public, to say nothing of 
the intellectually submerged tenth, both the 
spirit and the letter of exact science are closed 

*FAaT AND Pablb in Pstchologt. By Joseph Jaitrow. 
Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

books. It is, therefore, a matter of no small 
importance to clear up the precise nature of 
the quarrel which science has with these move- 
ments, and to locate, if possible, the boundary 
line between knowledge and superstition, be- 
tween science and mysticism. Professor Jas- 
trow's ^* Fact and Fable in Psychology," which 
furnishes our text, is an admirable brief for 
the scientific side of this case. 

The general charge which science brings 
against Occultism, is that of ignorant contempt 
for the majesty of natural law. The cruder 
forms of Occultism, exemplified by some of the 
ebullitions of theosophists, are chiefly notable 
as evidences of colossal insensibility to fact. 
They have no more bearing on the real devel- 
opment of intelligence than have the delusional 
theories of the insane. The real controversy 
is with a much more masterful adversary. 

There is a considerable group of highly cul- 
tivated men, among them some conspicuous 
scientists, for whom scientific orthodoxy is 
tested not more by assent to the finality of 
such laws as science has already formulated, 
than by the maintenance of a catholic and 
open-minded attitude toward fresh knowledge, 
however revolutionary, in whose light the older 
principles may be newly interpreted. These 
men are the bitter enemies of intolerant dog- 
matism, whether it pose as science or as relig- 
ion, and they insist that science is nowadays 
guilty of intolerable bigotry in its refusal to 
countenanoe well- attested facts, simply because 
they are seemingly irreconcilable with accepted 
physical principles. 

Clearly the outcome of this protestant reac- 
tionary attitude of mind will depend altogether 
on the sobriety with which it is employed. 
Such a position may lead simply to an enlarge- 
ment of knowledge concerning the interrda- 
tions of different forces in the universe. But 
it is only a step to a totally different conse- 
quence, in the shape of a practical abandonment 
of belief in the inviolability of demonstrated 
uniformities in nature. Undoubtedly the rain 
descends upon the just and the unjust without 
regard to ethical decency, and no one's faith 
is thereby disturbed. But if spirits can lift 
tables and hold them suspended in the air, in 
spite of the operation of gravity, then knowl- 
edge is at an end, the whole fabric of science 
deliquesces into a mere logomachy, human con- 
duct degenerates into a gambling upon chance, 
and man himself becomes the plaything of 
every eddy that may happen to roil the waters 
of his ignorance. 

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No amoant of joggling with the anoient 
theological device for explaiaing the miraoo- 
loas will, the scientist insists, do away with 
this dilemma. If, in such a ease as that of onr 
illustration, one speaks of the operation of a 
higher law, which somehow transcends tempo- 
rarily the law of gravity, one of two things is 
meant : either some force other than gravity, 
say magnetism, has momentarily obscured the 
apparent operation of gravity — and this is 
wholly conformable to the strictest conception 
of immutability in natural law, — or gravity is 
not an invariable principle displayed in the 
relations of masses to one another. The latter 
alternative, if true, annihilates science. 

Naturally the advocates of liberalism in this 
eontroversy would resent the name Occultism 
as applied to them. They are nothing, if not 
defenders of the idea of law. They contend, 
however, for the whole law, and protest against 
identifying with this whole the trivial segment 
which physical science, with its mechanical 
eonceptions, has thus far succeeded in decipher- 
ing. But in actual practice much of their pro- 
cedure becomes indistinguishable from that of 
the genuine occultist, because they are ready 
to recognize causes unknown to science (e. ^., 
telepathy} in explanation of phenomena which 
scientists regard as partially spurious, and in 
the remaining instances as entirely explicable 
upon the basis of accepted principles. In 
almost every instance the real controversy will 
be found to reduce itself to the question of 
whether the operations of physical forces are 
ever modified or suspended by non-physical 
agencies. This issue is raised in connection 
with spiritualism, mesmerism. Christian Sci- 
ence, necromancy, telepathy, clairvoyance, etc. 
Did the liberalists mean by their agencies (as, 
for instance, telepathy) simply some hitherto 
unidentified physical process, such as the 
Roentgen ray, the present dispute would never 
have arisen. Unfortunately, so far as concerns 
the preservation of the peace, this is not the 
case with most of them. To compromise with 
this mood is, the scientist maintains, to barter 
the birthright of one's rationality for the pot- 
tage of lunacy. 

Probably no one in America has done more 
than Professor Jastrow to disarm the common 
forms of Occultism of their more pernicious 
consequences. He has made himself widely 
known as a lucid and vigorous essayist, whose 
forceful expositions of the conservative scien- 
tific attitude on such subjects as we have been 
discussing have won him a well-merited repute. 

In his present volume he has gathered together 
eleven of his previously published papers, sub- 
mitting them to a careful revision, which in 
one or two instances amounts to a re-writing. 
The articulation of the several members of the 
series is much more successful than commonly 
occurs in books made up in this fashion. 

An admirable essay on the Modern Occult, 
canvassing theosophy. Christian Science, etc., 
stands first in the series and sounds the key- 
note of the whole book. This is followed by 
a somewhat drastic criticism of the Society for 
Psychical Besearch, and a depreciatory esti- 
mate of the results and future possibilities of 
such work. Mr. Jastrow gives the devil his 
due in acknowledging the accumulation by this 
organization of much valuable psychological 
material, but the balance sheet still shows, in 
his opinion, a heavy deficit by reason of the 
damage done' by the Society to the psycholo- 
gist's scientific reputation. An examination of 
mental telegraphy, issuing in a conclusion of 
its probably fictitious character, is fittingly 
followed by a description of the psychology of 
deception, as illustrated by the conjurer and 
the ordinary medium. An essay upon invol- 
untary muscular movements, including a dis- 
cussion of muscle-reading, is closely connected 
in subject matter with the last mentioned 
papers, although given a later position in the 
volume. Spiritualism and hypnotism each 
receive scholarly treatment, partly historical 
and partly analytical. An entertaining paper 
on mental prepossession is in many ways inti- 
mately connected with the second of these 
topics. The dreams of the blind are ably dis- 
cussed, although the subject seems a trifle 
aside from the main stream of the essays. 
Probably the least important of the chapters 
is upon the mind's eye, under which title the 
familiarities of the psychological texts upon 
perception and illusion are briefly set forth. 
An extremely able paper upon argument from 
analogy furnishes in a sense the logical ful- 
crum of the whole volume and completes the 
list of essays. 

Taken in its entirety, Mr. Jastrow's argu- 
ment consists in showing how strange and 
baffling phenomena, for whose explanation 
supernatural causes have been invoked, have 
one after another been reduced to cases of in- 
telligible and often familiar occurrences dis- 
torted by mal-observation and defective reason- 
ing. It is of course impossible in any brief 
remime to convey a just impression of the 
cumulative force of an argument of this type, 

Digitized by 




[April 16, 

when applied sacoessively to the several groups 
of phenomena which have afforded occasion 
for the majority of supematoralistio hypotheses. 
SafiBloe it to say, the achievement is iJioronghly 
skilful, and Mr. Jastrow's book may be safely 
prescribed in large doses for all cases of in- 
cipient occultism. The moral, as well as the 
intellectual, advantages of scientific conserva- 
tism are made abundantly evident. But to the 
end, temperamental rather than purely logical 
considerations will doubtless determine the 
attitude toward these problems of many pre- 
sumably intelligent persons. There are, more- 
over, profounder forms of mysticism than any 
of these with which Mr. Jastrow has chosen to 
deal. They contain, however, no serious menace 
to science, and their omission is accordingly 
justifiable. James Rowland Angell. 

Chaptsbs from Illinois Histobt.* 

In no line of historical writing has there 
been such marked advancement in recent years 
as in *^ state " histories. Formerly the term 
meant a series of reminiscences of early comers 
in which tradition, anecdote, and a thousand 
trifling details occupied the place of leading 
facts, logical development, and scholarly deduc^ 
tions. Or it meant a ^^ guide for emigrants," 
giving a kind of encydopsBdic summary, 
which grew into a subscription book, with a 
number of plates of important personages at 
so much per plate. 

Only too rarely has the scholarly business 
man had the zeal to turn aside and enter a 
field which has no special attraction for the 
professional historical writer. Such a man 
was the late Edward G. Mason, for some time 
President of the Chicago Historical Society, 
and to whom that institution owes much of its 
present flourishing condition. Although only 
an adopted citizen of Illinois, having been bom 
in Connecticut and educated at Yale, he entered 
upon a special study of the early days in the 
Illinois country with a zest and a training 
which made him an authority upon that topic. 
His enthusiasm has placed in the Chicago His- 
torical Society many priceless records which 
would otherwise have gone the primrose way 
of their fellows to destruction. 

It was the purpose of Mr. Mason to write a 
scholarly history of Illinois — one which should 
go to original sources for material, should be 

*Cbaptkr8 from iLLiifOiB HiBTOBT. By Edward O. 
MaMD. With portrait. Chicago: Herhert S. Stone A Co. 

readable, and which should eliminate entirely 
the commercial phases of the subscription his- 
tory. This high purpose was cut short by his 
untimely death, and flnds but a sad kind of 
fulfillment in the present posthumous work en- 
titled ^^ Chapters from Illinois History." 

One* of the shorter chapters, ^* Illinois in the 
Eighteenth Century," consists of a description 
of the beginnings of American, rule in Illinois 
under Colonel John Todd, who became Vir- 
ginia governor after the conquest by Greorge 
Bogers Clark. A second sketch is an excellent 
description of a personal visit to old Fort 
Chartres near the Mississippi below St. Louis^ 
in which the ruins are rebuilt in the author's 
fancy and re-peopled by Makarty, Renault, and 
the early French. The chapter on **The 
March of the Spanish Across Illinois " is a 
plausible argument that this expedition from 
Spanish St. Louis in 1781, against the English 
at St. Joseph, was intended to aid in the Span- 
ish claim to the country east of the Mississippi 
when negotiations to close the Bevolutionary 
War should be entered upon. Two lesser 
chapters, ^* Illinois in the Revolution " and 
«'The Chicago Massacre" (of 1812), are suf- 
ficiently described in their titles. 

Twp of the five chapters named above were 
previously printed, and the whole would no 
doubt have been incorporated in the finished 
work. They are fragmentary. But the fini 
«' chapter" of the book, ''The Land of the 
Illinois," is of sufficient length to manifest the 
literary style, the thoroughness of detail, and 
the balance of topics, which would have char- 
acterized the whole had the original plan been 
carried out. 

Mr. Mason begins with the reference by 
Champlain on his map to '*a nation where 
there is a quantity of buffalo," as indicating 
the land of the Illinois Indians. Thence the 
story is carried forward through Marquette, 
who the author thinks receives the credit nat- 
urally belonging to JoUiet ; through the heroic 
achievements of LaSalle and Tonty, to the 
death of the former. The recital closes ab- 
ruptly with the reappointment of Frontenac as 
governor of Canada in 1689. 

The sudden death of the author in his prime 
has a sad parallel in this sudden termination 
of the story in the height of its excellence. 
The enthusiasm of Mr. Mason over the stirring 
deeds of LaSalle and his great lieutenant is 
evident in every line. He leaves Tonty, gov- 
ernor of his lofty Fort St. Louis, looking down 
the valley of the Illinois, awaiting the return 

Digitized by 





of his captain who lies in the far south, stricken 
down by a treacherous hand. 

Of course Mr. Mason had to depend upon 
the *^ Eelations " of the Jesuits for his infor- 
mation, but he has supplemented them when- 
ever possible. His array of references is at 
first startling, and then begets confidence. 
Where authorities differ, he has weighed the 
arguments with the training of the lawyer. The 
style is plain but the composition faultless. 
The purpose evidently is to convey the meaning 
to the reader with a view to the ^^ economy of 
attention." Of the many writings upon Illinois 
history, it is probably safe to say that none is 
so scholarly, so careful, and so trustworthy as 
these '^* chapters " from the pen of Mr. Mason. 
Edwin E. Spabks. 


Suppose that in this day and age of the 
world a *^ life of Jesus " should be written, pur- 
porting to be a veritable history, and based on 
the so-called Apocryphal Gospels and similar 
authorities. Suppose, further, that the latter 
part of this *' life " should be taken up with an 
argument, buttressed by citations, to prove 
that Mohammedanism was really a complete 
plagiarism of Christianity. Of equal scientific 
value and of a similar type of content is Mr. 
Arthur Lillie's «« Buddha and Buddhism," a 
new volume in the series of *^The World's 
Epoch Makers." What is presented as a 
^« life" of Buddha is taken largely, without hint 
of the character of the sources, from the highly 
poetical, fanciful, and legendary stories about 
Buddha contained in the late northern litera- 
ture. The story is told for the most part in a 
series of independent paragraphs whose primary 
aim is to show how similar to incidents in the 
life of Jesus are certain events in Buddha's 
career. Ever and anon such statements appear 
as this : '« There is scarcely a doubt now with 
scholars that the early Christians borrowed the 
solution of earth's mighty problem from India " 
(p. 20). One entire chapter is given to the 
argument that the Essenes were Buddhists and 

* Buddha AivD Buddhism. By Arthur Lillie. New York: 
Chttles Seribner'g Soofl. 

Thh Dhamxa of Gotama, the Bnddha, and the Gospel 
o£ Jeras the Christ. A Critioal Inqairy into the alleged Re* 
latioDS of Bnddhism with PrimitiTe Christianity. By Charles 
Frauds Aiken, S.T.D. Boston : Marlier <& Co., Ltd. 


Faith m thb Mahataita. Translated for the first time 
from the Chinese Torsion, by Teitaro Suzaki. Chioaflro : The 
Open Coart Publishing Co. 

that Jesus was an Essene. The mode of argu- 
ment is illustrated by the following remarks: 
^* Historical questions are sometimes made 
more clear by being treated, broadly. Let us 
first deal with this from the impersonal side« 
leaving out altogether the alleged words and 
deeds of Christ, Paul, etc." (p. 169). In other 
words, Mr. Lillie instead of giving a clear and 
scientific narrative of what is really known 
about Buddha, and stating frankly the charac- 
ter and value of his authorities early and late 
— a piece of work much to be desired, — has 
produced a polemic maintaining that Chris- 
tianity, posing as the religion of Jesus, is really 
a wholesale plagiarism from Buddhism. The 
book is no more than a rehash of the author's 
previous writings on the same subject, and is 
of like importance. 

A strange coincidence has brought together 
in the same year this amorphous book of Mr. 
Lillie, and a treatise on the same subject by 
Dr. C. F. Aiken, in which the desirable and 
serviceable about Buddha and his system have 
been said with clearness, accuracy, and sobri- 
ety. The title is badly chosen, and will frighten 
off the very persons who would profit most by 
reading the book. The treatment is in three 
parts, first, a discussion of the relation of 
Buddhism to the antecedent Brahmanism; 
second, the presentation of the system itself in 
its historical development, containing a chapter 
on Buddha's life from the earliest and most 
trustworthy sources ; third, an examination of 
the alleged relations of Buddhism with Chris- 
tianity. In view of the unfounded assertions 
on this last topic in Mr. Lillie's work, the third 
part makes very interesting and profitable read- 
ing. The audior takes up with painstaking 
thoroughness and unwearied pursuit of details 
the various and devious allegations of the 
school to which Mr. Lillie belongs, with the 
result — anticipated, indeed, but none the less 
satisfactory — that these writers are convicted 
of misrepresentations, garbled quotations, an- 
achronisms, and *^ fictions " (to use Mr. Aiken's 
mild term). It is almost incredible that writers 
claiming to be scientific scholars could be guilty 
of such charges, but ample proof is given in 
the course of this critical and unsparing exam- 
ination. The argument amounts to a demon- 
stration. Dr. Aiken has rendered a service to 
Christianity, but, beyond that, he has made a 
notable contribution to the cause of sound 
learning and scientific truth. He has added, 
besides, a valuable bibliography of Buddhist 
texts and modern treatises. 

Digitized by 




[April 16, 

The ^^ Difloourse on the Awakening of Faith 
in the Mahayana " is a pretty stiff bit of meta- 
physics which reflects credit idike on the author 
and the translator. It illustrates the keenness 
of thinking characteristic of the best Baddhist 
treatises. The style is repetitious and dreary. 
The faith which is inculcated rests upon 
knowledge of a very complicated and subtle 
system of philosophy. The translator has put 
every student of Buddhism into his debt by 
making this work available and annotating it 
with such care and intelligence. Mahayana 
texts have not received anything like the atten- 
tion they deserve, and it is to be hoped that 
Mr. Teitaro Suzuki will continue his labors in 
this field. George S. Goodspeed. 

Becbxt Fiction.* 

An interesting experiment is being tried by one 
of the most important of oar publishing booses. It 
takes the form of a series of twelve novels, to be 
published at monthly intervals, each of the twelve 
dealing with some local condition or phase of con- 
temporary life. These novels are to be the work 
of new or comparatively unknown writers, and as 
we do not understand that the entire series has yet 
been provided for, the announeement sbonld serve 
as a stimulus to ambitions young writers all over 
the country. Two volumes in this series have 
already appeared, and we have read them both 
with exceptional interest. The first of the two, 
<<Eastover Coart House " by name, is the joint 
work of Mr. Henry Burnham Boone and Mr. Ken- 
neth Brown. The scene is in rural Virginia, and 
the action takes place during very recent years. 
We should be unable to assign a definite date to 
the story were it not for the appearance of the 
Philippine war in the closing chapters, for the gen- 
eral conditions depicted are such as have been char- 
acteristic of Virginia at almost any time since the 
dose of the Civil War. The work is decidedly 
amateurish, and to point out numerous defects 
would be a very easy task. The hero, in particular, 
is extremely disappointing;, being both weak and 

*Ea8TOVKB Coubt Houbk. By Henry finraham Boone 
and Kenneth Brown. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Tn SsNTiMKXTALiSTS. By Arthnr Stanwood Pier. New 
York : Harper A Brothers. 

Babb the Impoosiblb. By Sarah Grand. New York : 
Harper A Brothers. 

Tbb Visits ov EuzABBTB. By Elinor Glyn. New York: 
John Lane. 

Tbb Cohboibbgb of Cobaub. By F. Frankfort Moore. 
Chioaffo : Herhert S. Stone A Co. 

Tbb Dukb. By J. Storer Clonaton. New York : Long- 
mans, Green, A Co. 

Tbb Mabtlb ov Sujab. A Noyel. By I. Zangwill. 
New York : Harper A Brothers. 

NuDB Souls. A Noyel. By Benjamin Swift. Chioago : 
Herhert S. Stone A Co. 

mean. We learn at the very start that he is saving 
up his money with great care, and we at once seenf 
a mystery — some heroic resolve or secret obliga- 
tion. When we learn in the end that he has been 
actuated by no higher motive than ordinary parsi- 
mony, it is difficult to repress a feeling of disgust 
that any sympathy should have been wasted upon 
him. We must also say that there is a great deal 
too much horse talk in the book. Horses are inter- 
esting to Virginians, no doubt, but not quite to the 
point thus indicated. The story is valuable as a 
study of manners rather than for any analysis of 
character, or any development of plot, to be found 
within its pages. 

The second volume in this series is « The Senti- 
mentalists," by Mr. Arthnr Stanwood Pier. We 
have met Mr. Pier once before — in a delightfully 
humorous sketch of the Harvard Summer School 
— and we open his new book prepared to be 
pleased. The scene is Boston, varied by excursions 
into Missouri, and the complications of a stock- 
broking promotion make it possible to bring two 
localities so diverse, both physically and morally, 
into the scheme of a single novel. The greater 
part of the interest is Bostonian, although by far 
the best chapters in the book are those which de- 
scribe the conflict between the opposing forces of 
corruption in the legislature of the Western State. 
These chapters are depressing reading, but the 
bruUl truth that they embody is of a sort only too 
familiar to students of our political life. The writer 
of this story is likely to be persona non grata in 
Missouri, and hardly less so in Boston, which he 
calls '< the city of lowest vitality and least signifi- 
cance in the country." Mr. Pier has not proved 
successful in the delineation of any of his charac- 
ters ; the very title of the story warns us that it is 
concerned rather with superficial traits than with 
deep-seated qualities. For at least the first half of 
the book, our constant thought was that we had 
rarely met with so marked a talent for dealing with 
the surface of character combined with so absolute 
an inability to penetrate into its depths. The later 
chapters forced some modification of this judgment, 
which must, however, stand as the essential thing 
to be said about the novel. Weak and unsatisfac- 
tory as he is, there is some slight vitality to the hero, 
but we can find little or no vitality in any other 
of the creatures of his fancy. The most carefully 
studied figure of all — that of the hero's mother — 
is a complete failure from the artistic point of view. 
She interests us exceedingly, but we never^ for a 
moment take her seriously, or find ourselves thinking 
of her as of a really possible human being. 

For a third time Madame << Sarah Grand " comes 
to us with a novel which is essentially a study of 
the enfant terrible. Her first success was gained 
with the story of those "heavenly twins" whose 
pranks and audacities held the reader breathless 
through many hundreds of pages. In her second 
imporunt book Beth remained interesting only as 
long as she remained a child ; when she grew up 

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and developed "views," she became exceedingly 
tiresome. Now we have, in " Babs the Impossible," 
another portrait of preeocioas childhood, and we 
are beginning to wish that the type presented might 
prove as impossible in fiction as it is in fact. There 
is, however, no denying interest of the kittenish 
Babs, although it is an interest that palls after a 
time. Since Babs remains a child to the end of 
the chapter, she cannot be given «< views," like the 
grown-ap Beth, bnt " views " there mast be in any 
book by this strennons champion of her wronged 
sex, and for the purpose of presenting them a 
^'new woman" makes an unexpected and quite 
uncalled-for appearance near the close, and has her 
say with much emphasis. She has not the remotest 
connection with the story, but that does not greatly 
matter, for it is almost equally true of the other 
figures that are introduced for our diversion. The 
story is absolutely without structure, coherence, or 
probability ; it amuses by virtue of Babs, her say- 
ings and escapades, and also to a certain extent by 
the schemes of the mountebank Jellybond, whose 
honiment is cleverly done, and who comes next 
after Babs in the order of importance among the 
figures presented. 

Still another study of the enfant terrible is of- 
fered us by Miss Elinor Glyn's <<The Visits of 
Elisabeth." Here there is much less of narrative, 
and correspondingly more of art, than << Sarah 
Grand" has to give us. When we look at the 
frontispiece portrait of Elizabeth, we cannot help 
thinking that she will do well indeed if she can live 
up to its charm. On the whole, we should say that 
she does. She is a young English girl of sixteen 
or thereabouts, who has a good many relatives in 
both England and France. She makes a round of 
visits to these relatives, and writes home to her 
mother about them all. Her writing is absolutely 
nahfey and therein lies the delightful quality of the 
book. " Gyp " in English — this is what the reader 
■ays to himself when he has read two or three 
chapters, for Elizabeth is very much such a girl as 
Chiffon, for example. She occasionally writes things 
in her innocence that have a very deep meaning, 
as the alert reader will soon realize, and on one 
occasion her audacity, or rather that of the author, 
is so startling that the reader holds his breath. 
The hour that this book requires may not be pro- 
ductive of edification, but no reader will be likely 
to think it misspent 

Mr. Zangwill's new novel, comparable in volume 
with <<The Master," exhibits both the faulto and 
the merits that were found to be characteristic of 
that work. It is perhaps somewhat less turgid and 
looee- jointed, but suffers even more severely from 
the constraint of a forced brilliancy, and a certain 
hardness of temper, verging upon cynicism, that 
puts a damper upon our sympathies when the author 
is most intent upon enlisting them. Mr. Zangwill 
will never produce a really fine novel until he 
conquers the inveterate purpose of being epigram- 
matic upon all occasions, and learns the art of 

making his characters speak, at least occasionally, 
in the language that is used by ordinary mortals. 
This defect adone makes his figures unreal, and 
they are also so distorted in other respects that we 
can hardly be guilty of over-statement in calling 
them caricatures. This is a great pity, for there 
is excellent stuff in this novel, and its fundamental 
theme — a protest against the hypocrisy of modern 
politics — is one to interest all generous souls. The 
motives which lead our civilized nations to engage 
in schemes of conquest and the subjugation of un- 
offending peoples are dissected with merciless skill, 
and the cant phrases in which these schemes are de- 
fended are satirized with pitiless severity. Although 
the subject of the novel is English, the point of its 
moral is even sharper for Americans, since our 
newly-invented imperialism is purely wanton, where- 
as English imperialism is a historical inheritance 
which it would be difficult not to accept. In spite 
of the faults of his work, Mr. Zangwill preaches a 
powerful sermon upon this timely topic. 

If the book just mentioned verges upon cynicism, 
the latest production of the writer known as " Ben* 
jamin Swift " steps far over the verge. Cynicism 
unrelieved, and a thoroughly unsympathetic and 
brutal envisagement of human character, is what 
we find in <' Nude Souls," as we found these quali- 
ties in «<The Tormentor" and <'The Destroyer." 
The fascination of morbid psychology for this 
writer seems to be irresistible, and his pathological 
studies are unrelieved by any vestige of a belief 
that these are not, after all, normal types of hu- 
manity. The fascination of h)s books is unde- 
niable; they have high distinction of style, and 
they exhibit a masterly delineation of the characters 
with which the imagination of the writer chooses 
to consort But one would suppose from reading 
him that this is a world in which passion always 
gets the better of reason, and in which the brute 
part of human nature remains unsubdued by all 
the ethical agencies of civilization. This were to 
despair of mankind indeed, and we must indignantly 
refuse to take so base a view of humanity. But 
we must also bear witness to the fascination pos- 
sessed by such a book as *' Nude Souls," and it needs 
all our resolution to escape from its baleful spell. 

^ The Conscience of Coralie," by Mr. F. Frank- 
fort Moore, is a novel which sins by forced clever- 
ness almost as notably as do the books of Mr. 
Zangwill. The characters, almost without exception, 
are made to converse in a language that bears but 
a remote resemblance to ordinary speech. The 
effect is supposed to be humorous, the humor being 
chiefiy characterized by its unexpected inversions 
of ordinary logic. Otherwise, the story is highly 
entertaining. It deals with the experiences in 
England and Ireland of an American heiress from 
Nokomis, Indiana. The author occasionally lets 
his love of burlesque get the better of his judgment, 
as in the scene which represents Coralie as describing 
<* Carpenter 6. Hanker " and other personalities 
of her native town, but in the main his figure of an 

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[AprU 16, 

American girl is a seriooB stady. She has a eon- 
seienee which saggests Maeaaohasetts rather than 
Indiana, and she takes England very seriously. 
After making a few startling discoveries, snch as 
learning that Londoners do not habitually gaze 
with reverence upon Westminster Bridge becanse 
•of Wordsworth's sonnet — that few of them, indeed, 
have ever heard of the sonnet — she sets herself 
the desperate task of trying to reconcile the ideal- 
ism exemplified in English history and literature 
with the seeming indifference and even flippancy 
of its polite society. The chief instrument in her 
education is a socialist agitator, whose brummagem 
ideals she takes to be pure gold until they have 
been tested and exposed. There is also a touch 
of burlesque in the portrayal of this character, and 
we feel that the writer's view is too prejudiced to 
be fair. Bat when Coralie's eyes are at last opened, 
her judgment goes straight to the mark, and she 
finds that her instincts have been a safer guide than 
her intellect In other words, she drops the socialist 
•and marries the English gentleman whom in her 
heart she has loved all the time. 
. Mr. J. Storer Clouston's ''The Duke" tells of 
the unexpected accession to rank and fortune of a 
yoQDg Colonial. He comes to London to enter into 
his inheritance, and society ra agog to make his 
acquaintance. At this point there appears an old 
«hum, an Irishman of the reckless and rollicking 
type, and the Duke impulsively decides to play a 
joke upon society. The Irishman is made to per- 
eonate the Duke for a month, while the latter fills 
the post of ^private secretary to his Grace. The 
complications' that result from this exchange of 
posts are set forth in a highly amusing way, and 
the hypocrisies of the fashionable world are satir- 
ized without mercy. When his term is up, the 
bogus Duke shows signs of a determination to hold 
on to his position — which might have proved ex- 
tremely awkward for the secretary — but the Irish- 
man has got himself into so bad a tangle, both 
socially and financially, that he sees no better way 
out than to ''chuck the whole thing," and to dis- 
appear from view. Meanwhile, the real Duke has 
escaped all the designs of mothers with eligible 
daughters, and has found a woman after his own 
heart before his identity has been disclosed. 

William Morton Patkb. 

Briefs on Kew Books. 

Aneordefihe '^^^ burden of the lively and in its 
f^Hvate life of light Way informing little book en- 
King Bdu^rd, jj^^ u Private Life of King Edward 
VII." (Appleton) is that this potentate has been 
during his prolonged youth not only Prince of 
Wales but also prince of good fellows. Whether 
the type of men known as " good fellows " are 
commonly of the timber out of which good kings 
can be made, is a question ; but Englishmen can at 

least congratulate themselves on the fact that their 
new sovereign is a tactful and kindly man who is 
far too sensible and temperamentally easy-going to 
be likely to make trouble by attempting to rule as 
well as reign. His great personid popularity is 
perhaps the most promising sign now discernible 
on the horizon of British politics ; and this valuable 
asset he has thus far shown no disposition to risk 
through a display of tendencies at which liberalism 
might take alarm. The book now before us is from 
the pen of " a member of the royal household," and 
its contents are of course in the main somewhat 
trivial. The Prince's private habits are gone into 
pretty minutely, and with a pious gusto on the part 
of the narrator that is amusing. Nothing that can 
be told is omitted, from the size of the Prince's hat 
to the quality of his chnrchmanship. Sartorial mat- 
ters are dealt with in detail, and we are informed 
that his Royal Highness is a good shot, a great tri- 
cyclist, a tireless dancer, that he has patronized the 
sport of pigeon-flying, and, in an inspired moment, 
invented a cocktail. Life at Sandringham and at 
Marlborough House is pleasantly described, and 
chapters are devoted to the Prince's "set," his 
race-track exploits, his playgoing, his relations with 
the Church, with art, with letters, with Free- 
masonry, and what not On the Prince's reputed 
peccadilloes a discreet silence is maintained, as it 
should be. On the whole, one gets the impression 
that the Prince of Wales has in general been a good 
deal of a trifler, and that the British nation may 
well be surprised if Edward YII. shows a disposi- 
tion to take himself or his position very seriously, 
and it is not perhaps altogether desirable that he 
should do so, since the British constitution does 
not The book contains several photographic plates, 
and its timeliness should ensure its popularity. 

AMntndamdrt^^ ^ " P'^^^X ^®** known among stu- 
abu hiuory of the dcn ts of European history, the " Cam- 
F^ch monarchy. ^^^^^ Historical Series" (MacmU- 
lan), edited by Prof. 6. W. Prothero, is intended to 
sketch the history of Modern Europe, with that of its 
chief colonies and conquests, from about the end of 
the fifteenth century down to the present time. In 
pursuance of this plan, about a dozen volumes have 
thus far been issued at varying intervals ; and when 
the series is completed it may well be doubted 
whether any equally satisfactory narrative exists 
within the same limits, — certainly not in English. 
The large and important field covered by the history 
of the French monarchy has been assigned to Mr. 
A. J. Grant, Professor of History in the Yorkshire 
College ( Leeds), of Victoria University. When we 
reflect that his terminal dates were 1483 and 1789, 
we can only mildly wonder at his " original inten- 
tion to compress the history of France between 
these dates within the compass of one volume that 
should not exceed four hundred pages." As a 
matter of fact the two volumes that he has given 
us are an admirable piece of compact philosophical 
narrative, marked by resolute adherence to the im- 

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mediate tabjeet and rigid refusal of eyen legitimate 
digressions. Professor Grant's theme is the French 
Monarchy: his thesis, following in the steps of 
de Tocqneville and others, is << to show that the Rev- 
olotion did not cause so complete a breach with the 
past as many of the actors in it imagined, and that 
the Absolate Monarchy, in spite of its dismal cor- 
mption nnder Louis XV. and its catastrophe under 
Louis XVI., rendered nevertheless great serrices 
to France, anticipating in many points the benefi- 
cent work of the Revolution, and in many others 
preparing the way for it." The old familiar ground 
is carefully traversed ; the authorities seem to have 
been thoroughly compared and digested ; and sev- 
eral events and personalities have been presented 
from a new point of view. For example, Calvin's 
character, and the importance of his doctrine as a 
force in the European religious struggle, are ad* 
mirably summed up: <<In spite of the injustice 
and cruelty of the Calvinistic discipline, Protestant^ 
ism, without that discipline and all that flowed from 
it, would neither have won nor deserved the success 
that it achieved." Again, for many readers there 
will be an almost startling readjustment of values 
in accepting Professor 6rant*s epigram making 
Charles IX. really one of the victims of the St 
Bartholomew massacre instead of its author. He, 
then, was not the worst of Catherine de' Medici's 
evil brood : that bad eminence is reserved by the 
author for his brother, Henry III. These are but 
glimpses at a book which is both sound history and 
good reading. The work is well bound and beau- 
tifully printed; to the slips noted in the errata 
may be added 1719 for 1519 (vol. i., p. 47). 

The Uffitmtngt «/ A.nother volume in the " Cambridge 
wtodem induMiry Historical Series " is Professor W. 
««d eammeree. Cunningham's "Western Civilization 
in its Economic Aspects (Medieval and Modern 
Times)." This is really the second volume of the 
work : the first, dealing with ancient times, appeared 
in 1898. The definite object of this essay, as out- 
lined in the preface, is " to point out the remote 
and complicated causes in the past which have co- 
operated to mould industry and commerce into their 
present forms." In his division of the subject. 
Professor Cunningham recognises "three great 
stages of progress, in man's knowledge of himself, 
and of his place and powers in the world; and 
each of these has had far-reaching effects on indus- 
trial and commercial life. Under the influence of 
Christian teaching, man attained to a new con- 
sciousness of duty ; and we can trace the workings 
of these ideas in the institutions of Chrbtendom 
as they are most noticeably seen in the age of St. 
Louis. Again, when the period of discovery came, 
man's conception of the earth and of the possibili- 
ties it contained were suddenly enlarged, and we 
find the influence of this new knowledge not only 
in the expansion of commerce but in the national 
economic policies, of which France under Louis 
XlV*. affords a typical example. Lastly, with the 

age of invention there was an increase in man's 
acquaintance with physical nature, combined with 
special opportunities for applying that knowledge 
practically ; and Englishmen have taken the lead, 
not only as inventors but as pioneers in the work of 
diffusing the new industrial practices and organi- 
zation throughout the world. During each of these 
three periods attention has been concentrated in 
turn on one of the requisites of production. In 
medieval Christendom we find institutions for the 
regulation of labor ; the phase of nationalist eco- 
nomic policy has been chiefly concerned with the 
development of land ; while in recent times we see 
the remarkable results effected by the utilization 
of capital." It will be seen that this is a study of 
causes; which explains, for example, the great 
prominence assigned to the circumstances which 
have made England paramount at sea, and have 
given to the Anglo-Saxon ra<Se its wide-reaching 
commercial and industrial influence ; while on the 
other hand the vigorous trading life of Italian 
cities in the Middle Ages, great and splendid as it 
was, is not regarded as very fruitful so far as after 
times were concerned. The whole of this second- 
volume is even more profound and closely-wrought 
than the first ; and has a special interest for Anseri- 
cans in the fact that it embodies the substance of 
lectures delivered by Professor Cunningham at 
Harvard University in 1899, a fact which the 
Englishman gracefully recalls by dedicating the 
volume to President Eliot. 

on nuuie. 

The numerous books published of 
late dealing with music and music 
culture have contributed somewhat 
toward raising the standard of musical criticism 
and discussion in this country; and the newly 
awakened interest in musical literature has created 
a demand for books especially adapted to the uses 
of the general reader. In "Masters of Music" 
(Dodd), Miss Anna Alice Chapin has written a 
series of interestiug sketches of famous composers. 
While not pretending to give an estimate of his 
position in the world of art, the author gives a brief 
account of the life and work of each great artist — 
with one exception. We do not find Verdi in the 
list. Verdi is now to be numbered among the 
great ; and as a proof of the popularity of his music 
we have but to glance at any season's repertory at 
the Metropolitan, where his operas outnumber those 
of all except Wagner. Perhaps Miss Chapin feels 
that with Palestrina, Scarlatti, Marcello, Pergolese, 
and Rossini, Italian music is sufficiently represented 
in her chronicle. The various sketches evince a 
thorough knowledge of the life of each artist; 
anecdote has been interspersed, though not too 
freely, with fact; aud the list of his famous com- 
positions which follows after the account of each 
artist is most desirable for reference. The author 
has had to face the difficulty which arises from the 
fact that writing of any sort about music is apt to 
seem to the casual reader very abstruse, and the 

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[AprU 16, 

A Study qf 

critieal portions of the Tokime under consideration 
do not appeal partiealarly to students of masic. 
The raison d'%trt of the hook seems to be to supply 
a concise and simple work on music, with biog- 
raphies of the composers and a characterization of 
their work. 

In << Choirs and Choral Music" 
(Scribners) Mr. Arthur Mees, for- 
merly conductor of the Cincinnati 
May Festival chorus and present conductor of the 
New York Mendelssohn Glee Club, states that the 
two branches of musical study most neglected in 
this country are the study of unaccompanied chorid 
music for mixed Toices and the works of mediaeval 
composers. His volume is primarily a history of 
choral music, and, at the same time, a critical study 
of composers of that department of music. In the 
preface the author states that his book is not a com- 
pendium for the professional, but a book for the 
amateur which will tell him something about the 
beginnings and the course of development of chorus 
singing ; something about the origin of choirs, their 
constitution, and the nature of their activity at dif- 
ferent periods ; something about the history of the 
most important choral forms, particularly the Mys- 
tery and the Oratorio, about their essential char- 
acteristics, and about the first and other notable 
performances of the best known of them. It opens 
with an account of the development of music among 
the Greeks and Hebrews, the inheritors of the 
Egyptian and Assyrian theories, out of which grew 
the tone art of the early Christian, which has re- 
sulted in the choral of to-day. Then follows a his- 
tory of music in the early and mediaeval church, 
during the period of the Christian mysteries, with 
a sketch of the great composer of the Passions, 
Johann Sebastian Bach ; and a history of the Ora- 
torio under its famous exponent, George Frederick 
Handel. A chapter devoted to chorsd culture in 
this country reviews the conditions which led up to 
the organization of our singing societies, and the 
circumstances under which the choral institutions 
that were conspicuously instrumental in elevating 
the standard of chorus singing were established. 
The volume closes with some interesting observa- 
tions on the qualities necessary to the efficient 
chorus singer and chorus conductor, and a plea for 
the encouragement and promotion of choral culture 
in America. The book has an unusually accurate 

AjudicUnu Pith, freedom from advocacy, and a 

moMudofihe just holding of the balance where 
FrmickRwi^vtimi, authorities differ, make Professor 
Shailer Mathews's sketch of <<The French Revolu- 
tion " (Longmans) an unusually good manual on 
its topic for the general reader, or for the student 
who wishes to lay a sound foundation for further 
research. Nearly a third of the volume is devoted 
to the pre-revolutionary condition of France, for the 
author's aim throughout is to explain as well as de- 
pict the course of events. Professor Mathews is no 

votary of historical novelties, but he has neverthe- 
less availed himself of the work of recent special 
investigators wherever the new facts adduced by 
them point plainly to the need of a revisal of the 
conclusions of the older historians. We are espe- 
cially glad to note that the value of the book is not 
impaired by any concessions to that current spirit 
of paradox which courts notice through the catch- 
penny device of exalting bad men. Now that the 
maniacal Marat, who only escapes the distinction 
of being the worst scoundrel in the history of dem- 
agogy through the extenuating fact that he was 
half-crazy, is credited by a historian of repute with 
a statesmanlike mind and a leaven of apostolic vir^ 
tue, we may expect any day to find history rushing 
taHhe advocacy of Carrier or Fouquier-Tinville, or 
devoting a volume or so of perverted ingenuity to 
the apotheosis of Hubert Professor Mathews's 
book is judicial in tone and cautious in its condn* 
sions, as a manual of the kind should be. Authori* 
ties are cited in the footnotes, and there is an 
interesting frontispiece portrait of Mirabeaa after 
the original at Bowdoin College. 

ViwuHmu tMehet ^*th *' French Life in Town and 
<tf oanntry and eiiy Country," a most inviting little vol* 
life <n F^ranoe. ^^^ outwardly, the Messrs. Putnam 
begin the publication of a new series of books de- 
scriptive of the home and social life of Continental 
peoples, and collectively entitled <<Onr European 
Neighbors." The numbers on Germany, Holland, 
and Russia are to follow shortly. The publishers 
are to be congratulated on their selection of the 
author of the initial volume — Miss Hannah Lynch. 
Miss Lynch is an Irishwoman who has been edu- 
cated in a French convent, and has lived in France 
long enough to stock her very alert and observant 
mind with an ample store of facts characteristic of 
French manners, rural and urban. Provincial and 
city life, Paris and Parisianism, the army, educa- 
tion, amusements, the press, the Parisian lecture 
and salon, the Academy, the theatres, and so on, 
are vivaciously discussed in a series of crisp little 
chapters in which a turn for satire is manifest. 
Miss Lynch's nationality is sometimes amusingly 
evident, as where she assures us that the ladies 6f 
Dublin are better dressed than those of Paris — 
which reminds one a little of Mrs. Major 0*Dowd 
and the camelias at Ballymaloney, ^ as big as tay- 
kettles." In point of freshness, sparkle, and variety 
Miss Lynch has set a pace, so to speak, that the 
authors of the forthcoming volumes in the series 
will find hard to follow. The little book is attrac- 
tively illustrated with photographic plates, largely 
after suitable subjects by modern painters. 

AeoUeetion Much amusement may be derived 

cfepitaphMt from the little volume containing a 

grave and gay. collection of cpitophs, ancient and 
modern, compiled by Mr. H. Howe, and entitled 
<' Here Lies " (New Amsterdam Book Co.). That 
an inuendo lurks in the title may be inferred from 

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the f aet that the book is prorided with a f rontis* 
piece reprodaeing Baphaers Death of Ananias. 
Mendaoitj, howeyer, was not always the faalt of 
the old epitaph-maker. The poet who wrote — 
''Underaeath this wd Urn ArabelU Yomifr, 
Who on the 5th of May began to hold her tongue,*' — 

certainly meant to perpetaate an anflattering troth ; 
and the eoaplet — 

** Blia^ eofrowing, rears thb marble slab 
To bar dear John, who died of eating orab " — 

is literalness itself. Mr. Howe's oollection is a rich 
one in its kind, and the epitaphs are in many cases 
interesting as well as amusing. 


Mr. £. H. Sotbem*8 acting yersion of « Hamlet " has 
been published in an inexpensive and exceptionally at* 
traotiTe ▼olnme by Messrs. McClnre, Phillips & Co. 
It gives the text as used by Mr. Sothem daring the 
past season, including seyeral passages which he some- 
times omitted, by reason of the great length of the 
play, and is iUostrated by means of a series of photo- 
graphic reprodoctions of Uie most striking scenes. The 
. illnstraiions also indnde seyeral character portraits, 
both of Mr. Sothem as Hamlet, and of Mise Hteied as 

Daniel O'ConncU was a California journalist who had 
a wide circle of friends and admirers. Among other 
things, he was a prolific writer of ycrse, which fact is 
attested by the volume of bis ** Songs from Bohemia,** 
now edited by Miss Ina D. Coolbrith, and published at 
San Francisco by Mr. A. M. Robertson. The book is 
provided with a portrait, and with a biographical sketch 
by Mr. W. 6. Harrison, who indulges in much flowery 
rhetoric, but fails to inform us of the dates of the 
poet's birth and death. 

Miss Mary F. Hyde's » Two-BOok Course in English,** 
published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., consists of 
« Lessons in the Use of English " and a " Practical 
English Grammar, with Exercises in Composition." 
Miss Hyde is an experienced teacher of her subject, 
and is the author of other text-books that have been 
widely used in the elementary schools. 

The « Series of School Readings " published by the 
Messrs. Scribner now numbers thirteen volumes, the 
majority of which have been compiled under the editor- 
ship of Miss Mary E. Burt. The thirteenth of the 
series, now just published, is a condensation by Miss 
Burt, of Mrs. Elisabeth B. Custer's two books about her 
famous husband. It is called <• The Boy General." The 
book should make capital reading for young people 
both in and out of school. 

If one may judge by the number of books about 
gardening that have been produced during the past five 
yearsy there is a new and more intelligent interest in 
this gentle art than has heretofore characterized us as 
a people. The latest book of the class now referred to 
b «« A Handy Book of Horticulture " (Button)) by Mr. 
F. C. Hayes. This is a book for gardeners of modest 
resonroes, and, although English in its origin, will not 
be withoat its uses, even under our own harsher cli- 
matic conditions. The author is a clergyman, which 
reminds us of the fact that gardening, in England, is a 
clerical avocation far more frequently than with us. 


« A New Gradatim," edited by Mr. M. C. Smart, is 
a recent publication of Messrs. Benj. H. Sanborn & Co. 

« The Child: His Nature and Nurture," by Mr. W. B. 
Dmmmond, is a new " Temple Primer " published by 
the Messrs. Maemillan. 

A critical study of the work of Mr. Swinburne by 
Mr. Theodore Wratislaw will be issued immediately by 
the A. Wessels Company. 

A neat pocket reprint of << Adam Bede " is published 
by Mr. John Lane in a form similar to his edition of 
the works of Grcorge Borrow, now in course of publi- 

The publishers of •< Life " offer three prises of 9200, 
9100, and 850, respectively, for the best short stories, 
of 1000 to 2500 words in length, received by them be- 
fore August 1. 

George Borrow's ''Wild Wales" is now published 
by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons in their new library 
edition of the works of this perennially fresh and fas- 
cinating writer. 

The American Book Co. publish <<Easy Steps in 
Latin," by Miss Mary Hamer, and «< Introductory Les- 
sons in English Literature," by Mr. I. C. McNeill and 
Mr. S. A. Lynch. 

A beautiful reprint of Stevenson's little essay, ** iEs 
Triplex," is issued by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, 
as a companion volume to the << Christmas Sermon " of 
a few months ago. 

<«The Animal Story-Book Reader," published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co., is edited by Mr. 
Andrew Lang, which should in itself be a sufficient ad- 
vertisement for the book. 

•< Elements of the Theory and Practice of Cookery," 
by Miss Mary E. Williams and Miss Katharine R. 
Fisher, is a text-book for use in schools, and is pub- 
lished by the Maemillan Co. 

ML'Art d'Int($re8ser en Cksse," by Mr. Victor F. 
Bernard, is a book of French anecdotes published by 
Mr. W. R. Jenkins. The volume also contains La- 
Biche's <«La Lettre Charg^e." 

Messrs. D. Applcton & Co. announce that they have 
opened their entire list of nearly four thousand titles to 
purchasers on a subscription basis and with an equitable 
arrangement for easy payments. 

General James Harrison Wilson's «< China" is re- 
published in a third edition by Messrs. D. Applcton & 
Co. It contains much new matter, including an account 
of the stirring events of the past year. 

<<Thomas DeQuincey's Relation to German Literature 
and Philosophy," by Mr. William A. Dunn, is a doc- 
toral dissertation offered to the University of Strass- 
burg, and is published in that city by Herr J. H. E. 

» The Prose Writers of Canada," by Mr. S. E. Daw- 
son, is a pamphlet publication issued by Mr. E. M. 
Renouf, Montreal. It contains an address prepared 
for the Montreal Meeting of the American Library 

An announcement has just been made by a committee 
of American anthropologists, of which Mr. F. W. 
Hodge, managing editor of the "American Anthro- 
pologist," is secretary, of the proposed publication of 
an illustrated volume containing some thirty folk-tales 
which were recorded and translated by the late Frank 


Digitized by 




[Aptil 16, 

Hamilton Cashing during his long and intimate 
elation with the Zoni Indian tribe of New Mexieo. The 
priee of the work will be $3.50. Information and snb- 
eeription blanks will be supplied by the seeretarj, 
Washington, D. C. 

Professor Ashley H. Thomdike has published at 
Woreester, Mass., an interesting monograph entitled 
** The Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on Shake- 
pere." It was originally a doctoral dissertation, and 
is now enlarged to a treatise of nearly two hundred 

An addition to the host of recent text-books in En- 
glish is the " Modem Composition and Rhetoric ** of 
Messrs. Lewis Woithington Smith and Jamee E. 
Thomas. It is published by Messrs. Benj. H. Sanborn & 
Co., and appears to be a sensible and practical treatise 
upon its subject 

A second edition, reyised and enlarged, of Mr. W. D. 
McCrackan's "The Rise of the Swiss Republic ** has 
just been published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. It 
is now nearly ten years sinee this work first appeared, 
and its place among the standard histories has beoome 
well established during this period. 

** The Love Letters of Dorothy Osborne to Sir Wil- 
liam Temple ** are far better worth reading than most 
of the modern Iofc letters, real or fictitions, that have 
enjoyed such a rogue of late years. A new edition of 
this work, edited by Mr. Edward Abbott Parry, is now 
published by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Ca 

Dr. William Jay Toumans, for many years editor of 
the « Popular Science Monthly," died April 10 at his 
home in Mount Vernon, N. T., at the age of 63. Dr. 
Toamans was well-known as a scientific worker, and 
was an extensive contributor to Appletons' Cyclopedia 
and editor of many important scientific works. 

'< Under Bobs and Kruger " is the title of a book by 
Mr. Frederick W. Unger, late correspondent for the 
London « Daily Express," which Messrs. Henry T. 
Coates & Co. will issue this Spring. Mr. Unger's book 
is perhaps unique as representing the work of an En- 
glish newspaper correspondent with the Boer army. 

Hitherto, Longfellow's « Hiawatha" has. been the 
only American work included in the ** Temple Classics " 
(Macmillan). We now have a two- volume edition of 
Emerson's Essays, first and second series, and ** Nature," 
edited by Mr. Walter Jerrold. The photogravure 
frontispieces present a portrait of Emerson and a view 
of his Concord home. 

Messrs. Cooke & Fry issue in attractive form a vol- 
ume entitled "The Tarrytown Church Records," by 
the Rev. Dr. David Cole and Mr. Morris P. Ferris, 
president Tonkers (N. T.) Historical Association. The* 
book is based on the records of the <' old Dutch church 
of Sleepy Hollow," now the First Reformed Church of 
Tarrytown, and is of much local historical and genea- 
logical interest. 

Messrs. Congdon & Britnell, of Toronto, uinounce 
their purchase of the library of the late Robert Jenkins 
of that city, comprising in all about 1200 volumes, 
engravings included. Mr. Jenkins was, for a number 
of years, an enthusiastic collector of Americana and 
Canadiana, and the library is rich in early and scarce 
works relating to the North American Continent. A 
catalogue will be mailed to those interested. 

We have seldom seen a more attractive auction cata- 
logue than that prepared for the William Harris Arnold 
collection of books and letters, which Messrs. Bangs & 

Co. wUl sell in New York on the 7th and 8th of nmi 
month. About three hundred books (mostly first edi* 
tions of English authors) and seventy autograph letters, 
including some notable treasures, are comprised in the 
collection. The catalogue is a large octavo volume, 
beautifully printed at the Marion Press. Many inter- 
esting letters of Keats, Wordsworth, Bryant, Lowell, 
and others are reprinted in full. The illustrations in- 
clude a reduced facsimile of the trial page for the pro- 
jected Kelmsoott Shakespeare, and a facsimile of the 
complete holograph MS. of Keats's poem «*Tor Charles 
Cowden Clarke." 

liiST OF Nbw Books. 

[UtB foUcwing liU^ eantaining 190 tUkt^ indudn book§ 
received by Thx Dial gince the utw <tf March i.] 


The Story of My Life. By Angustiis J. C. Hare. Vols. 
III. and IV., eompletinff the work. Illiis. in photogra- 
vure; ete.,laiie8vo,onent. Dodd, Mead d Go. $7JK). 

Up from Slavery: An Antobiosvaiihy. By Booker T. 
Washinaton. With portMit, 12mo, gilt top, nnont, pp. 830. 
Donbleday, Page <ft Co. $1.60 iMt. 

My Autobloffraptay: A Fragment. By the Bt. Eba. Prof. 
F. Max MfiUer, KM. With photogravure portraits, 8vo, 
gilt top, VDoat, pp. 827. Charles Soribner*t Sons. $2. 

Stage Beminlaoenoee of Mm. Gilbert. Edited by Char> 
lotto M. Martin. Illns., 12nio, gilt top, naeat, pp. 248. 
Charles Senbner'm Sons. tlMnet. 

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, and the Growth and Divi- 
sion of the British JSmpiro, 1708-1778. By Walfbrd Davis 
Green, M.P. Illns., 12mo, pp. 891. ''Heroee of the 
Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

A Life of Nax>oleon Bonaj^arte. With a Sketch of Empress 
Josephine. By Ida M . Tarbell. Illns., large 8vo, gilt tOp, 
unout, pp. 485. MoCluro. Phillips d Go. $2.50. 

BecollectionB of a Georffia Loyalist. By Bliaabeth Lioh- 
tenstoin Johnston (written in 1836); edited bv Bev. Arthur 
Wentwor^ Eaton, B.A. Illns., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp.224. M. F. Mansfield d Co. $1.50. 

Louie Agaeaiz. By AUoe Baehe Gould. With portrsit. 
24mo, gUt top, uncut, pp. 154. ''Beacon BiogiapUee.'^ 
Small, liaynard Jb Co. 75 cts. 

Father Hecker. By Henry D.. Sedgwiok, Jr. With por- 
trait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 155. "Beacon Biog> 
raplues." Small, Maynard d Co. 75 cts. 


T&e Tbirteen Ooloniee. By Helen Ainslie Sndth. In 2 

Tols., aius., 12mo. '* Story of the Natiooe.** Q. P. Pat- 

nam^s Sons. $3. 
A Hietory of the Four Georff ee and of William IV. By 

Justin McGbrthy and Justin HunUy McCarthy. Vols. III. 

and IV., completing the work. 12mo. Harper d Brothcfs. 

Per vol., $1.25. 
The German and Swlea Settlemente of Colonial Pennsyl- 
vania: A Study of the So-Called Pennsylvania Duteh. 

By Oscar Kuhns. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 268. Henry 

Bolt d Co. $1.50. 
The Biae of the Swlea BepubUe: A History. By W. D. 

McCraoken, M.A. Second edition, revised and enlarged. 

Laige 8vo, pp. 423. Henry Holt d Co. $2. 
Oriental Cbronoloflry. By Major-Genersl W. A. Baker. 

8to, pp. 57. St. Leonards-on-Sea, England: Daniels <fe 

Co. Paper. 

The Love Lettere of Victor Hucro, 1820-1882. With oom- 

ment by Paul Meurioe ; trans, by Elisabeth W. Latfaner. 

With photogravure portraits, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 247. 

Harper ^ Brothers. $3. 
Puritcui and An^lioan : Studies in Literature. By Edward 

Dowden, LL.D. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 841. Henry 

Holt<ftCo. $2.fMt. 
Maeters of French Literature. By George McLean Harper. 

l2mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 316. Seribner'sSoas. $1.25 Nf(* 

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Robert Louis Steveoflon: A life Study in Critieinii. By 
H. BsUyM Baildon. With portniti* 12iiio, imoiit, pp. 244. 
A. WaoelfCo. $1.75. 

Tbe Love Letters of Dorotby Osborne to Sir William 
Tmple, 1652-M. Edited by Edwud Abbott Parry. With 
portimit, 12IIIO, pp. 849. Dodd, Mead A Co. $1.25. 

Tbe Literary Year-Book and Bookman's Direetory, 1901. 
Edited by Herbert Morrah. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 421. 
New York : Fianeie P. Harper. $1.25. 

Tbe World's Orators. Edited by Qoy Oarleton Lee, Ph.D. 
Yds. IX. and X., Oratore of Amerioa, Parts II. and m., 
eomplednff the work. With photocraTnre portraits, large 
6to, gilt toM, uncnt. 0. P. Pntnam's Sons. Per yol., 
$3JX>. (Sold only in aets by snbeeription.) 

Another Bnglisti woman's Love-Letters. ByBanyPkin. 
16taao, nnent, pp. 186. Q. P. Pntaam's Sons. $1. 

An Englishman's Love-Letters. 24Bao, gilt edgee, pp. 71. 
mTf. Uanafleld <k Co. $1. 

A Birthday Book from the Writings of John Oliyer Hobbee. 
Seleeted and anaaged by ZoSlVoetor. 12mo, gilt top, 
aaent, pp. 356. John Lane. $1.25 set. 

Mb Triplex. By Robert Lonia Sterenaon. 16mo, nncat, 
pp.26. Chsrlea Seribner*! Sona. 50 eta. 


WUd Wales: Its People, Lsngnace, and Seenery. Br 
Geoqte Borrow. Illoa., 12nao, gilt top, pp. 788. G. r. 
Pntnam'a Sons. $2. 

Selections froai Dante's Divlna Oommedla. Choeen, 
tranalated, and annotated by Richard Jamea Croai. With 
portrait, 18mo, red edges, pp. 225. Henry Holt d Go. $2. 

Adam Bede. By George Eliot. 24mo, gUt top. pp. 768. 
John Lane. 50 eti. 

Temple daselcs. Edited br laiael Golhmes. New toI- 
nmee : The Bnle and Exeroiaea of Holy Dying, by Jeremy 
'Taylor ; Emaya, and Nature, by Ralph Waldo Bmenon, 
2 Tola. Eaeh with photograTnre frontiapieoe, 24mo, gilt 
top, nnent. MaomiUan Co. Per toL, 50 eta. 

: Laorenoe Binyon. 12mo, anent, pp. 74. M. F. 
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An Iseolt IdyU, and Other Poema. By G. Conatant Lonna- 
bery. 12mo, gilt top, nnent, pp. 79. John Lane. $1.25 fMt. 
The Scarlet Himtsman. By Walter Cayley Belt. Laige 
8to. Im Grande Jonmal. 

The Wlaard's Knot. By William Barry. 12mo, pp. 406. 

Century Co. $1.50. 
Lysbeth: A Tale of the Dnteh. By H. Rider Haggard. 

Blue., 12mo, pp. 486. Longmana, Green, A Co. $1.50. 
The Octopus: A Story of California. By Fmnk Norria. 

12nio,pp.652. Doubleday, Page <ft Co. $1.50. 
The SUver Skull: A Romanee. By S. R. Cioekett. Illua., 

12mo,pp.315. F. A. Stokea Co. $1.50. 
Her Mountain Lover. By Hamlin Garland. With frontia- 
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Grncial Instayioee. Bt Edith Wharton. 12mo, gilt top, 

nnent, pp. 242. Charlea Seribner'a Sons. $1.50. 
The Love-Letters of the Klnir; or. The Life Rorosntic. 

By Riehard Le Gallienne. 12mo, gilt top, unont, pp. 281. 

little. Brown, d Co. $1.50. ^ 
A Soldier of Virginia: A Tale of Colonel Washington and 

Braddoek'a Defeat. By Burton Egbert StevenMrn. Ulna., 

12mo, pp.325. Houghton, Mifflm d Co. $1.50. 
Pro Patrta. By Max Pemberton. Ulua., 12mo, pp. 292. 

Dodd, Mead A Co. $1.50. 
A OaroUna Oavaller: A Romanee of the Amerioan Roto- 

Ivtion. By George Cary Egvleston. Ulua., 12mo, gilt 

top, nnent, pp. 448. Lothrop Publishing Co. $1.50. 
Betey Boss: A Romanee of the Flag. By Chaunoey C. 

Hotehkiai. 12mo, pp. 367. D. Appleton A Co. $1.50. 
God's Puppets: A Story of Old New York. By Imogen 

Chtfk. 12mo,pp.d81. Charlea Seribner'gSona. $1.50. 
GarcUaso. ByJ.BreekenridgeEllia. 12mo, pp.d94. A.C. 

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Martin Brook. By Morgan Batea. 12mo, pp. 365. ^arper 

A Brothers. $1.50. 
The Inlander. By Harriaon Robertaon. 12mo, gilt top, 

nneut, pp. 820. Charlee Seribner'a Sons. $1.50. 
Prince Rupert, the Buccaneer. By Cutoliffe Hyne. 

Dlua., 12mo, pp. 287. F. A. Stokee Co. $1.50. 

Truth Dexter. Bj Sidney MoCall. 12mo,pp.875. little. 

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The Crlmaon Weed. By Christopher St. John. 12mo, 

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The U*^^*"!? of Christopher Perrlngham . Bt Benlsh Muie 

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The Fanatica. By Paul Lanrenee Dunbar. 12mo, pp. 812. 

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In His Own Image. By Frederiek Baron Corro. 12mo, 

gilt top, nnent, pp. 421. John Lane. $1.50. 
A Maryland Manor: A Norel of Plantation Ariatoeraoy 

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Without a Warrant. By Hildegard Brooke. 12mo, gilt 

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Blallaro : The Arohipelago of Bailea. By Godfrey Sweyen. 

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DweUers in the Hills. Br Melrille DsTiaMn Peat. 12mo, 

pp.278. G. P. Pntnam'a Sons. $1.25. 
A Master of Fortrme: BeingFuiher Adveatniea of Cap- 
tain Kettle. By Cuteliffe Uvne. Ulna., lSnM>, gilt top, 

pp. 817. G. W. Dillingham Co. 
The Way of Belinda. ByFranoeeWeitonCafruth. 12mo, 

pp.810. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
A Gentleman in Waiting: A Stoty of New York Sooiety. 

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Three Fair Philanthropists. By Aliee M. Musay. 12mo, 

pp.808. AbbejPreM. $1.60. 
In Oudemon: Reminiaeenees of an Unknown People by an 

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pp. 378. New York : The Giaf ton Pre«. $1.50. 
Sprlntftlme and Harvest : A Romsaee. By Upton B. Sin- 

olsir, Jr. With frontiapieoe, 12mo, pp. 281. New York: 

TheSinekirPreM. $1.50. 
The Vengeance of the Mob : A Tale of the Florida Pinea. 

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Through Siberia. Bt J. Stadling; edited by F. 

Gmllemard,M.A. Illua., 4to, nneut, pp. 817. 

dCo. $6. 
Bast London. By Walter Beiant; Ulna, by Phil May, 

Joae|]h Pennell, and L. RaTon-Hill. Large 8to, gilt top, 

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Mount Oml and Beyond: A Reeord of Trayel on the 

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Ulna., large 8to, nnent, pp.272. F. A. Stokea Co. $3.50. 
China : TraTola and Inyeetigationa in the ''Middle Kingdom" 

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out, enlarged, and reeet. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 429. 

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Under Topa'ls and Tents. By Cyrus Towmend Brady. 

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Doff- Watchea at Sea. By Stanton H. King. Illu8.,12mo, 

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The N'th Foot in War. By M. B. Stewart. With portrait, 

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History, Prophecy, and the Monuments; or, larael and 

the Nations. By Jamea Frederick MoCurdy, Ph. D. Vol. 

III., completing the. .Work. Large 8to, niiout, pp. 470. 

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The Philosophy of Beligrion in England and Amerioa. By 

Alfred Caldeoott, D.D. Large 8to, nnout^ pp. 434. Mao- 
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The Pasalon : A Historioal JSmsLj. By R. P. M. J. OUiTier, 

O.P.: trans, from the French by E. Leahy. 8to, pp. 439. 

Marlier A Co., Ltd. $1.60. 
About Jbhe Bible: A Collection of Sztraoto from Writinga 

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Cooke A Fry. $1.25. 

by r. H. H. 
B. P. Dntton 

Digitized by 




[April 16, 

The Soul: Its Origin and Relation to the Body, to the 
World, and to Immortality. By E.T. Colli * 
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ody, to 
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For His Sake: Thonghu for Baster Day and Every Day. 

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LeeAShepard. $1. 
The Beliffious Use of Imagination. By E. H. Johnson. 

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What is the Matter with the Church? By Frederiek 

Stanley Root. 12mo, pp. 188. Abbey Press. $1. 

The Workiner Ck>n8titution of the United Kingdom. By 

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The AMkander Bond and Other Causes of the War. By 

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A Synopsis of the Manunals of North America and the 
Adjacent Seas. By Daniel Giraud Elliot, F.R.S.E. lUns., 
Urge 8to, unont, pp. 471. Chicago: Field Columbian 
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The Child : His Nature and Nurture. By W. B. Dmmmond. 
Illus., 24mo, pp. 148. ''Temple CyclopsBdic Primers." 
Maomillan Co. 40 cts. net. 

Field Columbian Museum Publications: An Aboriginal 
Qaartzite Quarry in Eastern Wyoming, br George A. 
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189^1900; ObsenratioDS on Indiana CaTSS, by Oliver 
Cnmmings Farrington, Ph»D.; List of Mammals Obtained 
by Thaddeus Surber in the Prorincee of New Bmnswiok 
and Quebec, Canada, by D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. Each 
large 8to, uncut. Chicago : Field Columbian Museum. 

The Stage in America, 1897-1900. Bv Norman Hapgood. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 408. liaomillan Co. $1 .75. 
Japanese Plays and Playfellows. By Ounan Edwards. 

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Edna May in *'The Girl from up There": A Pictorial 

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George A. Caster. As told by Elizabeth Custer; edited 

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RoyRookwood. lUus., 12mo, pp. 188. Mershon Co. 50 ots. 
Bound to Rise, and Walter Loring*s Career. By Allen 

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Malcohn the Waterboy; or, A Mystery of Old London. 

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The Art of Revolver Shooting. By Walter Winans. Illus. 

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Studies in Peerage and Family History. By J. Horace 

Round, M.A. With frontispiece, 8to, uncut, pp. 496. 

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The Rise of the Book-Plate. By W. G. Bowdoin. With 

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of Book-Plates, by Henry Blackwell. Illus., large 8to, 

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Hsn^notism and Suffffestion in Therapeutics, Education, 

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Birth a New Chance. By Columbus Bradford, A.M. 

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Man-Building: A Treatise on Human Life and its Poroee. 

By Lewis Ransom Fiske, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 324. Charles 

Soribner*8 Sons, $1 .25 net. 
Some m-Used Words. By Alfred Ayres. 18mo, gilt edges, 

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Four Hundred Laughs; or. Fun without Vulgarity. Com- 
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[April 16, 

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«20 THE DIAL [May 1. mi. 



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here of Australian ad?eo- 
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they have made a book that few will be willing to lay down till it has been read througL 

^^Absorbingly Interesting'' 


Being some Passages in the Life of Mr. John Giflford, sometime Major in the 
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The ramantio story of John Oifford, the original of BunyanV -Evangelist, though 
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Miss Gwendolin Keats in the forefront of 
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W. J. ROLFEy the well-known Shakespearian authority^ says of 

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" Just atline to tell you how much I have enjoyed your novel. When I found time to 
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Third Edition of a Popular Book 

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" This love story, through which the leading characters tread with such rare grace, is a 
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so often filled the pages of modern fiction. The historical background of the story is well 
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'' There is a grace of style about it, too. The stately diction of the fifteenth century is 
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Here one moves in the society 

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The nobility of the BeaufortSj the Mortimers^ the StraffordSj 
so completely destroyed by the " Wars of the Roses.'' 

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with "love'' as victor. 

But it is not chiefly a story of duels and hairbreadth escapes^ 
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that, too, with a religious and motal motive." 

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Digitized by 




[May 16, 1901. 


Cyclopaedia of American 

Edited by L. H. BAILEY, Assisted i>y WILHELM MULLER 
and many expert Cultivators and Botanists. 

yolumes I., II., and III. are now ready, and Volume IV., completing the 
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Scieni\fie American. 

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** While the entire work will cost twenty dollars, it will be money well spent by any owner of an 
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The price is $5.00 net for each volume^ 
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Our Litenury Folk-Lore. Qwrge Mareg MUUr. 
VuifttioM in TeuiywMi. W. J. Bi^fk. 


X.O.J. 329 


OsearPierea 381 

A JOURNEY TO NATURE. WiUiam MorUm PayiM 883 



A. M. Wergeland 386 

THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA. Wailaee Rice .. 340 
TIm TimM Hbtory of the War in Soath Afriea.— 
HalM's OuBiMigii PletarM of the War in South 
Alrioa. — Ralph*8 An Amariean with Lord Robarto. 
— Bnidetfc-Contta'a The l^ok and Wounded in South 


An antholofj of Canadian wng.— Tmth and error 
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—Tlie inrepreanble dramatist. — Theories on Colonial 
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NOTES .V . .846 




To the seasoned critic, there are few things 
so amnsing as the habit the amateur observer 
has of indulging in broad generalizations con- 
cerning contemporary literature. Some book 
proves to be the fashion of the hour, and 
stoiightway it is made the subject of philoso- 
phising. What is merely a ripple upon the 
surface of popular taste is viewed as a fresh 
and deep current of human thought, and this 
supposedly new departure of the spirit serves 
as a starting-point for many a solemn disquisi- 
tion upon types and schools and movements. 
These grave inductions from a single instance, 
or a few instances, however philosophical the 
parade of the terms in which they are presented, 
betray their essentially unphilosophical char- 
acter by the obvious inadequacy of their basis 
of fact. They are made only to be forgotten, 
as, in the majority of cases, the books that 
occasioned them are forgotten, after the lapse 
of a few yearst It is not so very long ago that 
the American public was reading and talking 
** Trilby," with such frantic enthusiasm that 
one would have thought a new literary era had 
dawned. Many were the seeming-wise reflect- 
ions of which Uiis entertaining story was the 
innocent provoking cause, many were the hopes, 
or the fears, for our literary development that 
took their starting point from the vogue of this 
particular piece of fiction. All this discussion 
was the work of the amateur, and we now 
realize how absurd it all was. The novel in 
question is clean forgotten to-day, and with it 
the whole argument based upon its success. 
Anyone can see now what the practised critic 
saw all the time, that there was no more 
significance in the astonishing vogue of ^^ Tril- 
by" than there had been a score of years 
earlier in the equally astonishing vogue of 
"Helenas Babies." 

In point of fact, when the philosophical 
student of literature confronts the question of 
literary tendencies, he sees two thbgs with ab- 
solute distinctness. One of them is that the 
study of tendencies, of movements, of the 
transformations of a nation's idealisms, is the 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

most important thing abont the history of ,any 
literature, the only thing, indeed, that invests 
a literature with real significance for the his- 
tory of culture. If he cannot discern the evo- 
lutionary process at work, he misses all the 
salt and savor of his subject, and liis conclu- 
sions are empirical <Hr merely subjective. The 
other thing is that this process of development, 
this history of movements and transformations, 
requires for its proper observaition a consider- 
able period to be ti^en into survey, and a con- 
siderable detachment, in point of time, from 
that period. The one well-nigh impossible task 
is to trace the direction of the evolutionary 
process in one's immediate surroundings, or to 
make any prophecies for the future save those 
that are the logical outcome of some tendency 
that lias been in operation long enough to be- 
come dearly discerned. 

Suppose one were to take some representa- 
tive collection of contemporary literature, such, 
for example, as the closing section of either of 
Mr. Stedman's great anthologies, and read it 
' through intent only upon the detection of tend- 
encies, or of unifying principles, he would find 
it an extremely difficult matter to reduce ^to 
order his confused and varied impressions. In 
such a case, it is impossible to see the woods 
for the trees. To discern the tendencies at 
work in such a mass of literary production, to 
find the pattern in so complex a web of intel- 
lectual activity, to distinguish the currents 
from the eddies in so wide an expanse of waters, 
would be a task well worth attempting, indeed, 
but one likely to baffle the most persistent ef- 
fort. Of course the problem might to a certain 
extent be simplified by discarding the great 
mass of the work as merely reflecting the hues 
caught from the greater poems, as merely echo- 
ing the significant ideas of the age put forth 
by the few writers who set the pitch for the 
symphony. The lesser writers contribute to 
the harmony (or the discord) and the tone- 
coloring of the composition, but they do not 
modify the fundamental character of the move- 
ment. Nevertheless, the difficulty is not really 
removed by this process of elimination ; it is 
somewhat lessened, and that is all. 

A few generalizations, however, concerning 
the tendencies and characteristics of our con- 
temporary English literature it seems reason- 
ably safe to make, and one of them is that we 
are living in a critical rather than a creative 
period. As' the few great survivors of the 
earlier age one by one pass away, we feel 
acutely conscious that the places are left un- 

filled. The season of analysis and introspec- 
tion is clearly upon us. In such a period as 
ours, versatility, good taste, and excellence of 
workmanship, and the number of good writers, 
as distinguished from the great masters, is as- 
tonishingly large. Sometimes they spring up 
in the most unexpected quarters, and anticipa- 
tion flutters at the thought of a possible resurg- 
ence of the creative impulse. But we must 
not deceive ourselves into thinking that our 
bustling literary activity is swelling to any 
appreciable or noticeable extent the stock of 
the world's masterpieces. Our literature of 
to-day is various and entertaining, it has 
taste and even distinction, but it is not a 
literature adorned by the opulent blossoming 
of genius. 

If we may venture, after the preceding dis- 
claimer, to indicate any distinct tendencies in 
the English and American literature of the 
past few years, we would say that it has moved, 
and is still moving, in the direction of artistic 
freedom, of cosmopolitan interest, and of broad- 
ened social sympathy. It no longer suffers, 
for example, under the reproach of being pro- 
duced with an exaggerated deference to the 
Young Person. To place under the ban whole 
tracts of human life, to refrain from dealing 
with whole groups of the most important of 
human relations because their treatment gives 
offence to immature minds, is a procedure not 
justified by the larger view of what literature 
means. This lesson we have learned of recent 
years. If we take into account the newest of 
new women and the youngest of emancipated 
young men, it may seem that the lesson has 
been too well learned, but, on the whole, our 
literary art has gained strength with its newly 
acquired freedom. Our literature is also meas- 
urably freed from its old time provincialism of 
outlook. We have seen established for the 
mintage of the mind a broader compact than 
any Latin Union ; if an idea have but intrinsic 
value, its currency does not now need to be 
forced in other countries than that of its origin. 
This, too, is a great gain, and will make the 
next creative period all the easier of approach. 
But the greatest gain of all, to our thinking, 
is the awakening of the new social sympathy 
that characterizes our recent literature. We 
hear a good deal of ''democratic art," and 
much of what we have thus far got is distress- 
ingly crude and dull with didacticism. But the 
future of our race belongs to democracy, and 
literature must make the best of this inevitable 
movement. That it will eventually learn how 

Digitized by 





to shape the idealism of democracy into forms 
of eonyincing beauty we make no doubt, and 
the signs are not wanting that such an issue is 
near at hand. We might make specific men- 
tion, to support this proposition, of the remark- 
able recent work of one of our younger poets, 
but since we propose to cionsider that at 
some length in the next issue qf The Dial, 
the hint shall suffice us here. An illustration 
of more resounding significance may be found 
in the work of the greatest of living Russians. 
The writings of Count Tolstoy, or to be more 
exact, the earnest attention which they have 
received during the past few years, offer im- 
pressive example of the power of the social 
motive as embodied in the forms of fictive art, 
to make itself felt as a force in literature. 
Here is a writer whose whole genius is spent 
in an impassioned appeal to purely democratic 
sympathies, and, as the years go on, his figure 
assumes grander and grander proportions, and 
his utterance seems to become more and more 
invested with the attributes of prophecy. 


(To the Editor of Thx Dial.) 
The readers of The Dial, or at least part of them, 
are interested no doubt in what may be called literary 
folk-lore. If so, I trust that some of them will be will- 
ing to assist in the ooUeotion of a very interesting body 
of such folk-lore now swiftly passing out of exisience. 
That constituency of The Dial which had the good 
fortune to be raised in the country will doubtless re- 
member the way in which the young people of their 
neighborhood used to get around the sensitive con- 
smences of Presbyterian elders and Methodist class- 
leaders, by calling their dances by the innocent name 
of •* singing games." When they wanted to dance at 
their parties they asked permission to *' play games," 
and then they would danc6 to the choral singing of 
*< Lead her up and down to your best liking," ** Weevilly 
Wheat," and «Pop Goes the Weasel." Both words 
and mnaio of these choral dance songs were in every 
case traditional. Some of them, like the singing games 
of children, were evidently the broken-down remains of 
old folk-ballads. A recent attempt to secure some of 
them shows that in fifteen years they have disappeared 
completely from one neighborhood, but there must be 
commnnities where they are still played or at least may 
be collected from the memories of those who played 
them in their youth. It is to be hoped, therefore, that 
this nineteenth century survival of old folk-poetry will 
receive the attention it deserves while there is yet time. 
Personally, I shall be grateful for any help to save the 
old songs. Gkokge Morey Miller. 

Wathington AgrietUtural College, 
Pullman, Wcuh,, May 3, 1901. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

I was much interested in Professor Albert £. Jack's 
notice of Mr. J. Churton Collins's "Early Poems of 
Tennyson^" in a recent issue of The Dial. As he re- 
marks, Mr. Collins is wrong in assuming that his is the 
first attempt to retsord the various readings of these and 
other poems of Tennyson; nor was the work that I did 
in the •'Cambridge" Tennjson, to which Professor 
Jack refers, the first' of the kind. 

As long ago as 1857, when I was reading "The 
Princess " with a high-school class, I happened to notice 
that variations occurred in different editions of the 
poem; and I copied all these into the edition I was 
using. Later I found and recorded variations in other 
poems that we read in school. In 1883 I published an 
annotated edition of " The Princess," in which I gave 
all the various readings, so far as I could ascertain 
them. For the first edition of the poem I had to depend 
on the American reprint, which I collated with the sec- 
ond London edition and the fourth and filth American 
editions. I could not get hold of the third edition 
(1850) in which the intercalary songs first appeared, 
but the copy of the second edition that I used had these 
songs inserted in manuscript. 

For the third issue of my edition (1890), I had the 
privilege of examining an interleaved copy of the first 
English edition of "The Princess" belonging to my 
friend Dr. F. J. Furnivall of London, in which he had 
recorded the new readings of the third and fifth edi- 
tions. This enabled me to settle some doubtful points 
and to supply several omissions in my collation of those 
editions; and also to detect sundry curious misprints in 
the first American edition and a few errors in the 
manuscript copy of the songs mentioned above. I had 
also received a very kind letter from Lord Tennyson^ 
calling attention to one or two slips in notes quoted 
from Mr. Dawson's " Study of « The Princess.' " 

In 1884 I edited « Select Poems of Tennyson," in- 
cluding many of those given by Mr. Collins, and noted 
all the variations from the l^glish edition of 1884 
which I found in the American reprints from 1849 
down. For the readings of the editions of 1830, 1832, 
and 1842, I had to depend mainly on quotations in the 
reviews and in the commentaries of Shepherd, Tainsh, 
Wace, Bayne, and others. For the first edition of the 
Wellington Ode, I used a copy given to the Harvard 
Library by the poet Longfellow. 

In 1887, 1 edited « Enoch Arden and Other Poems" 
on the same plan ; and for this and the second edition 
of the "Select Poems" (1886) I had the opportunity 
of making a rather hurried examination of the 1830 
and 1832 editions in the British Museum, which was 
supplemented by some work of the kind done for me 
by a person recommended by the Museum authorities, 
but in which I subsequently found many errors. 

Revised editions of these two books, with additional 
poems, were published in 1895; and for these editions 
I was able to consult a good number of the English 

In 1895 I also published an edition of " In Memo- 
riam," much of the work on which had been done dur- 
ing the ten years previous. For the various readings I 
had the benefit of a copy of the first English edition 
given me by Dr. Furnivall, in which he had recorded 
most of them. 

In 1896 I edited the « Idylls of the King," using most 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

of the earlier English and American editions in the col- 
lation of the text I also corrected the irregular and 
often incouaistent pointing, capitalization, etc., of the 
English editions, and in an appendix filled nearly two 
pages of fine print with specimens of these errors and 

In 1895-1897 I edited the complete de luxe edition 
of Tennyson brought out by Messrs. .Estes & Lanriat 
in twelve volumes, with variorutn and other notes; and 
in 1898 the ** Cambridge " edition, in which the yarioos 
readings were giyen more concisely. 

I have spent perhaps half a dozen hours in examining 
Mr. CoUins's book, and have already noted many errors 
and omissions. Most of these, like those to which Pro- 
fessor Jack refers, are " very slight," but not a few of 
them are much worse than the general character of the 
work would have led me to expect. Some of them in- 
dicate apparent carelessness in collation, and others in 

On p. 53, for instance, two entire lines of a stanza of 
«« Mariana in the South,** as printed in 1833 (1832), 
are omitted: 

'* Baekwaid the lattieeblind she flnnff. 
And leaned upon the baloony." 
I give them as they appear in my « Enoch Arden, etc.," 

On p. 66, the 1833 version of a line of the first song 
in "The Miller's Daughter" (''And I would lie so 
light, so light ") is given simply " So warm and light." 
It should be (if my edition is right) ** I would lie round 
80 warm and light." This, by the way, is a specimen 
of a class of errors — giving an early reading only in 
part. The use of the capital in "So" is misleading; 
but in all such cases Mr. Collins begins his quotations 
with a capital. Even the article a when given alone 
in a note (as in that on " Like one great garden glowed," 
p. 26, where the 1830 reading is ««a great garden"), 
is printed thus: "1830. A." 

On p. 68, the fact that two stanzas of " The Miller*s 
Daughter " were added in 1842 (the two preceding the 
last one, as the poem now stands) is not mentioned. 
Mrs. Kemble, in the " Democratic Review " for Janu- 
ary, 1844 (Vol. xiv. p. 62 fol.), is very severe in her 
comments upon this addition to the 1832 form of the 
poem. I quote the passage (nearly a page of it) in 
my " Select Poems," p. 200. 

On p. 95, the three stanzas of the " Palace of Art " 
which Tennyson gives in a foot-note of 1832 as omitted 
from the poem because it is " already too long," are 
cited; but Mr. Colliqs is apparently not aware that the 
poet corrected the astronomical allusions in them when 
they were printed in Palgrave's "Lyrical Poems of 
Tennyson," 1885. The original reading in the third 
stanza was: 

" She saw the snowy poles of moonless Mars, 

That marvellons round of milky light 

Below Orion, and those doable stars," etc. 

In Palgrave's book it is given (according to my " Select 
Poems," p. 218^ thus, without even a hint that it had 
been changed since 1832 : 

*^She saw the snowy poles and moons of Man, 
That marvellons field o£ drifted liicht 
In mid Orion, and the married stars," eto. 
No critic, so far as I am aware, has noticed this varia- 
tion. Tennyson from his early years was intensely in- 
terested in astronomy, and is remarkably accurate in 
his frequent allusions to it. The moons of Mars were 
not discovered until long after this stanza was first 

written; but it is curious that he should have put the 
famous nebula of Orion "below" the constellation. 
Probably, however, he was thinking at the moment of 
the belt of the giant. 

This omission in Mr. Collina's notes reminds me of 
another which is more sorprising, for even if he never 
happened to see Palgrave's book, he must he familiar 
with « The Foresters." On p. 295 he gives the " Nat- 
ional Song," printed in 1830 but afterwards suppressed 
for sixty-two years or until 1892, when it was inserted 
in "The Foresters," with no change except in the 
chorus of the two stanzas, which read thus in 1830: 

'* Chobus. — For the French the Pope may shrive 'em« 
For the devil a whit we heed 'em : 
As for the Freneh, God speed 'em 

Unto their heart's desire. 
And the merry devil drive 'em 

Through the water and the fire. 

** Full Chobus. — Our gloiy is our freedom. 
We lord it o'er the sea; 
We are the sons of freedom. 
We are free." 

I quote from the de hose Tennyson, Vol. xi. p. 298. 
For the chorus as it now stands the reader can refer 
to "The Foresters." Mr. Collins notes neither the 
insertion of the song in the play nor the change in the 

In "The Talking Oak," Tennyson made only two 
changes after its first publication in 1842. Shepherd 
("Tennysoniana," 2d ed., 1879) says there was only 
one, and Collins gives only one. It is amazing that 1m 
should have overlooked the second (line 215^: "The 
murmurs of the drum and fife " for " The whispers of 
the drum and fife." It is given in my " Select Poems " 
(p. 232). I think that nobody else has called attention 
to it. I first detected it in 1884 in the American 
edition of 1842. As I had not seen the English edition 
of 1842, it occurred to me when I did not find it in 
Collins's book that it might be only in the American 
edition, which was printed from advance sheets of the 
English; but Professor Jack informs me that it is in 
the latter. I could hardly believe that two collatora 
overlooked it, but it seems that they did. 

The reader may be surprised that I should suspect a 
variation of this kind in an American edition printed 
from advance sheets; but I had previously detected a 
curious one (unknown to all the critics) in the " Idylls 
of the King." In "Merlin and Vivien" (entitled 
simply "Vivien" at first), the American edition of 
1859 reads (lines 148 fol.): 
" She hiathed the knights and ever seem'd to hear 

Their Unghuig oonunent when her name was named. 

For once, when Arthur walking all alone. 

Vexed at a mmor rife about the Qoeen, 

Had met her," etc. 

This reading is found nowhere else. The poet must 
have altered the passage before the English edition of 
1859 was printed, but after the advance sheets had 
been dispatched to this country. The reading in 1857, 
when " six trial-copies " of " Enid " and " Vivien " were 
printed (of which the copy in the British Museum is 
believed to be the sole survivor), was this: 
"She hated all the kni^ts beoause she deem'd 
They wink'd and jested when her name was named." 

The present reading is: 

** She hated all the knights, and heard m thoufl^t 
Their lavish comment when her name was named. 

Digitized by 





For onee, when Arthur walking all alone, 
Vest at a mmor iMoed from haiBelf 
Of tome oormption erept among his knights. 
Had met her," etc. 

I haye given onl j a few specimens of the more serious 
of Mr. Collins*s errors -and omissions. I ba?e foond 
many others in the hasty examination I have made of 
perhaps a fifth part of the book. 

Misprints are not uncommon: as "Confutzer" for 
** Coufutzee *' in a suppressed stanza of " The Palace 
of Art" (p. 93); "books" for "book" in an 1832 
reading of a line in "The Miller*s Daughter" (p. 63) 
— "The letters of the books she reads" — unless my 
note in the " Select Poems " (p. 198) is wrong, which 
I do not believe; the misplacing of a reference to a 
foot-note on p. 100, which makes the 1832 reading of 
" Where I may mourn and pray " to be " Dying the 
death I die" (which should refer to "And save me 
lest I die " in the proceeding stanza), etc. 

I agree fully with Professor Jack in regard to the 
foolishness of noting insignificant variations in spellbg, 
like though and tho*, gray and grey, etc. While giving 
these quite uniformly, Mr. Collins is very irregular 
in regard to Tennyson's whimsical omission of the 
hyphen in hundreds of compound words. Thus we 
find " silkensailed," " pearlgarland," " darklatticed," 
" sharpshadowed," " chestnntboughs," etc. Mr. Collins 
prints many of these as Tennyson does; others he 
prints with the hyphen; others as two separate words; 
and all three forms he often has in the same poem, and 
sometimes on the same page. In my editions I follow 
Tennyson's eccentric method in all cases; but I should 
not quarrel with anybody who chose to conform to or- 
dinary usage instead, if he would do it uniformly. 

Mr. Collins is also irregular in regard to the punc- 
tuation of his quotations from the early editions; bat 
some of the variations (periods in place of commas and 
the like, which confuse or pervert the sense of the 
passage) are probably the fault of the proofreader. 

With all its defects the book is a valuable one. The 
labor involved in preparing it can hardly be appreciated 
except by the few who have tried their own hands at 
similar tasks. In the case of Tennyson, who probably 
" tinkered " his poems more than any other English or 
American author, it is not likely that we shall ever 
have a perfectly complete and accurate vortorum edition. 
He never brought out a new edition without some 
changes in the text — perhaps a single little word in a 
line that had been unaltered for forty years or more, — 
and one must carefully scrutinize every line and every 
word in each of many editions in order to detect these 
occasional trivial changes; and after all he may over- 
look some of them, as I find from Mr. CoUins's book 
that I have done in two or three instances in poems 
that I have collated again and again. I have sometimes 
come very near making other mistakes. To give a 
single instance, Tennyson made no change in "The 
Poet's Song," published in 1842, until forty-seven years 
later (1889), when he put "fly" instead of "bee" in 
the line " The swallow stopt as he hunted the bee." I 
had printed it in 1886 in a little book that I have not 
mentioned above ("The Young People's Tennyson "), 
and it was by the merest chance that, in adding it to the 
enlarged " Select Poems " in 1895, 1 happened to refer 
to an English edition of that year and caught that 
" fly." If I had not known the poem by heart I might 
have missed the insect even then. -^ j j^olfe. 

Cambridge, Mass., May 6, 1901, 

t llito §0ok0. 


It is complained that if publishers go on 
feeding the current popular craving for sweets 
in the form of love-letters it will end in the 
public's losing its taste for plain food altogether, 
and having its digestion permanently spoiled. 
There may be something in this, but the danger 
seems overdrawn. Beading, say, Victor Hugo's 
love-letters through at a sitting would certainly 
be like eating one's way unassisted through a 
whole box of caramels — the results might be 
unpleasant. But it is not so of the Love Let- 
ters of Bismarck, which we have now before 
us in a comely volume of 480 pages. These 
quite German examples of the billet-doux are 
sensible, practical, '^ newsy," only moderately 
saccharine. They are indited to Fraulein von 
Puttkamer — a name not savoring particularly 
of sentiment. We do not mean that the letters 
are not affectionate, that they contain no tender 
passages, no terms of endearment. The Chan- 
cellor ^* makes love" throughout the earlier 
epistles at least, if in a rather rongh, Junkerish, 
half-cynical way. Once, in a burst of unusual 
tenderness^ he calls FrI. von Puttkamer ^'a 
little pink angel," but as he soon goes on to 
talk of a package of sausages and some socks 
she has sent him, the reader's nerves are re- 
lieved. In fine, if the affection breathed from 
the letters is not of 'the ecstatic.order, it is at 
all events a manifestly strong and durable 
fabric, made in Germany, and warranted to 

The letters extend from the time (1846) of 
the writer's engagement to Frl. von Puttkamer, 
to 1889 ; and about a third of them were writ- 
ten before the marriage took place. A few 
extracts will serve to show their general drift 
and quality. A letter of 1850 indicates the 
writer's opinion of the liberal movement of the 
time. Speaking of the possibility of a clash 
between Prussia and Austria, Bismarck goes 
on to say : 

" Robert Blum's bust, draped with black and white 
sashes and cockades, is the emblem bj which members 
of the Berlin militia, and democrats of all countries 
here, at Frankfort, and elsewhere, celebrate their fes- 
tivities and swear vengeance on monarchs; to this has 
Prussia grown. It is for these people we shall be 

*Thb Lovs Lsttbbs or BisMAHoa: Being Letters to 
his Fiancee and Wife, 1846-1889. Authorised by Prince 
Herbert von Bismarck, and translated from the G^erman 
under the superviiion of Charlton T. Lewis. With portraits. 
New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

vietorions, if we are yiotorioiu; and every democrat 
will exhibit his wounds to the King as an unpaid bill, 
when, with his help, we have conquered. I cannot 
restrain my tears when I reflect what has become of 
my pride, my joy, my fatherland, the faithful, brave, 
honest Prussian nation, intoxicated by the giddy cup 
which they call Prussian honor, in the leading-strings 
of a gang of Rhenish place-hunters and scoffing 

The following sketch (1851) of Amsohel 
Rothschild shows that the Chancellor was no 
poor hand at a portrait : 

«... I have picked the enclosed leaves for yon in 
the garden of old Amschel Rothschild, whom I like, 
because he is simply a haggling Jew, and does not pre- 
tend to be anything else, and, at the same time, a 
strictly orthodox Jew, who touches nothing at his din- 
ners, and eats only < nndefiled ' food. * Johann, dage 
vid you some bread for de deers,' he said to his servant 
as he came out to show me his garden, in which there 
were some tame fallow deer. * Baron, dat blant costs 
me two thousand guilders, honor bride, two thousand 
guilders cash; I vill let you have it for one thousand, 
or, if you vant it for nuddings, he shall bring id to your 
house. God knows I abbrejiate you highly. Baron; 
you are a nize man, a brave man.' With that he is a 
little, thin, gray imp of a man, the patriarch of his 
tribe, but a poor man in his palace, childless, a widower, 
cheated by his servants, and ill-treated by aristocratic- 
ally Frenchified and Anglicized nephews and nieces, 
who will inherit his treasures without gratitude and 
without love." 

In 1862 Bismarck fought his famous duel 
with Yincke, and his account of the affair does 
not greatly heighten one's esteem for his char- 

^ Vincke wished to defer the matter for forty-eight 
hours, which I granted. On the 25th, at 8 a. m., we 
rode to Tegel; to a charming spot in the woods by the 
seashore; it was beautiful weather, and the birds sang 
^ S&yly ^ the sunshine that, as we entered the wood, 
all sad thoughts left me; only the thought of Johanna 
I had to drive from me by force, so as not to be affected 
by it. With me as witnesses were Amim and Eberhard 
Stolberg, and my brother as a very dejected spectator. 
With V. was Sanken, and Major Vincke of Uie First 
Chamber, as well as a Bodelschwingh as impartial wit- 
ness^ The latter declared before the matter began that 
the challenge seemed to him to be, under the circum- 
stances, too stringent, and proposed that it should be 
modified to one shot apiece (four had been agreed upon). 
Sauken, in V.'s name, was agreeable to this, and had 
word brought to me that the whole thing should be 
called off if I declared I was sorry for my remark. As 
I could not truthfully do this, we took our positions, 
fired at Bodelschwingh's command, and both missed. 
God forgive the grave sin that I did not at once recog^ 
nize His mercy, but I cannot deny it: when I looked 
through the smoke and saw my adversary standing 
erect, a feeling of disappointment prevented me from 
participating in the general rejoicing, which caused 
Bodelschwingh to shed tears; the modification of the 
challenge annoyed me, and I would gladly have con- 
tinned the combat. But as I was not the insulted party, 

I could say nothing; it was all over, and all shook 

The following passage from a letter of 
1847 will answer better than the foregoing 
extracts to show the Chancellor in the guise 
of a lover : 

** Why do you so lament your last letter? I found 
nothing in it that was not dear to me, or could have 
been dearer. And, were it otherwise, where should yon 
in future find a heart on which to disburden your own 
of that which oppresses it, if not with me? . . . My 
dear, dear Johanna, must I tell you once more that I 
love you; sans phrase^ that we ought to share with each 
other joy and suffering, — I your suffering and you 
mine; that we are not united for the sake of showing and 
sharing with each other only that which gives pleasure; 
but that you may pour out your heart at all times to 
me and I to you, whatever it may contain; that I must 
and will bear your sorrows, your thoughts, your naughti- 
nesses, if you have any, and love you as you are — not as 
you ought to be or might be? ... Do not keep your 
gloomy thoughts for yourself while you look on me with 
cheerful brow and merry eyes, but share with me in word 
and look what you have in your heart, whether it be 
blessing or sorrow. . . . Look uiM>n us as mutual father- 
confessors; as more than that, since we, according to 
the Scripture, are to be <one flesh.'" 

The letters contained in this volume are, in 
point of fact, for the most part letters written 
by Bismarck to his wjfe. To entitle them» 
therefore, collectively <* Love Letters " is not 
wholly accurate, although perhaps a third of 
them belong fairly in that category. They are 
certainly better worth reading than if they all 
harped constantly on the same tender string* 
They are various in tone and matter. They 
bring us very near sometimes to the Chancel- 
lor's secret opinions on topics whereon he was 
accustomed to be reticent. For the most part 
they show Bismarck in an unusually amiable 
light. He is the affectionate, domestic, prac- 
tical-minded, confidential lover and husband 
throughout. We see how thoroughly whole- 
some and pleasant his home relations must 
have been ; how, amid the distractions, respon- 
sibilities, triumphs of his public career, it was 
about his own hearthstone that his affections 
and deepest interests really centred. The 
biographical value of the letters is consider- 
able, and they certainly tend to soften the 
rugged lines of the usually accepted portrait 
of the Iron Chancellor. Clearly, the man of 
blood and iron, the cynical statesman who de- 
clared that the moral law had no bearing on 
politics, was a lovable man in the home circle. 
The volume is handsomely got up, and contains 
some interesting portraits after unfamiliar orig- 
inals. £. 6. J 

Digitized by 





Thorps's Constitutional. History.* 

ProfeBsor Thorpe's '^Tbe Constitutional 
History of the United States " is a record of 
the rise and progress of the American consti- 
tution, from a new point of view. While this 
work differs from all those on the subject which 
have preceded it, it does not aim to displace 
any of them, but constitutes a distinct addition 
to the group. Though the author extends his 
observations over the entire period of our nat- 
ional history down to 1896, he is less discursive 
than Yon Hoist, whose work included an elab- 
orate presentation of our political affairs, such 
as are generally considered not a part of our 
constitutional history. Mr. Thorpe aims to 
elaborate such political movements only as 
were fundamental in their bearing. His treat- 
ment of his subject somewhat resembles that 
of Curtis, but he covers a longer period, thus 
requiring more pages. The three volumes of 
his work are not unduly expanded. Indeed, 
in view of one consideration noted below, the 
treatise might well have been made larger. 

The present work serves either as a supple- 
ment, or as a companion treatise, to Mr. 
Thorpe's earlier '^Constitutional History of 
the American People." That work was intended 
as an exposition of the State side, and the 
present one as an exposition of the National 
side, of our dual system of government. Bef- 
erenoes are here frequently made to passages 
or chapters in the former treatise. Those who 
possess both works, or who find them together 
in the same library, can utilize them jointly by 
means of these references. But the two parts 
of our dual system are so far one, as the author's 
present references to his earlier volumes indi- 
cate, that his readers could have no ground of 
objection to the size of the new treatise if it 
had been expanded to five volumes, by em- 
bodying in it all the matter which was included 
in his first ''Constitutional History." The 
two elements of this dual system may well be 
considered together as parts of one whole ; and 
there are certain advantages to be gained by 
this mode of studying them which are not se- 
cured when these elements are examined separ- 
ately. As Mr. Thorpe said in his earlier work : 
«« Originally as well as lawfully, the common- 
wealth constitutions are a part of the national." 
The plan of construction adopted for this 
treatise by Mr. Thorpe is advantageous, and is 


176&-1895. By Fnuieia Newton Thorpe. In three Tolnmes. 
Chi«i«o: Cdliighan A Co. 

well adapted for the presentation of those de- 
tails which he has assumed to be of prime 
importance. To treat with fidelity all the 
minutisB of so vast a general theme, or to give 
even slight attention to every detail for which 
any one of a thousand readers might perhaps 
be expected to make a demand, would be ob- 
viously impracticable. Some limits must be 
set to the size of the work, and only those de- 
tails which are of more general interest can be 
allowed discussion in the text. A happy com- 
promise between vague generalization and in- 
terminable minuteness has been adopted. The 
period of time from 1766 to 1896 has been 
divided into six epochs, of varying length, to 
each of which is devoted a section of the 
treatise, called a " Book." The transition of 
thirteen detached colonies into one national 
State, during the years from 1766 to 1787, is 
presented in Book I., under the title of " The 
New Nation." Book II., devoted to "The 
Formation of the National Constitution," re- 
lates the preparations for and the drafting and 
submission of that instrument. Its reception 
by the people, and their adoption of it with its 
early amendments, including the twelfth in 
1804, occupy the space allotted to Book III., 
with the heading, "The Constitution before 
the People." Then follows the period of " Con- 
test and Compromise," from 1804 to 1861, in 
Book ly., wherein is traced the path of con- 
troversy over the compromises of the Consti- 
tution concerning slavery, down to the time 
when swords took up the quarrel. Book Y. 
presents the four years of the Civil War, under 
the name of " Emancipation," the word which 
sums up the great change effected by that war 
in our governmental system. " The Extension 
of the Suffrage " is the theme of Book YI., 
describing the next great change in that system, 
which was adopted as a logical development 
from the immediate results of the war. Thus 
is attained an easy analysis, into periods of 
varying duration, of our entire constitutional 
progress as a Nation, down to the advent of 
the present entirely new era. 

The mode of treatment chosen by Mr. 
Thorpe, for the presentation of the constitu- 
tional features of each of these epochs, is to 
illustrate them by drawing largely upon the 
current debates and dbcussions, and expres- 
sions of individual and aggregate opinion, in 
legislatures, conventions, and other public as- 
semblies. The controversies of the time, repro- 
duced in condensed form, speak for themselves, 
in the arguments advanced, the clashing of 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

contrary views, the statutes or resolations 
adopted, and the constitutional amendments 
presented and considered. Those who have 
read with pleasure the pages of Mr. Thorpe's 
earlier work will find here the same vivid and 
picturesque presentation of the living issues of 
each of these epochs in our history. It is most 
interesting reading to trace, in practically the 
language of the time itself, the course of de- 
bate, not only upon the framing by the conven- 
tion and the discussion by the people of the 
original Constitution, but also upon the consid- 
eration of the early amendments ; of the com- 
promise legislation, prior to the Civil War, 
respecting slavery ; of the unsuccessful move- 
ments toward further compromises ; and finally, 
of the successive post-bellum amendments, each 
advancing to a constitutional outpost not pre- 
viously occupied. The movement of an epoch, 
a century old, is thus brought before us with 
the freshness of the present time, and the vital 
interests of the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies, in questions fundamental to our system 
of government, become vital to us to-day. 

One agreeable instance of Mr. Thorpe's 
method is in his paraphrase of the President's 
arguments for nationality in 1861. Lincoln 
stepped into his office with an authoritative and 
categorical statement of the constitutional rights 
and powers of the central government, and the 
utter unconstitutionality of secession, which 
were to be the basis upon which his adminis- 
tration would wage a defensive war for the 
preservation of the Union as its prime object. 
Mr. Thorpe wisely adopts the ideas advanced 
by Lincoln, in this and his later state papers, 
and the language in which they were presented, 
as the best exposition in our literature of the 
nationality which underlies our Constitution. 
His argument was dear and vigorous, befitting 
his high theme; and his presentation of the 
national idea was then, and still remains, un- 

Graphic is our author's picture of the insti- 
tution of slavery entrenched in the compromises 
of the Constitution, the inertness of the national 
government, and the general torpidity of the 
public mind on the subject, as indicated in the 
projected thirteenth amendment of 1861 which 
was to perpetuate the institution. Graphic, 
too, is his representation of the change of pub- 
lic sentiment, even in the border States, and 
the movement toward State constitutions de- 
claring against slavery, when the progress of 
the war had proven the institution effete, and 
the adoption by the States of the doctrine of 

the paramount allegiance of citizens to the 
National government. 

It is refreshing to observe that Mr. Thorpe 
finds no warrant, in the facts of our history, 
for the theory of the rightfulness of secession. 
The Declaration of Independence was a joint, 
not a several act. *^In practical politics it 
announced the birth of a new nation." Months 
before, Congress had advised the people that 
*' it would be very dangerous to the liberties and 
welfare of America for any colony separately 
to petition the King or either House of Par- 
liament." The Provincial Congress of New 
York, in 1775, had declined to declare in favor 
of independence, leaving <^a so general and 
momentous concern to the Continental Con- 
gress." The recommendation of Congress to 
Massachusetts, that she take steps toward a 
provincial government in that colony, until 
the King's governor should consent to govern 
the colony according to its charter, '* proves 
the truth of the saying of Lincoln, that the 
Union is not only older than the Constitution, 
but older than the States." The mere fact 
that in the Continental Congress each colony 
was allowed one vote *^ cannot in justice be 
made the basis for the later claims of the ad- 
vocates of State sovereignty." 

Though it may seem ungracious to question, 
in any respect, so excellent a treatise, it must 
be confessed that this work is in one way dis- 
appointing. The author seems inclined to treat 
with less than justice the efforts of the colonial 
Fathers in resisting the British aggressions. 
Their opposition to the Parliamentary claim of 
right to tax the colonies is clearly stated, but 
is pronounced groundless. 

« The right, though sncoessfnlly questioned hj the 
Americans, seems now, when we may oalmly reflect oyer 
it, to be well founded in the principles of government." 

" The best argument against parliamentary taxation 
must be economic rather than legal, and must proceed 
from a revolutionary interpretation of government." 

« They denied the supreme power of Parliament to tax 
America, though without good authority for the denial." 

"Thus the Congress attempted to put the British 
government in the wrong." 

So it was that ^^ Acts of Parliament, strictly 
legal and constitutional, became the ostensible 
excuse for American Independence." 

These impeachments of the legal ability of 
the colonial bar are coupled with two significant 
admissions : the accused were diligent students 
of the Constitution, and they were honest in 
their convictions. 

« The Americans were thoroughly conyinced of the 
truth and justice of their own interpretation of oonsti- 

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tatioDal principles, [and] it is not anjast to say that, at 
this time, the idea of constitutional government was 
more dearly recognized in America than in England." 

Yet he ooropares these colonials with those 
who in 1861 proposed to sever the Union, and 
says that, with the beginning of the Revoln- 
tioD, *^ nullification was rapidly becoming seces- 
sion." These are onr author's generalizations, 
without either explanation in argument or 
citations of authority. The constitutional argu- 
ments of John Dickinson against the Parlia- 
mentary power of taxation over the colonies, 
and of John Adams and James Wilson against 
the existence of any legislative power of Par- 
liament whatever over the colonies, in 1774, 
were based on numerous early British prece- 
dents. If these arguments are to be condemned 
by the impartial historian as groundless, they 
should be shown to be either inherently weak, 
or overweighted by sound adverse arguments* 

There are other generalizations in our au- 
thor's work which seem to be hastily made. 
It is said of the introduction by Randolph into 
the Federal convention in 1787, of the Virginia 
plan, contemplating a national government, 
oonsiating of a supreme legislative, executive, 
and judiciary, that ** this was the first use of 
the term national, in the sense in which it is 
now commonly understood." If it be desirable 
to fix the earliest use of this term, further in- 
vestigation may be needed. Aside from its 
use by individuals, as by Washington and 
Paine, in 1788, it is found in the Report of the 
Committee of Congpress, drawn by Madison, 
under date of September 25, 1788, on the me- 
morial from Massachusetts respecting the grant 
of half-pay to the officers of the army, wherein 
that measure is referred to as '^ an act finally 
adopted, and the national faith pledged to 
carry it into effect." Again, it is said : 

•< It IB difficult to fix the exact time or occasion when 
the word Nation was first employed to describe the 
goYemment of the American people, but there is reason 
to belieye that one of the first uses of the word in this 
sense was made bj President Lincoln in his Gettysburg 
address, in which he spoke of the Groyernment of the 
People as that of * a new Nation, conceived in liberty, and 
dedicated to the proposition that all men are created 
equal.* *• 

To take this view, we must forget that in 
1793 Judge Wilson of the Supreme Court 
found it easy to answer affirmatively the ques- 
tion, ^^ Do the people of the United States form 
a Nation " (and this with a big N) ; and that 
in his answer he said : 

" The people of the United States intended to form 
themselves into a nation for national purposes. They 
instituted, for such purposes, a national government 

complete in all its parts, with powers legislative, ex- 
ecutive, and judiciary, and in all these powers extend- 
ing over the whole nation." 

It is with regret that the reviewer has found 
occasion to qualify, by these discriminations, 
his commendation of a work so well conceived, 
and, in most respects, so admirably accom- 
plished. James Oscab Piebge. 


About six months ago, a series of papers 
appearing weekly in the New York *^ Evening 
Post" attracted our attention. They were 
written in a style that was noteworthy even 
among the excellent literary papers that one 
habitually finds in that journal, and as the 
chapters went on from week to week, we found 
ourselves eagerly awaiting the Saturday issue 
of the '' Post " in which a continuation of the 
series might be expected. Presently they came 
to an end, but we were confident of their res- 
urrection in a book, so clearly deserving they 
were of the more substantial form of publica- 
tion. The confidence was justified, and the 
entire series is now reproduced under the title 
** A Journey to Nature," while in place of the 
mysterious initials "J. P. M." (which sug- 
gested to us nothing but the name of Mr. J. 
Pierpont Morgan), we find upon the title-page 
the name of Mr. J. P. Mowbray. 

The book is remarkable in more ways than 
one, and is sure to attract much attention. Its 
humor, its philosophy, its pungency of style, 
and its wholesome view of life are qualities that 
go to the making of literature raUier than of 
journalism, and more than once, while reading 
the several chapters in their original form, we 
felt that we were enjoying some such rare ex- 
perience as was enjoyed by the fortunate dis- 
coverers of *^ My Summer in a Garden " in the 
columns of the Hartford ^^ Courant," or even 
of the *' Essays of Elia " in the pages of the 
<« London Magazine." Now re-reading the 
papers in their collective form, our early im- 
pression is deepened, although we are conscious 
of an occasional reservation of praise of the sort 
that almost necessarily results when the mental 
attitude is shifted from that of a skimmer of 
newspapers to that of a reader of books. But 
these reservations are very slight indeed, affect- 
ing only a word or a phrase here and there, and 
more than adequate compensation is offered for 

* A JouBNBT TO Nature. By J. P. Mowhray. New 
Tork : Donhleday, Page A Co. 

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[May 16» 

a few trifling defects in the sense of continuity 
and artistic unity that we get when the book is 
taken at a single reading. 

In a way, the book is a story-book, although 
the whole of its story may be told in a few 
words. Briefly, it deals with the experiences 
of a Wall Street stock-broker, plunged in the 
thick of business and social life, and suddenly 
confronted with the vision of sudden death. 
An attack of heart failure pulls him up short, 
and hurries him into the country for a cure. 
He is a man in the forties, a widower, with 
one small boy, Charlie, whom he takes along. 
The place of refuge provided is a cabin, an 
appanage of a decayed manorial homestead, 
somewhere in Central New York. In this 
cabin the man and the child and a yellow dog 
set up a primitive form of housekeeping, being 
cared for in the grosser ways by Gabe Hotch- 
kiss, the farmer who occupies the homestead, 
and ministered unto in somewhat more delicate 
fashion by his niece Griselle. These are the 
dramatis personoe of the story, — these, and 
the Doctor, who, delighted to have found a 
patient who will take his advice, comes out 
now and then to see how things are getting 
along. The book is made up of communings 
with nature, the natural incidents of vaga- 
bond life, occasional dialogue, and — Grriselle. 
This young woman seems to be merely a lay 
figure in the earlier chapters, but her person- 
ality is gradually insinuated into the substance 
of the story, until she more than shares the 
interest with the narrator himself. The author's 
management of this charming person is the 
most artistic feature of his work. Casual ob- 
servation, curiosity, sympathetic attention, 
sentimental interest, affection, love, and chas- 
tened disappointment, — these are the successive 
notes in the gamut of the relationship between 
the man and the maiden. It is a familiar se- 
quence, but one not often presented with such 
delicacy and charm. 

But quite enough has been written about 
and around this book ; let us turn to the more 
convincing task of illustration. The exile has 
arrived at his cabin, and has set his teeth in 
grim determination to *' stick it out." 

*< This was the bravado of the will, and even while 
it was flonrishing I was conscious that I would give 
the hovel and the two big boxes that had been set down 
at its door for a cocktail. 

** I asked the two men who had driven us and the 
boxes up where I could get some ice and a lemon. They 
looked at each other as if I had asked them for a French 
menu. < Ice ? ' said one of them. * You might git some 
at the batcher's in Spelldown. It 's four miles and a 

half. There 's a spring in the medder yonder, but the 
lemon crop ain't very good this year.' 

«< That's so/ said his companion, wiping his face 
with his shirt-sleeves, < the potato bngs hart the young 
lemons awfully last season.' " 

The Doctor comes up for a few days of rough life, 
and is highly pleased with his patient's condition, 
until a chance remark awakens dark suspicion. 

« < You 're convalescent — that 's all. You must keep 
this jig up for one year. I do not propose to let up on 
my prescription, if you expect me to carry you through 
to a good old age. You see, I 've got a good deal at 
stake in this matter. You 've been a pretty good boy 
so far. I did not believe you could do it. In fact, 
you're the first man I ever met who could give up 
female society entirely and take to the woods on sani- 
tary principles, and you will make a shining example 
when you go back to Broadway and Wall Street.' 

<<At that moment Charlie came to the door and 
shouted, *Say, Dad, where do you suppose Griselle 
keeps the pepper and salt ? ' 

« I remember that the Doctor, who looked very ab- 
surd in his bare feet, came over and stood in front of 
me, and said with as cavernous an intonation as he 
could command, * Who in thunder is Griselle? ' " 

One night the invalid drinks coffee recklessly, 
has a nightmare, wakes up with violent heart- 
throbs, and loses his nerve completely. Think- 
ing of nothing else to do, he proposes to the 
yellow dog that they have a wood fire. 

" I might as well put down that dog's reply, if for 
no other reason than that it is a true dog's reply, and 
not man's, which dog talk is so apt to be. This is what 
he said, exactly : * I can't make out what it is that yon 
propose to do, but I understand in a general way that you 
are going to do something, and I 'm with you whatever it 
is. LfCt 's make as much hullabaloo about it as we can.' 

« I have learned that a dog apprehends a man's mean- 
ing very much as a man apprehends the meaning of a 
symphony. It is purely a matter of tones and not of 
articulations. He seizes upon your moods, not upon 
your ideas, with the marvellous generalizing capacity 
of a sympathetic ear. He responds to the allegros and 
andantes, appropriates the rhythms without conscious- 
ness, and keeps time to the feelings as they slip and 
merge. Man must be a continual Beethoven to a dog, 
uttering mystic strophes that he cannot analyze. A dog 
is thus superior to a man in that he is always saved 
from being a critic." 

One more passage may be given, illustrative of 
the graver moods of the book, and showing 
how well Nature did her work, no less for the 
soul than for the physical frame of her patient. 
It takes the form of a soliloquy. 

« I feel confident that a healthy adjustment of facul- 
ties, and the suspension of an agressive egotism, put a 
man en rapport with new harmonies that he never be- 
fore suspected. If he walk in the cordial but silent 
woods, he finds that the defiance goes out of his verte- 
brae, and he is acquiring the bowed head; and if we 
look narrowly here we shall find, I think, that the 
bowed head of the savant and the saint are the tokens 
of a similar but unequal humility. These conolusiona 
bore into one's old timbers unobserved like the teredo. 

Digitized by 





when one lives apart from hia fellows for a while; so 
that I grew to think, like the Doctor, that it was good 
for every man to have hermit hours, and to keep a wil- 
derness somewhere into which he can escape from him- 
self. In such sequestered moments tides of soft 
intimations come from afar, aud there are apt to be 
astral tanners flattering in one's outreach — whisper- 
ings of origins and outcomes, never before heard in the 
soft procession of the universes; faint, kindly voices 
reaching up from the lowliest processes, trying to speak of 
kinship and fatherhood. There are new and tiny links far 
down the inscrutable depths, and they glitter in the gloom 
with threads of promise, forever weaving the continuity 
and indestructibility of life in a majestic synthesis." 

On the walls of the Doctor's city office, we 
are told, there was a Scriptural motto, ^^ For 
thus saith the Lord God, the Holy One of 
Israel. In returning and in rest ye shall be 
saved. In quietness and confidence shall be 
your strength, and ye would not." It is the 
lesson of this passage that ** A Journey to Na- 
ture " inculcates, and the lesson is one that we 
Americans, more than most other people, need 
to learn. The book is an evangel of the quiet 
life, the life freed from the unnecessary per- 
plexities of man's own making, the true life of 
the spirit for which so many of us vainly strive. 
It is a beautiful book, and we count it a privi- 
lege to have had this opportunity of saying 
even these few inadequate words in its praise. 
William Mobton Payne. 

OUB Contemporary Staok.* 

Mr. Norman Hapgood's volume, '^ The Stage 
in America, 1897-1900," treats those aspects 
of the acted drama which have played the 
most important part in American theatrical 
history during the past few years, besides pre- 
senting a purely critical consideration of the 
histrionic notabilities connected therewith. 
The purpose of the book — so far as any chief 
purpose can be discovered in the work of one 
who is so emphatically a critic of detail — 
seems to be to rescue from unmerited oblivion 
records of those productions worthy of a more 
enduring place than that which is given in 
the daily newspaper. Says the author : 

«So many influences enter into the formation of a 
dramatic opinion, or even into a mere narration of 
theatrical incident, that to select among the facts, im- 
pressions, and beliefs of four years those which sum up 
the period is full of peril. After reyersing my view of 
Henry Esmond's abiUty in comedy, or of the degree of 
Mrs. Fiske's talent, what shall I think of my next con- 
Tiction? The difficulty is not new: even Goethe has 

* Tbx Stags iv AmuoA, 1897-1900. By Norman Hap- 
good. New York: The Maomillan Co. 

written foolish things about Hamlet; the sharp differ- 
ence between him and Schiller over Egmont was on a 
subject where both were masters; the meanderings of 
Tobtoi's < What Is AH ?' are matched by aberrations 
of Hume, Voltaire, Johnson, and Dryden." 

As a corollary to this we may add that dra- 
matic criticism is one of the most difficult 
forms of criticism, for it has no written form- 
ula, no stereotyped standard, to fall back upon. 
It is man's opinions based on man's knowledge 
of preexisting and present conditions, on man's 
accepted and preconceived conclusions as to 
what should constitute the ideal form of that 
particular branch of art under discussion, and 
of man's understanding of the technique of the 
drama. The highest and brightest achieve- 
ment in dramatic criticism is reached when the 
critic remains true to his own convictions, 
albeit his ultimate conclusions may be at vari- 
ance with the world at large, for every thought 
of the true critic assimilates, respires, and en- 
larges in that sphere of art which he has 
chosen to study ; and in arguing with oneself 
one has always a respectful antagonist to whose 
objections every attention must be given. 

Mr. Hapgood touches upon the problems of 
the stage in a manner which reveals a clear 
and comprehensive insight. In speaking of 
the theatrical trust (a product of one of the 
gloomy qualities of American life : the exces- 
sive love of wealth) he says : 

" Its growth was rapid, its power immense, and the 
history of its rise, if intimately known, sounds like, a 
melodrama or a satirical romance. . . . This syndicate 
can say to the theater owner: * If you do not do busi- 
ness with us on our own terms, we will not let you have 
flrst-rate attractions. If you do, we will destroy your 
rival, or force him to the same terms. For the book- 
ings we will take a share of the profits.' To the actor 
or traveling manager it can say: < You must play in our 
theaters or in bams. For our theaters we make our own 
terms.' To both it can say : < Nominally, we act as your 
agents. In reality, we are your absolute masters.' " 

These sentiments are voiced by the majority 
of our actors and critics. 

In his chapter on '^ The Drama of Ideas," 
the author proves himself to be a diseur de 
bonmotSi as the following quotations, picked 
at random, will attest : 

«< It was a sadly demoralized man who said he had 
three rules for the conduct of life; of which the first 
was, never to see the plays of Henry Arthur Jones, and 
the other two did not matter — but it was an artist 
also and a critic who spoke." 

** The kinship between intellectual innocence and real 
culture is what makes bad melodramas so good and 
good melodramas so bad." 

** The greatest literary ideas are dramatic ideas; most 
of the world's highest literature is poetry, and most of 
its highest poetry is drama. We need not fear that 

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[May 16, 

modern times are nndramatio, for artistic genius is 
creative, and when it exists it will create somewbat in 
its universal manner." 

** Great dramatic ideas are imaginative and emotional 
conceptions, and the nearest to an exact statement that 
can be made about them will tell what feeling of life 
they imbue." 

Mr. Hapgood tells us that there is a drama, 
not large but distinct, which belongs espe- 
cially to the United States of to-day, and, 
whether lasting or not, to contemporary ob- 
servers seems to move on more artistic princi- 
ples than any native plays of the past. 

« Two men stand, as far as we can see, dearly ahead 
of their predecessors: James A. Heme for intellectual , 
qnalities, supported by considerable stagecraft; William 
Gillette for the playwright's talents, working on ideas 
of his own. Their plays are equaled by single efforts 
of other men, but no other American dramatist has done 
as much of equal merit." 

Speaking of American humor, he reminds us 
that a certain form of humor, not the high- 
est, and yet not unrelated to the larger kind, 
is found as incessantly in our farces and va- 
riety shows as in our presidential campaigns. 
*^ Fatalism and buoyancy, love of exaggeration, 
and a taste for slang are some of the compon- 
ents." But he merely lessens the dignity of 
his arguments by inserting some very insipid 
quotations from broad farces and burlesques 
which, for some reason or other, draw intel- 
lectual audiences to a certain metropolitan 
music hall. Who was it that said human nature 
in America is somewhat like the articles in a 
great exhibition, where the largest and loudest 
things first catch the eye and usurp the attention? 
Upwards of forty years ago, George Henry 
Lewes, speaking of the frivolous character of 
our plays, said : '^ Unless a frank recognition 
of this inevitable tendency cause a decided 
separation of the drama which aims at art 
from those theatrical performances which only 
aim at amusement of a lower kind (just as 
classic music keeps aloof from all contact and 
all rivalry with comic songs and sentimental 
ballads), and unless this separation takes place 
in a decisive restriction of one or more theatres 
to the special performance of comedy and the 
poetic drama, the final disappearance of the 
art is near at hand." This quotation is not 
inserted for the sake of calling attention to 
and praising the so-called ^' palmy days" of 
the stage, but merely as a preliminary remark 
in calling attention to the fact that, according 
to Mr. Hapgood, there is only one high-class 
theatre in America : the Irving Place Theatre, 
in New York, where the running of a theatre 
is looked upon more as an art than as a trade. 

But as all productions are here given in Ger- 
man, its clientelage is limited. 

It is impossible to do more than point out 
the general purpose of the book under consid- 
eration. The titles of the principal chapters 
give an idea of the numerous topics treated : 
"Ibsen," "Recent Shakespeare," "Foreign 
Tragedy," "Rostand," "Pinero, Shaw, and 
Jones," " From the French," " Histrionic and 
Literary Side-shows," etc. We are glad to note 
that the performances given through the efforts 
of the Independent Theatre Company, which 
had its headquarters for two years at the Car- 
negie Lyceum in New York, have been given 
the space that they deserve. 

Mr. Hapgood is " nothing if not critical "; 
but whereas that expression, as applied by lago 
to himself, denoted a mind especially on the 
alert to discover weak points in everything, it 
means something essentially different as applied 
to the present critic. In fact, the author shows 
himself to be a kind of Benthamite in art. It 
is true that there are some statements made 
which he may some day wish to withdraw. The 
peculiarity of his critical ability consists in his 
power of assimilating the thoughts and the 
work of others — its pliancy is its strength. 

Ingram A. Pyle. 

Recbnt English Political. 
Phi losop hy.* 

Our age forsooth is still in the throes of 
transition. We begin the twentieth century 
with a number of problems and questions per- 
taining to their solution which have by no 
means found even approximately satisfactory 
answers. New ideas and theories chase each 
other like clouds on the spiritual horizon. That 
they are but clouds is due largely to the lack 
of true philosophical training in those who at- 
tempt to advance them. It is sometimes even 
painful to witness the vagueness of issue com- 
pared with the ado with which the answer is 
sought. The blending of sociological with 
political and historical ideas, or rather the 
forcing of the two latter to conform to the still 
somewhat indefinite and artificial reasoning of 
sociology, is more of a confusion than an assist- 
ance to a reader. Against the sense of in- 
security thus produced, it is an antidote to 
turn back upon the path, and review with some 

* ENausH PoLiTiOAii Phdjosopht from Hobbas to Biaine. 
By William Graham. New York : Henry Holt <ft Go. 

Ak Ihtboduotiok to Emoxjsh Poutios. By John M. 
Robertson. New York : New Amaterdam Book Go. 

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friendly author the work of those serious think* 
ers of the past whose labor has largely con- 
tributed to raise the foundation on which the 
present edifice of social and political reasoning 
is erected, and whose efforts have largely 
proved true. Thus it is possible, by way of 
contrast, to bring into comparison two recent 
books whose difference in scope and treatment 
would scarcely suggest each other. In a way 
they may serve as fair examples of the philo- 
sophical and the unphilosophical attitude of 
many writers of to-day. 

Professor Graham's ^^ English Political 
Philosophy from Hobbes to Maine " is one of 
the serious contributions to the study of polit- 
ical theory which thoughtful people welcome. 
We recognize that there is nothing especially 
new and original in the author's presentation 
of his thoughts about these writers. The book 
would have been very well named '^ Introduc- 
tion to the Study of," etc. It strikes one 
largely as a course of lectures condensed for 
convenient purposes into book form, explana- 
tory, discursive, rather scholastic in tone and 
not very argumentative. The criticism applied 
to the theories of these authors is drawn from 
the later discoveries in the world of thought 
and from the burning problems of to-day which 
their ideas have not succeeded in solving, and 
it is no wonder that they crumble before so 
fierce a light. The treatment is not perfunc- 
tory nor shallow but earnest and painstaking, 
and therefore the book will doubtless become a 
considerable help and guide to the serious 
stadent. And to become such a guide is, as 
we understand it, the author's special object. 
By bringing the six foremost English thinkers 
upon political theory within one frame, and 
discussing their relation to each other and to 
other philosophers, a continuity in the devel- 
opnaent of thought is presented which one 
otherwise does not easily meet with. Locke ia 
usaally studied from the point of view of ab- 
stract philosophy, Burke from the point of 
view of literary merit, and Mill in connection 
with Political Economy, whose chief light he 
is. The study of Hobbes we believe is almost 
obsolete, and Bentham too is usually taken up 
only incidentally, since the memory of these 
first explorers in the realm of Political Science 
is obscured by the fame of their far more suc- 
€iessf ul followers. Professor Graham finds both 
Hobbes and Bentham (and Burke, too, for all 
that) lacking in penetration of thought and 
grasp upon actuality, but in his appreciation 
of their fundamental value he is both sincere 

and just. With Burke it seems difficult for 
him to distribute the sun and shade of valua- 
tion properly. Burke's greatest, and in our 
opinion his only, fault was his lack of under- 
standing of such a tremendous departure from 
the slow beaten track of social progress as the 
French Revolution. Burke was of course wrong 
in this ; yet he was the only statesman in Eu- 
rope who said anything against it which was 
neither puerile in tone nor bigoted in idea, — 
which, on the contrary, has been generally pro- 
ductive of good to this day. It is indeed 
strange that as an Irishman, to rebellion bred, 
he should so misconstrue everything done on 
the other side of the Channel ; although if it 
had been for the immediate deliverance of his 
own race, he might have sanctioned much. If 
Burke had not been ground so steadily and 
thoroughly in the English Parliamentary flour 
mill, he might have looked at matters differ- 
ently, and he, the English subject, not been 
outdone in liberal sympathies by the nobleman 
of hard feudal stock, the Prussian Count Schla- 
brendorf, who hastened to France in anticipa- 
tion of the new star of liberty to be bom there, 
and lived through most of the Jacobin sessions 
of stormy memory. But when will Celt ever 
understand Celt ? 

Bentham, as a political theorist, will claim 
more of the interest of our readers than Burke, 
largely because America is the country where 
his doctrine of the greatest happiness for the 
greatest number has been more generally ad- 
hered to and realized. Yet his prophetic words 
in the defence of security, even if it be at the 
expense of equality (p. 223), may well resound 
in the minds of many who watch the gradual 
change from an individually independent to a 
semi-feudal relation which the lower social lay- 
ers are fast undergoing, conditions which have 
come ^^ for to stay " and will not be discussed 
away. We quote his words : " When security 
and equality are in conflict it will not do to 
hesitate for a moment. Equality must yield. 
The first is the foundation of life ; subsistence, 
abundance, happiness, everything depends upon 
it. Equality produces only a certain portion 
of good. Besides, whatever we may do, it will 
never be perfect; it may exist a day ; but the 
revolutions of the morrow will overturn it. 
The establishment of a perfect equality is a 
chimera ; all we can do is to diminish inequal- 
ity." Still more interesting is Bentham's de- 
mand that the laws be codified and made 
accessible in form and content to everybody. 
As Professor Graham expresses his wish : 

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[May 16, 

« If now the laws which oonoem everybody were in 
one volume, and those which concerned only classes 
were in small separate volames, if the general code had 
become, as with the Hebrews, a part of worship and a 
manual of education; if a knowledge of it were required 
as a condition of the franchise, the law would then be 
truly known, every citizen would become its guardian, 
its violation would not be a mystery, its explanation 
would not be a monopoly, and fraud and chicane would 
no longer be able to elude it " (p. 231). 

We believe it woald have given the venerable 
philosopher a genuine delight if he could have 
beheld — as perhaps through celestial omnis- 
cience he has — the late publication of the 
Civil Code of the German Empire, printed for 
everybody's use in a small volume which can 
be held in the hollow of one's hand, yet read 
with perfect ease and costing but a mark. But we 
shall have to wait long before such a boon is given 
to this lawyer and judge ridden community. 

Speaking of Bentham's impossible Love of 
Humanity, Professor Graham says with a touch 
of some pertness : 

** As far as the * love of humanity ' is concerned, it is 
not here necessary to inquire how far it is possible to 
have any definite feeling for a vast entity like humanity, 
the best and noblest part of which is dead and passed 
away, while some part is not yet bom, and much of what 
is alive and concrete may affect us in a manner that 
arouses anything but love. To form the conception of 
such is difficult, to have any real feeling for the com- 
posite object of it, is difficult. But it is perhaps psycho- 
logically possible to have a kind of love for the vast 
Being (much of which is not in being) through its best 
representatives, who are chiefly and necessarily the 
mighty dead, whose character and works are beyond 
dispute" (p. 199). 

How will that do in America where Shake- 
speares and Michel Angelos of to-day, if we 
trust the local reporter, are neither few nor 
far between, and admirable characters, accord- 
ing to Bostonian terminology, are not rare, but 
in fact crowding the public theatre so that 
there is hardly standing room ? We warn the 
pessimists of Professor Graham's type off the 
planks, for they will surely be hooted at I And 
after all, is love of humanity as a distinct part 
of one's make-up such an impossibility ? It is 
all very well, as Professor Graham suggests, 
to do the best we can for ourselves and those 
who depend upon us, and let the matter rest 
there, but there is such a thing as generous 
sympathy with outsiders just because it is a 
beautiful thing to be friendly and *^ God loveth 
a glad giver." This feeling of genuine warmth 
and good will toward all till they themselves 
repel us — a feeling which makes one beloved 
by his fellow beings, and lifts the meeting of 
strangers into a charming experience, — we 
look upon as not at all an impossibility. True, 

in spite of our philanthropy and altruism, this 
precious feeling as a gift, a disposition, seems 
to have faded out of our too practical lives and 
is now preserved in the original force only by 
a few simpletons. This feeling, it appears, is 
the real love of humanity; which evidently 
Bentham did not invent, but which he had 
pigeonholed properly in his theoretical mind 
and was going to advocate as worth striving 
for. If, in fact, the genuine article were dis- 
tributed more widely, and were less spoiled by 
the influence of some ^^ cause " or other urging 
the individual to act in a stereotyped way, it 
would bring the gentle tact that prevents fric- 
tion, and the losses and crosses of life would be 
not left to specialists, as Professor Graham 
suggests (p. 198), but be borne by everybody ; 
and we boldly state that if love of humanity 
becomes a cumbrance rather than a help, that 
is because true goodness is largely lacking. 

But we will leave this difficult subject, and 
make our only general criticism of Professor 
Graham's mode of discussion. He is some- 
times so given over to common sense that he 
becomes rather trite. But this and the frequent 
repetitions are faults easily committed in books 
of this kind where deamess and simplicity are 
necessary characteristics. 

Mr. John M. Robertson's book, *' An Intro- 
duction to English Politics," will presumably 
cause a good deal of controversy between the 
adherents of the old and the new school of his- 
torical writing. Mr. Robertson is rather a 
rabid modernist ; the historical writers of many 
nations pass in review before him, are all 
weighed, and found wanting. What is it, then, 
that Mr. Robertson himself must supply, since 
it is nowhere else to be found ? Briefly stated, 
it appears to be the presentation of some all- 
important phases of a nation's life explained 
primarily by sociological causes, with the pur- 
pose not only of furthering a new doctrine, but 
also with the noble intention of thus teaching 
the nations of to-day, particularly those of 
English speech, to avoid mistakes already com- 
mitted and occasionally repeated. No one can 
feel anything but sympathy with such an at- 
tempt. The question is whether Mr. Robert- 
son is successful in proving his point, and 
whether the method employed speaks in his 
favor as an independent and at the same time 
profound thinker. But Mr. Robertson himself 
disclaims any thoroughness, which of course 
is for him the saving clause. 

The book consists of five parts, the first 
treating of political evolution, particularly 

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among the Bomans and Oreeks; the second 
concerned with economic forces among these 
and also among the Byzantines. Part Three 
discusses the culture-progress in antiquity; 
Part Four the Italian Republics. Part Five 
deals with the fortune of the lesser European 
states. In fact, the book covers a vast field, 
and presents matters in themselves exceedingly 
difficult to handle. Nor are they rendered 
easier by the fact that the author depends evi- 
dently, if not confessedly, on second hand in- 
vestigation. His views are those acquired 
mainly by the reading of other authors, and 
his book is largely a discussion of their views. 
Although the author says both good and true 
things, his pages contain less of what is indi- 
vidually the result of his labors than a constant 
polemic against the faulty opinions of other 
writers. It is sometimes amusing, sometimes 
exasperating, to find this incessant warfare. 
Mr. Robertson's own points often have very 
little weight ; he applies his theory loosely or 
substitutes merely new words for other words, 
a new theory for an old, for, 6. ^., the seven 
points in Paragraph Four of Chapter II., Part 
I., which give very little help to anybody in 
finding a new solution for the old question why 
Borne was thus and not otherwise. Besides, 
by virtue of the uncertainty of the remote 
past, any statement, however vague and inad- 
equate, can summon imaginary proof and as- 
sume the aspect of truth ; but to establish this 
truth beyond dispute is the difficult thing, and 
therein most writers fall short, Mr. Bobertson, 
be it said, not less than any other.* 

Part Two of the book (to which we can de- 
vote but scant attention) is by all means the 
best. Here as elsewhere the author employs 
the racy disjointed style of a notebook rather 
than the dull logical reasoning of a thesis. The 
common use of the words ** faculty " and *' in- 
nate genius " may indeed be unscientific, but 
Mr. Bobertson's ridicule of them and insistence 
only on outside causes quite overlooks the fact 
that there is also something in the mind of a 
nation that moulds its fate. If perchance 
faculty means nothing more than the capacity 
to take advantage of opportunities, there is no 
denying that some nations, taken as a whole, 
possess this faculty very much as some indi- 
viduals do. If, therefore, in Part One Mr. 
Bobertson explains the constitutionalism of 

*One may be permitted to think of Professor Theodor 
llommsan's amused smOe, if his eye should meet Mr. Rob- 
ertson's yerdiot npon his ** strenuous superfioiality." We 
may question whether — all things oonsidered — the super- 
Sdaltty of our esteemed writer is eyen strenuous. 

Bome by general indifferent causes in which 
conscious striving had no share, it is not pos- 
sible to see that he has come nearer to solving 
the problem why constitutional life had so 
much more of a chance in Bome than else- 
where. In Bome political life had less inter- 
ference from outside, if that is what he means ; 
but even so the faculty for constitutionalism 
remains. 'Mr. Bobertson says (Part One) 
justly enough that Bome was in for plunder 
and went on plundering, the mythical wolf 
which nourish^ her infant kings remaining, 
as it were, her symbol. This thought is further 
carried out in Part Two, where it is atated 
that military expansion was an economic need 
and that the perpetual despoilment of the 
provinces was the chief doctrine of Boman 
economic law. But did Bome give the prov- 
inces nothing in return ? What had they pos- 
sessed before, and what did they possess after, 
the incorporation in her vast body politic ? A 
nation conquering so vast a territory and or- 
ganizing it — on a military scale, it is true — 
teaches the world at least one of the chief prin- 
ciples of civilization, t. e., subordination, dis- 
cipline. That Bome abused her power was a 
result of the limitations of that same system, 
lacking as it did any outlet in individual effort. 
But that Bome developed a system of law, a 
monument of its conception of subordination, 
speaks for its having an ideal of life which we 
now are unable properly to criticize and from 
whose faults we can after all profit very little, 
because the basis of our existence lies elsewhere. 
Certain phases which can serve as illustrations 
of his theory Mr. Bobertson treats, others which 
demand more acute questioning, he lets lie. 

Mr. Bobertson is justly incensed against 
slavery, too, and sees the source of the economic 
decline of the Boman empire in this ^' under- 
buying" the labor of the free worker. No 
doubt; but where lies the remedy for such 
sporadically returning change of social status ? 
Under certain conditions slavery appears as a 
lamentable necessity. If the signs far and 
near do not entirely mislead us, we are on the 
verge of such an age ourselves, when human 
life is too cheap to be maintained except by 
the severest drudgery. Life is after all nothing 
but a perpetual experiment with contingencies 
of which no generation can foresee the result ; 
one age tries one remedy, another tries a dif- 
ferent ; the outcome can never be permanent, and 
the rotation of layers in the course of time brings 
one at the top, while another sinks far below. 

In spite of certain defects, for which we can 

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[May 16, 

prescribe no particular remedy, since they arfe 
inherent in the writer's view, Mr. Bobertson^s 
book will very likely create interest as a con- 
troversial contribution to the understanding of 
history. One thing is certain, the author is 
very much in earnest. His book is no doubt 
a well-meant effort and a most energetic one 
toward establishing new standards of practical 
value, especially toward awakening interest in 
the study of history as a source of political 
wisdom, of which many, both nations and in- 
dividuals, may be sadly in need. 

A. M. Wergeland. 

The War i n Sou th Africa.* 

It should hardly be necessary to point oat that 
the prevailing fashion of historical fiction differs 
very little from its kindred fashion of contempo- 
raneous history in either intention or effect. In 
both the writer makes a study of the time and the 
occurrences within it, selecting the material which 
is most available for his purpose, straining it through 
his prepossessions and prejudices, and producing 
reading matter which is intended to be interesting 
and may — or may not — be accurate. If by any 
chance it comes oat fair, impartial, and inclusive, 
the gods are to be thanked for unusual mercies ; if 
not, it will still compare quite favorably with all 
the other books in the world which make historical 
pretensions, from Herodotus, << the Father of Lies," 
to Sir Walter Raleigh, who could obtain no corrob- 
orative evidence for what he saw in a chance-medley 
beneath his window in the Tower. 

Mr. John F. Bass has recently borne testimony 
that the facts as he learned them at first band in 
the Philippine Archipelago have not been disclosed 
with either accuracy or completeness ; yet it seems 
certain that there are fewer prejudices involved in 
that struggle than in the analogous battling in 
South Africa. The United States has not been 
operating, so to speak, in the face of the world, and 
the constant travel between Manila and San Fran- 
cisco has been on the other side of the world, and 
away from the forum of Christendom. Great Brit- 
ain has been eondacting her plans for the extinction 
of two Republics in a manner which has earned her 
the hatred of continental Europe, arousing the bit- 
terest feelinfirg of partisanship and (so-called) 

*Thb Times Hibtobt of tbb Wab is Soutb Africa, 
1899-1900. Vol.1. Edited by L. S. Amery. New York: 
Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Campaign Pictubbb of the Wab ik South Afbica 
(1899-1900). Letters from the Front. By A. G. Hales. 
New York : CasseU A Co., Ltd. 

Ak Ambbioan with Lobd Robbbts. By Julian Ralph. 
New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Thb SiOK abd Woubdbd IV South Afbioa : What I 
Saw and Said of Them and of the Army Medical System. 
By William Lehman Ashmead Bartlett-Bardett-Contts. 
New York : Caasell A Co., Ltd. 

patriotism on both sides of the Channel, and leaving 
the critics and criticized equally impassioned and 
equally prone to special pleading. It would seem 
that some American, bound to England by the ties 
of a common language, common laws, and common 
aspirations, and bound to the doughty burghers by 
love for self-government, for independence, and for 
liberty of national action, should make the best and 
fairest historian of the war which is still waging on 
the South African veldt. When such a book comes, it 
will certainly be welcomed. But it is not before ns yet. 

All these considerations become effective when 
such a work as the " London Times " has under- 
taken comes into the critic's hands. In the first of 
its five large octavo volumes, edited by Mr. L. S. 
Amery, a fellow of All Souls College, there would 
seem to be room for the dispassionate presentation 
of both sides of the controversy within the 392 
pages which carry the reader from the year 1815, 
when the Congress of Vienna confirmed the British 
title to the Cape, to the beginning of actual hostili- 
ties, on October 12, 1900. True, the «< London 
Times" has been notoriously the organ of the ex- 
treme imperial faction of the Conservative party, 
and any editor it might select must represent its 
editorial policy; yet the *' Times" has borne a 
great reputation for accuracy and candor in days 
gone by, and it has published communications, if 
not despatches, in its columns which did not leave 
the Republics without some advocacy. 

The work clearly shows an endeavor to give 
everything which can elneidate the matters in dis- 
pute. It contains an extraordinary number of 
portraits in photogravure, and in these Briton and 
Boer are certunly represented with all impartiality. 
There is a map ; and there are appendices contain- 
ing a chronological table of events in South African 
history and many excerpts from official documents. 
But the place of honor, the frontispiece, is given 
the Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain ; the map assumes 
the incorporation of the two Republics into the 
British Empire as a fact accomplished; and the 
conventions which are contained in the appendices 
are not complete, and one, at least, of the omissions 
is injurious to the presentation of the burgher 
cause. In like manner the Editor's Introductory 
follows his Preface in a confession of the failure 
of impartiality, and in acting along the lines of a 
policy announced in the following words : 

** The present Tolume has been written frankly from 
the point of view of one who is convinced that the es- 
sential right and jastice of the controversy have been 
with his own country, and that the policy which has 
been parsaed by the British Grovemment has been, both 
politically and morally, justifiable. There is, no doubt, 
a Boer side to the controversy, a point of view based 
on the memory of old grievances, on peculiar social and 
political ideals, on a far-reaching national ambition. 
But it is a side which it is not easy for the ordinary 
reader to sympathize with, unless he can both appreciate 
and share the sentiments which have animated the 
burghers of the Republics in their hostility to the Im- 
perial Government. To that side the present acconnt* 

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in 80 far as it endeavors to give a true description of 
the Boer policy and of Boer aspirations, can do no real 
injustice. There is, however, another view with which 
the aecoant given in this volume is entirelj incompatible. 
That is the ' pseudo-Boer * or * pro-Boer ' view — a view 
begotten mainly of ignorance as to the real character 
and aims of President Kruger*s policy. ... It is a 
iletitiouB ease.*' 

Perusal of the book will confirm this sufficiently 
candid declaration of its intent. It proceeds on 
the assumption that the Great Trek was an unau- 
thorized secession from British rule, though Sir 
Henry Cloete, citied as an authority for that period, 
leaves quite a different impression. It pays no at- 
tention to the works of the Rt. Hon. James Bryce, 
though it does rely on << Mr. Rider Haggard's vari- 
ous writings." The chapter on the years following 
the Jameson Raid is from an anonymous hand — 
an extraordinary failure of authority for the most 
critical and momentous period discussed in the vol- 
ume. The chapter on the movement which led to 
Imperial intervention is from the hand of Mr. W. F. 
Monypenny, at that time the editor of the <* Star," 
a subeidized organ of the mine-owners, and later 
the correspondent of the << London Times " itself. 
Colonel Frank Rhodes is thanked for many valuable 
suggestions. Mr. J. F. van Oordt, though styled 
by Mr. Amery himself <* a fanatical partizan," is 
relied upon to furnish '< ample refutation of what I 
have called the < pseudo-Boer ' case." Truly, the 
history is poisoned at its sources. The four remain- 
ing volumes will deal with hostilities in the field. 

Mr. A. 6. Hales, whose <* Campaign Pictures " 
never lacks interest, is an Australian, the author of 
a well-received book of travel, and the special cor- 
respondent of the '* London Daily News " during a 
part of the war. Attached to the Australian con- 
tingent under General Methuen, he was taken pris- 
oner by the Boers at the battle of Rensburg, released 
and returned to the British lines as a non-combat- 
ant by President Steyn after seeing much of the 
Boers in field, hospital, and camp, and only recalled 
to England after the victory at Thaba 'Nchu. His 
narrative is vivacious and, to a marked degree, im- 
partiaL He bears willing testimony to the humanity 
and disinterested self-sacrifice of the burghers, and 
he does not consider himself in any way obligated 
to close his eyes to abuses on the British side. For 
that bloodthirstiest of all the English, the man who 
doee all his fighting with his mouth, he has a few 
excoriating paragraphs, the close of one of them 
worth quoting, in view of what follows. 

^ The old British pioneer may have whelped a few 
million good fighting stock in his time, but this class of 
animal is no lion's whelp; it is a thing all month and 
no manners, a shallow-brained, cowardly creature, al- 
ways howling about the Boer, but too discreet to go out 
and fight him, though ready at all times to malign him, 
to ridicule him as a farmer or a fighter. And it is a 
perfect bear's feast to this hybrid animal to get hold of 
a gnllible newspaper correspondent to tell him gruesome 
tales relative to Boer fighting laagers." 

It must have been not one, but a dozen, of these 
cattle which undertook the education of Mr. JuHan 
Ralph, whose book, <<An American with Lord 
Roberts,'' is most misleadingly named. Mr. Ralph 
was the special correspondent of the << London 
Daily Mail," the British equivalent of those Amer- 
ican << yellow' journals " which bragged about the 
little war with Spain as *^ our war." Some allow- 
ance must doubtless be made for the policy of his 
paper, which would probably have rejected anything 
which did not seek the justification of Great Britain 
by unlimited abuse of the other side, but even with 
this made it is impossible to understand how Mr. 
Ralph could style himself << an American " in any- 
thing but the purely technical sense of that much- 
abused word. He has no word of praise for any 
man who fought for the two Republics, and never 
a word of dispraise for those on the other side. It 
would not be difficult, if it were worth while, to pick 
absolutely contradictory statements out of the pages 
of Mr. Ralph and Mr. Hales, the former speaking 
on what he admits to be mere hearsay and the lat- 
ter from individual experience. Mr. Ralph's book, 
interestingly written as it is, remains chiefly valu- 
able as showing in an American what many of us 
have always taken to be the characteristic of the 
Briton abroad — a willingness to believe anything 
that can expand the pages of a book. 

We much prefer to regard as the work of an 
<< American " in this most disastrous struggle be- 
tween Imperial Britain and the two Republics the 
efforto of Mr. Bartlett-Burdett-Coutts as set forth 
in his pamphlet, << The Sick and Wounded in South 
Africa." Though a member of Parliament, this 
American-born English gentleman went at his own 
expense to the scene of war and distress, and having 
seen with his own eyes the evidences of the break- 
ing down of the military medical system under the 
burden of too much red tape and officialism, re- 
turned to make known the results of his journey 
from his seat in the national legislature. What he 
saw is made clear in his book ; but it is no less evi- 
dent that he incurred the displeasure of that class 
of devotees who see in the most rational criticism 
of their fellow-countrymen the voicing of treason — 
Mr. Hales also incurred the same unreasoning 
slander. His account is therefore eked out with a 
re-statement of his position, made necessary by the 
misrepresentations of his enemies, indignant at his 
refusal, unlike Mr. Ralph, to be tiie servile mouth- 
piece of those who would further destroy the pres- 
tige of the English name by as much indifference 
to human suffering as there had been indifference 
to the rights of a foreign and weaker people. The 
book has on its cover the apt quotation << Lest we 
forget," a reminder to Americans that similar hor- 
rors in the Cuban campaign seem not to have bet- 
tered the attention given our soldiers in China, 
during the recent massacres and looting there. 

Wallace Rice. 

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[May 16, 

Bbiets on Kbw Books. 

" A TreMarj of Canadian Vene " 

:S!'c«'JSSr«.,. (D^tton). edited »>y Dr. Theodow 
H. Band, is an aeeeptable anthology 
of Canadian song. The editor himself is one of 
the veteran men of letters of his coofltry, and has 
performed his task with skill and discrimination. 
One hundred and thirty-five writers are represented 
in all, and this number wonld have been greater by 
one were it not for the omission (through no edi- 
torial faolt) of Mr. William Wilfred Campbell. 
Those who have not kept close watch of Canadian 
poetry will no doabt be surprised at the number of 
singers and at the high average quality of their 
work. It is difficult to fix upon characteristie 
qualities in the poetical expression of a whole peo- 
ple, and this collection, like similar anthologies of 
the verse of England and the United States, illus- 
trates nearly all of the moods and intellectnal in- 
terests of the modern mind. There is one feature 
of Canadian song, however, which cannot fail to 
arrest the attention of even the dasual reader. It 
is admirably expressed by the editor in these words : 
*< Here are reflected the singular loveliness of our 
evanescent spring, the glow and luxuriant life of 
our hasting summer, the sensuous glory of our 
autumn, and the tingle of our frosty air and the 
white winter's cheer. Every form and aspect of 
natural beauty is, in some degree, caught and ex- 
pressed — sometimes in homely, sometimes in clas- 
sical phrase; often with striking simplicity, and 
generally with much purity of thought and an au- 
thentic note." The names of the poets here repre- 
sented include a few of wider than Canadian 
renown, — the names of Greorge J. Romanes, Grant 
Allen, and Professor Ooldwin Smith, for examples. 
As for Professor Roberts and Mr. Cam^an we are 
now beginning to claim them as at least half our 
own, since they have taken up permanent residence 
on this side of the border. We regret the absence 
from this collection of Mr. Carman's *' Death in 
April,'' the finest of all his poems, and probably 
the finest poem ever written by a Canadian. We 
miss also '< The Palms " of Professor Roberts, al- 
though we are consoled by his matchless lyric << The 
Falling Leaves." There are brief biographical 
notes upon all the poets included, and we learn 
from them that Professor Roberts *' was one of the 
literary arbiters at the World's Fair, Chicago," 
which is a dark saying. 

Dr. R. Osgood Mason supplements 
his former volume, '< Telepathy and 
the Subliminal Self," by one en- 
titled ** Hypnotism and Suggestion in Therapeutics, 
Education, and Reform " (Holt). The matter and 
manner of both books are much the same. Dr. 
Mason emphasizes the increased scope of the mental 
factor in tiie treatment of disease, and the specific 
opportunities afforded by hypnotic suggestion in 
this respect. But the success of such psychic thera- 

Trulh and error 

pontics* as likewise of the presentation of the topie 
to a wider public, depends on the tact and acumen, 
the critical ability and foresight, the avoidance of 
exaggeration and error, with which it is done. On 
all these points the present volume, when weighed 
fairly, is found to be wanting. There is a fair 
measure of good material; the account of cases 
treated is particularly interesting and worthy of 
record ; and when compared with such a pernicious 
volume as the recent one of Qnackenbos, this book 
assumes a comparatively meritorious character. 
But when judged by what an account of this topic 
should be, its success is quite overshadowed by its 
defects. Much of the volume is concerned with 
exaggerated theories of the influence of the uncon- 
scious self, with telepathy which foresees the future, 
and with rapport which transcends ordinary men- 
tal powers. Within the special field of hypnotic 
education, we have not only cases of nervous weak- 
nesses, bad habits, and mental assymetries success- 
fully treated by hypnotic suggestion ; but even bad 
speUing and incorrect English yield to this per- 
suasive method. But it is not so much the nsthetie 
judgment of the author that arouses condemnation 
as his intellectual judgment The most weakly 
evidenced occurrences, the most weakly established 
theories, are considered as of equal importance and 
credibility as any others ; while any refusal to agree 
with the author in these peregrinations is set down 
to prejudice and lack of fair-mindedness. Such a 
democracy of facts and hypotheses in which there 
shall be freedom and equslity to one and all, would 
be bereft of all logical worth. It is not open- 
mindedness that is wanted in the discussion of these 
problems so much as it is critical judgment and 
logical insight. Men do not to-day refuse to look 
through any telescope that promises to show them 
anything worth looking at Stubbornness and dog- 
matism are not the bugbears that they are generally 
regarded to be. It is not any conservative clinging 
to old-fashioned balances that prevents our results 
from being more reliable than they are ; but it is 
insufficient training in the employment of the new 
ones. And so long as this state of affairs continues, 
we shall have writers like Dr. Mason mixing to- 
gether much that is reliable and suggestive (and 
still more that is interesting), with much more that is 
questionable in all respects, — serving uncritical res- 
urrections of Reichenbach's sensitives, and theories 
of psychic intuition, and explanations of heredity 
by subconscious personalities, and abuses of the sig- 
nificance of << experimental psychology," along with 
some valid and pertinent considerations of the 
scope of the mental in the treatment of physical, 
intellectual, moral, and educational deficiencies. 

Albert Sonnichsen, the author of 
^*;rrS;^ "Ten Month, a Captiv among KU- 

pinos (Scribner), is what his por- 
trait shows him to be, and his book abundantly 
proves, a young American of great candor, great 
adaptability, little learning, and none too intell^nt 

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prejudices. His book is, as the sab-title deelares, 
*< A Narrative of Adventure and Observation daring 
Imprisonment on the Island of Lason," and the 
map showing his itinerary attests the opportunities 
given him for seeing the workings of Aguinaldo's 
government during the time he was held prisoner. 
Interesting as the account is, the chief interest lies 
in the facts that the author did not know himself 
to be disclosing. He is not aware, for example, 
that he is constantly judging his captors by a 
standard which he does not make the slightest at- 
tempt to live up to himself — a common fault with 
us all, perhaps, but more than ordinarily significant 
when the attitude of the writer is one of inevitable 
and invincible superiority. Another instance is to 
be found in the fact that his chief miseries came, 
not in the least from his darker-skinned guards, but 
from a fellow-member of the Anglo-Saxon race, an 
Englishman whom he significantly calls Arnold. 
Taken just before the American rifles, advanced 
several miles beyond the environs of Manila, to 
which they were limited by the terms of the peace 
protocol, had opened fire upon our recent allies, 
young Sonnichsen was enabled to escape by Joaquin 
Alejandrino, and returned safely to Manila by the 
**• Oregon." He bears cheerful witness to the hu- 
manity of the Filipinos, and to the huge distress 
brought upon them by the American occupation. 
His book is entertaining and instructive, and throws 
many valuable side-lights on the dark picture in the 

Like other readers of Mr. Bernard 
2^^"^^ Shaw's earlier pUys, we looked for- 
ward to " Plays for Puritans " 
(Stone) with pleasurable anticipation. We read 
them with successive and often mingled feelings. 
The Prefaces, of course, gratified our love of smart- 
ness. '< The Devil's Disciple," however, was a great 
disappointment at the beginning, and we only roused 
to a sort of conventional interest in the last act. 
We were amused at the succeeding note on Bur- 
goyne. At the beginning of <<Cnsar and Cleo- 
patra" our spirit needed stimulant, and the play 
provided what was wanted of the best quality. 
With the Notes our spirit sunk again, and << Captain 
Brassbound's.Conversion " we began with a certain 
weariness. This was largely caused, however, by 
the philological difficulties interposed by the dia- 
lectic spelling in the first act, for on getting to the 
real matter we revived and finished in style. So 
that on the whole the net result was good : it is 
true that the book is not everywhere of the author's 
very beet, but that is by no means remarkable. 
These plays are for Puritans because Mr. Shaw de- 
sires to harp on some other string than the amatory. 
He explains himself in one of the Prefaces : in the 
plays it appears that he appeals rather to a certain 
common-sense in mankind which is certainly more 
inspiriting than the common sensuousness, as he 
might call it himself, which most other plays appeal 
to. This common-sense — CsBsar and Lady Cicely 

have so much of it and are so winning thereby — 
is an excellent article, and Mr. Shaw's recognition 
of it constitutes his real realism. If only people 
would not pretend this and that, if only they would 
be real. In << The Devil's Disciple " we unfortu- 
nately (for ourselves) miss this element ; we find 
little more reality in the play than in the locality 
of the play, which is south of Boston and north of 
Albany and yet in New Hampshire, and, in addi- 
tion, a place where there were Presbyterians in 
1777. We do not get interested in << Diabolonian 
ethics" either in theory or practice. But Lady 
Cicely* brings up the balance, leaving ^'Csssar and 
Cleopatra" to the good — very decidedly. We 
cannot think this last a very playlike play, but it is 
excellent reading. Some things seem a trifle ab- 
surd, as when Britannus declares that there should 
be a matron when Cleopatra visits Cnsar, and much 
has a contagious levity, as when Cssar is inspired 
to leap into the sea and swim to the Rhodian gal- 
leys and they toss Cleopatra into the water after 
him. Still it would be bad to have monotony even 
in excellence, and such breaks are doubtless useful 
as a relief from the serious strength and even 
thought of the piece as a whole. 

The name of Alexander Brown, of 
c^^HLrfy. Nelson county, Virginia, has long 

been associated in the field of his* 
torical literature with some decided views upon the 
birth of America's free institutions. He would 
annihilate the decades of slow political evolution, 
and have Freedom in present-day garb step forth 
from the church at Jamestown or the cabin of the 
<< Mayfiower." His latest volume, <« English Politics 
in Early Virginia" (Houghton), essays to prove 
that '< our founders first settled this country upon 
proper political charter rights but were wilfully 
robbed of this distinction by the crown's licensed 
historians." It is a kind of essence extracted from 
his " First Bepublic of the United States " and his 
'< Genesis of the United States," but colored with 
defiance and reassertion. Like a stag at bay, he 
turns upon his critics in a kind of preface in the 
middle of the book, and at the same time disclosea 
the woes of '< the first person under the Republic 
to undertake sincerely the task of correcting this 
historic wrong." He confesses '^ the great difficulty 
of compiling a book in the best form for correcting 
the wrong impressions which have resulted from 
an almost absolute control over the history and all 
the evidences for nearly one hundred and fifty 
years, by the crown officials " ; the long search for 
" a publisher liberal enough and patriotic enough 
to undertake the publication of an article or a book 
opposing opinions which have grown gray with age 
and become popular " ; and then the difficulty of 
<' selling a sufficient number of advance orders to 
justify the printing, etc." Yet he is led to rejoice 
that the press and historians who under former 
license might have burned his books and imprisoned 
him can now only " roast " him, as he puts it. Even 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

those who cannot follow him in reading into the 
eommercial lives of oar fathers oar high political 
ideals, nor in thinking a king woald employ his 
time in saeh trivial matters as planning to sappress 
evidences of free ideas among his few colonists, 
mast give the author credit for earnestness and a 
militant spirit, although they look with forbearing 
pity on his rather unequal combat with the armor- 
clad knights of long-existing conclusions. The 
search for novel ideas in history need go no farther 
than this recent production of Mr. Brown. 

The love-letters of eminent people 

^n^^. **'® ?**«* "^'^ ^ ***® '*^'® ^'^^ ^^^ 
publishers, and the way in which 

these tender missives are being exploited as an asset 
by their thrifty custodians should be a caution to 
celebrities now living. The latter, it seems, if they 
dread this form of post-mortem publicity, will do 
well either to follow the example of Mr. Barkis 
when they go a- wooing, or else to see to it person- 
ally that their epistolary billings and cooings are 
consigned to the flames before their heirs and the 
public get a chance at them. We have now before 
us a very pretty volume of nearly three hundred 
pages containing *< The Love- Letters of Victor 
Hugo " (Harper), to Mile. AdMe Foucher, many or 
all of which have already been published in the 
magazines, where they naturally and deservedly 
attracted much attention, both on account of the 
great name of their author, and of their singular 
charm and interest as characteristic compositions of 
their kind. In his Introduction to the volume, the 
helpful, if somewhat rapturous, editor, M. Paul 
Meurice, assures us, by way of whetting our appe- 
tite for the banquet to follow, that, *< They evidently 
were not written to be seen by other eyes than those 
of the girl he loved ; he constantly entreats her to 
bum them ; they are all the more valuable on that 
account." The above view will hardly commend 
itself to a delicate sense of propriety, and seems 
rather at odds with a well-known convention long 
prevalent among gentlemen. But there is no doubt 
that the unrestrictedly frank and self-revealing 
character of the letters, and their consequent value 
as records of the inner life of the writer, are in a 
way guaranteed by the fact that he wanted them 
kept secret ; and this is perhaps what M. Meurice 
means to imply. The letters cover a period of two 
years, from 1820 to 1822. They are love-letters 
pure and simple, the rapturous outpourings of a 
youth of genius who has nothing to conceal from 
his mistress, and whose pen paints with delicate 
fidelity the fluctuating emotions of the lover's heart. 
The volume is a tasteful one outwardly, and con- 
tains some interesting portraits. 

So far as our observation goes, the 
tiH^'canada, »^«'»8« wcll-rcad citizen of the 

United States — the word American 
will not serve in this case — knows less of the his- 
tory of our political neighbor on the North since 

the times of which Parkman treats, and of her 
development, than he knows of any important 
country of Europe or Asia. Yet the history of 
Canada is related to our own at many points, and 
is full of interest for this reason as well as interest- 
ing in itself. Hence the latest addition to the ex- 
cellent <* Cambridge Historical Series" (Macmillan) 
commands attention for its theme, <* Canada, 1760- 
1900," as well as for its excellence. The author 
is Sir John 6. Bourinot, a scholar and writer of 
reputation, and probably the highest authority on 
Canadian history. He first gives a sketch of the 
French Regime, then takes up the settlement of the 
several parts of the country, then the development 
of representative institutions. This last forms a 
most interesting story, complicated as it was with 
the race jealousies of French and English, religioaa 
differences, provincial rivalries, and the ideas and 
prejudices inherited on the one side from fugitive 
Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies, and on the 
other from the French absolutism of the Old Regime. 
The author gives another side of the history of the 
American Revolution and of the War of 1812 from 
that presented by our own writers. He gives the 
Canadian view of Samuel Adams as agitator and 
conspirator, and of the insufficiency and pettiness 
of the causes alleged for our separation from En- 
gland ; of the puerility of our managemt-nt of the 
War of 1812 ; and, in the last chapter, of Canada's 
relations with the United States, in orderly survey 
from 1783 to 1900, boundaries, fisheries, trade, in- 
cluding the questions now in dispute between the 
countries. We give our hearty commendation of 
the book as an interesting story of political develop- 
ment, as casting side-lights on our own history, and 
as a valuable reference book. 

The collecting of book-plates (qua 
^^-pLte, book-plates) is said to have begun in 

1820 with a Miss Jenkins of Bath, 
England. Her collection, seventeen years later, 
furnished the nucleus of what has since become 
one of the largest in England. The literature of 
the subject began in France in 1874, and in En- 
gland six years later ; and has been increased sinee 
Uien in England, France, Grermany, and America, 
by numerous volumes and a flood of periodical con- 
tributions. At the present time, the interest taken 
in these sometimes artistic bits of paper is undoubt- 
edly widespread and steadily increasing. To the 
periodical literature of the subject, Mr. W. 6. 
Bowdoin has been a frequent, persistent, and pro- 
lific contributor. He is therefore well qualified to 
inform the public about book-plates, but his *< Rise 
of the Book-Plate " (Wessels) does not give us as 
much historical knowledge of the subject as we 
might be led to expect, though it is precisely the 
kind of book the collector of ex libria will find in- 
dispensable. It contains an Introduction and a 
paper on *^ The Study and Arrangement of Book- 
plates " by Mr. Henry Blackwell, a veteran collec- 
tor; two essays by Mr. Bowdoin, in defense of 

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Another hook 

eolleoting and in *< exemplification of the art "; a 
page of names of American book-plate designers; 
a bibliography and lists of eontribators to American 
and English book-plate literatnre; and a list of 
book-plate inscriptions — not nearly as full as it 
might be made without risk of becoming tiresome. 
The remaining pages are devoted to fae-similes of 
more than two hundred Grerman, Austrian, Belgian, 
Italian, Arabic, Welsh, French, English, Canadian, 
and American book-plates, showing the extent of 
Mr. Bowdoin's collection and the immense diversity 
of styles employed in the production of a book- 
plate. Unfortunately, a great number of Mr. Bow- 
doin's examples suffer by being reproduced in 


If the annual output of works on 
*< etiquette " were any criterion, the 
American carries the national quality 
of common-sense into his personal behavior to a 
very slight extent. In another aspect, such a work 
as Miss Emily Holt's '• Eneydopasdia of Etiquette " 
(McClure, Phillips & Co.) is an indication of the 
national longing for the best, and its sub-titles, 
"What to Write, What to Wear, What to Do, 
What to Say," and " A Book of Manners for Every- 
day Use," are only expressions of that democracy 
which believes itself to be as good as anybody or 
anything, and needs nothing more than the telling 
to put it into demonstration. Yet it is manifest 
that any person certain of his breeding can not 
possibly require such a volume ; and no less certain 
that a person without breeding cannot be given it 
by a library full of similar works. It must, there- 
fore, be intended for that large class, like Mahomet's 
coffin in respect of heaven and earth, which is 
neither in nor out of good society — or at least is 
not in bad society. Every social plane has its own 
conventions, and these are the birthright of all 
bom within its domain. What Miss Holt has 
undertaken to do is to show what those people in 
Europe who believe themselves to be better than 
the common herd do when they have money enough, 
and, by a parity of reasoning, what Americans 
should do when they come into a fortune sufficient 
to warrant their breaking into a class of equal 
wealth previously acquired. If they trust to her 
book they will not go very far wrong, and if they 
do not none will discover it unless they happen to 
read the same book. 

The reputation already established 
T11S::!,1L. by Mr. Edward MeCrady,. member 

of the Charleston, South Carolina, 
bar, in his two volumes on the «arly history of his 
State, is not likely to be diminished in his new 
" History of South Carolina in the Revolution " 
(Macmillan). The first part of the book is an ex- 
cellent description of the rise and growth of the 
civil revolution in the Palmetto State. It does 
justice to Drayton, Gadsden, Laurens, the Rut- 
ledges, and many others, whose work in the good 
cause hae long been overshadowed by that of pa- 


triots in the northern colonies where chroniclers 
and newspapers more abounded. The author makes 
no attempt to shield or explain away the early un- 
popularity of the patriot cause, and the frequent 
dissensions of its constituents. As the later years 
of the war proper approach, and the tide of battle 
turns towaid South Carolina, the author finds him- 
self encumbered with a mass of tactical detail and 
campaign minutiss which makes three-fourths of his 
book a military history. At last, after almost nine 
hundred pages, he stops abruptly at the dose of the 
year 1780 with the statement that another volume 
will be necessary to complete the subject. This 
might better have been stated clearly upon the titie 
page. There is no attempt to laud unduly the 
achievements of South Carolina, or detract from 
those of the other States. The facts are presented 
with the directness of the lawyer. The refereneea 
are not voluminous but are well chosen. The sub- 
ject matter is illustrated by a number of plans of 


If the Rev. John M. Bacon had 
written his book ** By lAnd and 
Sky" (Lippincott) with a view to 
converting his fellow-men to ballooning, he could 
not have manifested more enthusiasm, nor set forth 
the joys he has experienced high above the earth 
more eloquently. It is a book which can be read 
for pure pleasure, uncontaminated by any selfish 
and few mundane considerations. It contains many 
accounts of the fearless author's voyages in the 
clouds, in times of sun and moon, of calm and 
storm, and all of them made thrilling by the cer- 
tainty that coming to earth is a vasUy more com- 
plicated and exciting business than sailing away 
from it. There are four excellent pictures, and a 
general avoidance of technicalities and statistics 
such as might weary the general reader. At the 
same time there is an abundance of well-distributed * 
information and pertinent observation. If any one 
is hesitating between staying on the ground or as- 
cending to the skies, Mr. Bacon's book can be relied 
upon to decide him in favor of accent 

If interest in an author and the 
^tov^u!!!!^^ probable permanence of that interest 

may in a measure be understood 
from the number of books written about him, we 
may safely conclude that Robert Louis Stevenson 
is fairly secure in the present and prospective re- 
gard of the lovers of books. Within less than a 
twelve-month iwo volumes dealing with his life and 
work have come to our table, besides another some- 
what ambitious volume giving considerable space 
to the discussion of his art. The latest study of 
Stevenson, by Mr. H. Belly se Baildon, is the 
work of an old schoolmate of Stevenson's, and 
therefore displays a delightfully intimate acquaint- 
ance with the man in his relation to the product 
of his pen. The book does not make pretense 
to the dignity of a well-rounded biography, but 
it traces the development of the delicate sensitive 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

boy into the artist with the closeneM of insight 
of a man who knew and loved his dead friend 
well, and who knows and loves books. And: the 
fact that they were '^chams " together in an Edin- 
burgh school has not lessened Mr. Baildon's critical 
acamen and made him a blind hero-worshipper. 
As severe upon Stevenson's faults as the case war- 
rants, he does not stop with the criticism of them, 
but goes on to a discussion of them as a part of the 
strangely rich and complex personality of the au- 
thor. The especial merit of the book, aside from 
the engaging ease of the style, is perhapii the care- 
ful and penetrating snreness of this analysis. All 
in all, the volume is illuminating and helpful, and 
certainly it is enjoyable. The bibliography at the 
end contains a long list of books and articles about 
Stevenson, but there should be place for this one 
also. (Wessels.) 


A delightful little book in a nomber of wajs is the 
recent reprint of James Pnokle's *< The Club; or, a Grey 
Cap for a Green Head," issued in this country by 
Messrs. Traslove, Hanson & Comba. To the book 
itself, an eighteenth-oentury oolleotion of " moral max- 
ims,*' litde more than an antiquarian interest attaches. 
The chief concern of the book-lover of to-day with 
Pockle's « Club " lies in the series of designs made for 
the edition of 1817 by James Thurston, and eat on 
wood by some of the foremost engravers of the time. 
These beautiful examples of an art now almost extinct 
are carefully reproduced in the present reprint, and 
together with Mr. Austin Dobson's sparkling introduc- 
tion and the handsome typography of the Chiswick 
Press make it a' volume to be coveted. 

The great literary actirity of the Rev. Sabine Baring- 
Gould is bound to show itself in carelessness of style 
and negligence in presenting facts. His « Virgin Saints 
and Martyrs " (Crowell) shows these unpleasant quali- 
ties, quito as much as the wide and curious erudition 
which is the author's. The main part of the book is 
drawn from the sixteen-volume " Lives of the Saints " 
which was completed in 1898, with the later pages de- 
voted to that self-sacrificing Englishwoman, Dorothy 
Wyndlow Pattison, to whom Mr. Baring-Gould accords 
the honors of beatification or sanctification on his own 
initiative, under the name of Sister Dora. Many illus- 
trations embellish the present book, most of them ex- 
cellent wood-cuts after famous paintings. 

The following Grerman and French text-books are 
the latest to appear upon our teble: Frey teg's « Soil 
und Haben " (Heath), greatly condensed, and edited 
by Dr. George T. Files ; Herr von Wildenbrueh's 
« Harold" (Heath), edited by Dr. Charles A. Eggert; 
Storm's •< Immensee " (Ann Arbor: Geo. Wahr), edited 
by Messrs. Hildner and Diekhoff ; Schiller's « Wallen- 
stein" (Macmillan), edited by Dr. Max Winkler; 
•« Constructive Process for Learning German " (Jenk- 
ins), by Dr. Adolphe Dreyspring; "Cceur de Noel" 
(San Francisco: Biobertson), by Sig. L. D. Ventura; 
«< Le Tour de la France psr Deux Enfante " (Heath), 
by M. G. Bruno, edited by Dr. C.Fonteine; and «The 
French Subjunctive Mood " (Heath), by Mr. Cbaries C. 
CUrke, Jr. 


Mr. Frederic Harrison^s Harvard address on « The 
Writings of King Alfred " is now published in pamphlet 
form by the Macmillan Co. 

Mr. David McKay has just published a new edition, 
prepared by the Rev. J. Loughran Scott, of Bulfinch's 
ever-popular « Age of Chivalry." 

•< Edward Carpenter, Poet and Prophet," is the titie 
of a pamphlet by Mr. Ernest Crosby, just published at 
the office of the Philadelphia « Conservator." 

« A Reading Book in Irish History," by Dr. P. W. 
Joyce, is a publication of Messrs. Longmans, Green, & 
Co. It is written for children in and out of school. 

Don Antonio Gil y Zdrate's play of "Gnzmin el 
Bueno," edited by Dr. Sylvester Pri^ner, is a modem 
language text just published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

A revised and enlarged edition for 1901 of ** Lee's 
Automobile Annual," the stendard reference work on 
the subject, has just been issued by Messrs. Laird & Lee. 

« Stevensoniana " still come from time to time to our 
desk. The latest volume, of varied contents, both textual 
and pictorial, is published by Mr. M. F. Mansfield at 
the Bankside Press. 

Miss Lucy Maynard Salmon's '< Domestic Service " 
has gone into a second edition, to which has been added 
a chapter on domestic service in Europe. The Mac- 
millan Co. are the publishers. 

An intimate study of the life and writings of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, by Mr. John Albee, will be published 
at once by Robert G. Cooke of New York, under the 
title " Remembrances of Emerson." 

<' An Introduction to the Industrial and Social His- 
tory of England," by Professor Edward P. Cheyney, is 
published by the Macmillan Co. It is intended for use 
as a text-book in secondary schools and colleges. 

The Princeton Press send us an edition of «The 
Elegies of Maximianns," prepared by Mr. Richard 
Webster, and containing, besides a newly-collated text, 
an introduction and an elaborate critical commentary. 

"The Christian in Hungarian Romance," being a 
study of Dr. Maurus Jokai's novel '< There is a (^ ; 
or. The People y^ho Love but Once," by Mr. John 
Fretwell, is announced for immediate publication by 
the James H. West Co. of Boston. 

« Beowulf " and «Tbe Fight at Finnsburg," trans- 
lated into English by Dr. John R. CUak Hall, and 
provided with much critical and explanatory apparatus 
(pictures included), is a recent English publication 
supplied in this country by the Macmillan Co. 

« Selections from the Poetry of Alexander Pope," 
edited by Dr. Edward Bliss Reed, and Burke's « SpMoh 
on Conciliation with America," edited by Mr. Daniel Y . 
Thompson, are the latest additions to the series of 
« English Readings " published by Messrs. Henry Holt 

An important collection of English books and pictures 
will be sold at auction by Williams, Barker & Severn 
Co., Chicago, on the 20tb and 21st of this month. The 
sale includes a number of rare first editions of Dickens, 
Thackeray, Scott, Tennyson, Carlyle, and other English 

In view of the approaching Alfred the Great millen- 
nial celebration, the two latest additions to the Old 
South Leaflets are particularly timely and interesting. 
They consist of the description of Europe which formed 

Digitized by 





the first chapter in King Alfred's translation of Orosins, 
and the aeeonnt of Angnstine in £ngland taken from 
Alfred's yezsion of the Venerable Bede's EoelesiastiQal 
History of the English Nation. 

Messrs. Cassell & Co. publish an '< Encyclopedia of 
the Game of Whist," by Sir William Cusaok^mith. 
It is a b<M>klet of Test poeket sixe, and the topies are 
arranged alphabetically. Its doctrine is modem and 
commendable, save for the author's nnacconntable preju- 
dice against Uie ** call for tmmps " and the « echo.'' 

The Cambridge Uniyersity Press has just published, 
and sent to us through the Messrs. Macmillan, two 
small books, one of which contains Professor R. C. 
Jebb's brilliant Cambridge lecture of last summer on 
Maoaulay, and the other of which contains "Two 
Lectures Introductory to the Study of Poetry," by the 
Bev. H. C. Beeching. 

"The Bomanoe Cycle of Charlemagne and His 
Peers," by Miss Jessie L. Weston, is No. 10 in Mr. 
David Nutt's pamphlet series of « Popular Studies in 
Mythology, Romance, and Folklore." Another series, 
just started by Mr. Nutt, is entitled "The Ancient 
East," and has for its first issue "The Realms of the 
Egyptian Dead," by Dr. K. A. Wiedemann. 

An important arrangement has just been completed 
whereby George M. Hill Company of Chicago become 
for a term of years the sole publishers of Webster's 
"Unabridged Dictionary," the copyright of which is 
owned by G. & C. Merriam Company, the original pub- 
lishers. A heavy reduction in the price of the work is 
one of the innovations contemplated. 

The series of " Masters in Art," published by the 
Bates & Guild Co. of Boston, represents an excellent 
idea intelligently carried out Each of the monthly 
issues is devoted to one of the world's great painters or 
sculptors. The contents comprise ten reproductions in 
half-tone of the artist's most representative productions, 
an accurate short account of his Ufe, opinions on his 
work selected from the world's best critics, and a bib- 
liography and list of paintings. The illustrations are 
w«mderfully good examples of the half-tone process, 
and the entire make-up of the little magazine is artistic 
and attractive. 

Mr. Francis P. Harper sends us " The Literary Year* 
book and Bookman's Directory for 1901," edited by 
Mr. Herbert Morrah. This is an English work, and, 
as such, does not appeal directly to the interests of 
American readers. It contains, however, much matter 
of general interest, and will not be found without its 
use for reference in this country. A portrait of the 
late Bishop of London is given for a frontispiece, and 
the text includes a directory of authors, another of 
publishers, still another of booksellers, and much mis- 
cellaneous matter upon such subjects as copyright, 
periodicals, the drama, and literary societies. 

A " History of the Christian Religion to the Year 
Two Hundred," by Judge Charles B. Waite of Chicago, 
is a work first published about twenty years ago. It 
has gone through several editions, and the cue now be- 
fore us (the fifth) has had the benefit of a complete 
revision, owing to the fact that the original plates were 
destroyed, which made it possible tc rewrite the work 
much more thoroughly than would otherwise have been 
the case. The work has had a ioonsiderable popular 
vogue, but the author's critical equipment does not 
seem to be altogether adequate to his task. Messrs. 
€. y. Waite & Co., Chicago, are the publishers. 

Topics in liSABiNo Pkbiodicals. 

Jfay, 1901. 

Afuinaldo's Capture. Marrion Wiloox. Forum. 
Alexander the Great, A Recovered Qitj of. Century. 
Antoine and the Th^tre Libre. A.F.Herold. Intematianal. 
Aroady, Overheard in. Charles C. Abbott. LippineoU. 
An as Handmaid of Literature. W. H. Hobbe. Forum. 
Art, Japanese, Hiitory of. J<^ La Faivs. International. 
Art, Roman, Native Vigor of. F. M. Day. International. 
Asia, Roina's Conquest of. J.E.Mumford. WorUPs Work. 
Athleties, Modem, Negative Side of. Arlo Bates. Forum. 
Austria-Hungary, Pditioal Stotns of. 8. 3rooks. W. Work. 
Author and Publisher. Mary B. Mullet. World's Work. 
Author as Printer Sees him. J. H. MeFarland. W. Work. 
Bonds, Foreign, as Am. Investments. T. S. Woolsey. Forum. 
Borneo, WOd Mountain Tribes of. H. M. Hiller. Harper. 
Bryanism and Jeff eisonian Demooraoy. A.Watkins. Forum. 
China, A MissioBary Journey in. Fanny Hays. Century, 
Chinese Traits, Some. Charles Denby. Forum. 
Colonies, Lesson in GoTemment of . R.T. Hill. Century. 
Consolidations, Industrial and Railroad. North American. 
GoMuls, Oar, and Oar Trade. F. Bmory. World's Work. 
Creighton, Maadell. Bdmnnd Gosse. Atlantic. 
Critioism, German. Riohard II. Meyer. Intematianal. 
Cuban Problem, Solution of the. O. H. Phitt. WorUPs Work. 
Davis, Cnshman K. S.H. Ghnroh. Century. 
Deer, The. W. D. Hulbert. MeCUure. 
De Wet, General Christian. Thomas F. Millard. Scribnar. 
Diax and his SuooesMr. J. D. Whelpley. World's Work. 
Dietetios,BCodem,Priaoiplesof. C.vonNoorden. IntematH. 
Dinners in Bohemia and Bsewhere. J. P. Boooek. No. Amer. 
Dragon's Grip, In the. Frederiok Poole. Idppineott. 
Dramatie Season, Events of . GustovKobb4. Forum. 
Dreyfus, (kptaln. Leaves from Autobiography of. MeClure. 
English, Teaohing of . Albert S. Cook. Atlantic. 
English, Teaching of. Minna C. Clark. Educational Review. 
Fnaston, General. James H. Caafield. Seview tff Reviews. 
Qeography, Orgaaisatioa of . R.N.Dodge. Sduc' I Review. 
Hale, Edward Everett. George P. Morris. Rev. qf Reviews. 
Halluoinations. Andrew Wilson. Harper. 
Hamlet, An Old Hampehire. Anna L. Merritt. Century. 
Harrison, Frederio, in America. Review qf Reviews. 
Hawaii. JohnLaFarge. Seribner. 
HiU,JamesJ. Mary C. Blossom. World's Work. 
India and the Colonies. Alleyne Ireland. No. American. 
Iowa Farmers, With. W. A. Wyekoif . Seribner. 
Iron and Steel Industry. H. F. J. Porter. IfiterfuUtofio/. 
Japan, Nary of. S. E. Moffett. Review ^ Reviews. 
Jews and Judaism in 19th Century. M. Gasler. No. Amer, 
Kean, Mr. and Mrs. Charles. Oaralforris. McClure. 
Ku Klnz Movement, The. W.G.Brown. Atlantic. 
Labor in South, New Class of . Leonora Ellis. Forum, 
Library Development, Latest Stage of. E. I. Antrim. Forum. 
London, How It Was Saved. John Martin. Forum. 
Lonhet, Emile. Pierre de Coobertin. Century, 
Maaohnria, Russians in. Prince Eropotkin. Forum. 
Missionaries and their Critios. Judson Smith. No. American. 
Moosilaake. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic, 
Municipal Government in U. S. John Ford. No. American. 
Naples, Breakfast in. Mary UdspSoott. Century. 
Negro and our Now Possessions. W.S.Soarborongh. JTorvsi, 
l^agara. The New. RoUia L. Hartt. JfcC/ars. 
Orient, OuVof-the-Way Phues in the. Century. 
Parent, The Spoiled. Wilbur Larremore. Forvsi. 
Paris Qoais, Along the. Stoddard Dewey. Century. 
Poetio Drama, The New. W. D..Howells. No. American, 
Poetry, Amerioan, INstinotion of . Joeephine Daskam. Atlan. 
Portnuts, My. J. J. Benjamin-Constant. Harper. 
Prase Style, Amerioan. J. D. Logan. Atlantic. 
Prosperity Sharing. R. E. Phillips. World's Work, 
Publio library and Public Sohool. Geo. Ues. World's Work. 
Railway Gsr Lighting. G. D. Shepardson. Forum. 
Religion, Seienoe of. F. B. Jevons. International. 
Renaissance, Women of the. B. W. Wells. IntemationtU. 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

Riuna, Present Crins in. Prinoe Kiapotkin. NcAmeneoM, 
Ronllndependenoe^Aotaal. W.B. Andrews. Warld*sWk, 
Rossia's Readiness for War. Chas. Johnston. Bev, qfBev, 
Saloons. Robert A. Sterenson. 8cribner» 
Seholarship, American, Ghallenfe to. Marrion Wilooz. Hcarp. 
Seholazship, Prodnotive, in America. HngoMiinsterberg. Atl, 
Schools, Secondary, Inspection of. M.E. Sadler. EducHRev. 
Schools, The People and the. Kducational Review, 
Seienoe and the People. S. Renan. North American, 
Sheep and the Forests. Barley V. WUcok. Forum. 
Sonthem Mountaineer, The. John Fox, Jr. 8cribner, 
St. Pierre-liiqaelon. James G. Hyde. Scrihner, 
Steel Tmst on Great Lakes. W. F.MoClnre. Rev, qf Rev, 
Snpeistitions, Eyery^Day. Charles M. Skinner. Lippincott, 
Waterfalls and their Uses. Theodore Waters. World's Wk, 
Wheats, Breeding New. W. D. Harfoot. World's Work, 

liiST OF Nbw Books. 

[The following list, containing 1S8 titles^ includes books 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue, 1 


Five Years of My Life, 1894-1899. By Alfred Dnyfns. 
IUqs., 12mo, nncnt, pp. 310. MoClnre, Phillips A Go. 

A Sailor's Loff : Recollections of Forty Years of Naval Life. 
By Robley D. Brans, Rear-Admiral, U.S.N. Illns., 8to, 
nncnt, pp. 467. D. Appleton & Go. $2. 

Shakespeare's Family: Beins' a Record of the Ancestors 
and Descendants of William Shakespeare, with some Ac- 
count of the Ardens. By Mrs. G. G. Stopes. Illns. in 
photocraTnre, etc., large 8to, nncnt, pp. 257. James Pott 
<&Go. $3.20 Mt. 

ABookofBemembrance. By Mrs. B. D. Gillespie. Illns., 
8to, gilt top, nncnt, pp. 393. J. B. Lippincott Go. $2.50 net, 

Bmpreesee of France. By H. A. Gnerber. Ulns., 8to, 
gilt top, pp. 416 Dodd, Mead <& Go. $2.60. 

Riverside Biosrrsphical Series. New Yolnmes: Ulysses 
S. Grant, by Walter Allen; John Marshall, by James B. 
Thayer ; Lewis and Glark, by William R. lighten. Bach 
with photograrnre portrait, 18mo, gilt top. Honghton, 
n A Co. "" 


Per Tol., 76 cts. 

The Spanish People: Their Origin, Growth, and Influence. 
By Martin A. S. Hnme. 12mo, pp. 685. '*The Great 
Peoples.'' D. Appleton A Go. $1.60. 


The Love Letters of Bismarck: Being Letters to his 
Fianc4e an^ Wife, 1846-1889. Authorized br Prinoe Her- 
bert ton Bismarck, and trans, from the Grarman under 
the supervision of Gliarlton T. Lewis. With portraits, 
8to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 428. Harper A Brothers. $3. 

War's Brighter Side: The Story of *'The Friend'' News- 
paper, Bdited by the Gorrespondents with Lord Roberts's 
Forces, March-April, 1900. By Julian Raiph and others. 
Illns., 12mo, pp. 471. D. Appleton & Go. $1.60. 

The Study of Poetry: Two Lectures. By Rct. H. G. 
Beeohinv, M.A. l2mo, uncut, pp. 57. Maomillan Go. 
60 cU. net, 

Ma;caula7: A Lecture. By Sir Richard G. Jebb, M.P. 
12mo, uncut, pp. 69. Maomillan Go. GO cts. net, 

Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg: A Translation into 
Modem Bnglish Prose. By John R. Glark Hall, M.A. 
Ulus., 12mo, pp. '203. Macmillan Qo, $1.60 nH, 

The World's Work: A History of Our Time. Vol. I., 
NoTcmber, 1900— April, 1901. Ulus., 4to, pp. 676. Double- 
day, Psge A Go. $2.10. 

Stevensoniana: A Reprint of Various Uteraipr and Pictor- 
ial MisoellanT Associated with Robert Louis Steyenson, 
the Bian and his Work. Ulus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp.94. M. F. Mansfield <& Go. $1.60. 

American Orators and Oratory: Lectures DeliTcred at 
Western Reserve UniTcrsity. By Thomas Wentworth 
Higginson. With portrait, 12mo, uncut, pp. 91. Gleye- 
land: The Imperial Press. $1.60. 

The Writings of Kinff Alfred. By Frederic Harrison, M.A. 
12mo, uncut, pp. 31. Maomillan Go. Paper 26 cts. net. 

My BCaster. By the Swimi ViTckltnanda. With fronti»- 
pieee, 12mo, pp. H9. Baker A Taylor Go. 60 ets. 

Victoria Vale: Mtscellaaeons Pages for the Ftassing Hpoch. 
By Wilfred Woollam. 16mo, uncut, pp. 57. Londoa: ' 
Blliot Stock. Paper. 

All Change: Jottings at the Junction of the Nineteenth and 
Twentieth Gentaries. By Wilfred Woollam. Gheap 
edition; 16mo, uncut, pp. 76. Loadon-: BUiot Stock.- 

Poems. By William Vaughn Moody. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 106. • 

Honghton, Mifflin A Go. $1.26. 
The Shadowy Waters. Bv W. B. Teats. Large 8to, 

uncut, pp. 62. Dodd, Mead A Go. $1.50. 
The Rose of Dawn : A Tale of the South Sea. By Helen 

Hay ; with photograTure frontispiece by John La Farge. 

16n^o, uncut, pp. 57. R. H. Russell. $1.26. 
Wishmakers' Town. By William Toung ; with Intzodne- 

tory Note hr Thomas Bailey Aldrich. 12mo, pp. 86. 

Badnff Bhsnnes, and Other Verses. Br Abram Lindsay 
Gordon ; selected and arranged by T. O. Ouen. Ulus. in 

ShotograTure, etc., 16mo, uncut, pp. 146. R. H. Russell. 
The Book of Jade. l2mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 129. New 

York: Dozey's. $1. 
'*Lady" Vere, and Other NarratiTes. By Louis M. Bl- 

shemus. Second edition ; 16mo, pp. 126. Abbey Press. 


The Helmet of Navarre. By Bertha Runkle ; illns. by A; ' 

Gastaigne. 12mo, pp. 470. Gentory Go. $1.50. 
Labor. By Bmile Zola. With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 604. - 

Harper <& Brothers. $1.50. 
Arrows of the Almighty. Bt Owen Johnson. . 12mo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 405. Macmillan Go. $1.50. 
The Good Bed Barth. By Bden Phillpotts. 12mo,pp.328. 

Donbleday, Page A Go. $1.50. 
In Search of Mademoiselle. By George CKbbs ; iUns. by 

the author. 12mo, pp. 873. Henry T. Goates A Go. 

Nell Qwyn— Comedian. By F. Frankfort Moore. Ulus., 

12mo, pp. 316. Brentaao*s. $1.60. 
Juletty : A Story of Old Kentucky. . By Lucy GleaTsr Me- 

Blroy. Ulus., 12mo, pp. 280. T. Y. Growell A Go. 

A Dauflrhter of New France. With some Account of the 

Gallant Sieur Cadillac and his Colony on the Detroit. By 

Mary Catherine Crowley. Illus., 12mo, pp. 409. little. 

Brown, A Go. $1.60. 
Like Another Helen. By George Horton. Ulus., 12mo, 

pp. 379. Bowen-Merrill Co. $1.50. 
A Victim of Circumstances. By Geraldine Anthony. 

12mo, pp. 369. Harper A Brothers. $1.50. 
The Cruise of the Petrel : A Story of 1812. By T. Jeskins 

Hains. 12mo, uncut, pp. 210. McGlure, Phillips A Go. 

Masters of Men : A Romance of the -New Navy. By Mor> 

gan Robertson. Illns., 12mo, pp. 335.. Doubleday, Page 

A Co, $1.50. 
Voysey. By R. O. Prowse. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 404. 

Maomillan Co. $1.60. 
The Tower of Wye : A Romance. By William Henry Bab- 
cook. Illns., 12mo, pp. 330. Henry T. Goates A Go. 

Norman Holt: A Story of the Army of the Cumberland. 

By General Charles King. Ulus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 346. 

G. W. Dillingham Go. $1.26. 
Btidorhpa; or. The End of Barth. By John Uri Lloyd. 

BlsTenth edition, rcTised and enlarged, lUus., 12mo, 

pp.371. Dodd, Mead <ft Go. $1.50. 
The Adystery of the Clasped Hands. By Guy Boothby. 

12mo, pp. 304. D. Appleton A Co. $1. 
Another Womaa.'sTerHtory. By*' Alien.*' Withfrontia- 

piece, 12mo, pp. 315. T. Y. Growell <& Go. $1.50. 
Montayne ; or. The Slsvers of Old New York By William 

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Every One his Own >Way. By Edith Wyatt. l2mot 

uncut, pp. 291. MoCluVi Phillips <ft Go. $1.60. 
The Wisdom of Esau. Vy R. L. Outhwaite and G. H. 

Ghomley. 12mo, gilt topT^Oiscut, pp. 344. Gassell A Co.« 

Ltd. $1.25. ^ 

Digitized b^ 





The Career of a Beauty. By John Strange Winter. 12mo, 

pp. 309. J. B. Lippinoott Go. $1.25. 
The Cknnpleat Bachelor. By OliT^r Omone. 12mo, gilt 

top, pp.193. P. A. Stokei Od. 
. The CroeeroadB of Destiny. By John P. Bitter. Dim., 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 273. G. W. Dillinghnm Co. $1.25. 
The Claim Jumpers: A Romanoe. By Stewart Edwaid 

White. 12mo, pp.'234. D. Appleton <& Co. $1. 
PhUbrlck HoWell. By Albert Kinroot. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp.326. F. A. Stokee Co. $1.25. 
The Amerioan Husband in Paris. By Anna Bowman 

Dodd. With'frondspieee, 12mo, gilt top, nnont, pp. 156. 

Little, Brawn, A Co. $1. 
-Pharaoh: An Historieal Romanoe of Ancient Egypt. By 

Boleebans Prut ; trans, and abridged by Mary De Man- 

kowski. 12mo,pp.l87. Abbey Preta. $1.25. 
Ten Years In Oossaok Slavery; or. Black Ronia. By 

JnHanJaeieneyk: trans, by Mary DeBiankowaki. 12mo, 

pp.230. Abbey Press. $1.25. 
The Luck of a Lowland Liaddie. By May Crommelin. 

12mo,pp.3l9. F. M. Bnokles A Co. $1.25. 
The Woman Who Trusted: A Story of Literary Life in 

New York. By Will N. Harben. With portrut, 12mo, 

pp.257. Henry Altemns Co. $1. 
Halite liarshall : A True Daughter of the South. By F. P. 

I^nillams. 12mo,pp. 183. Abbey Press. $1. 
The Little Crusaders. By Isabel Soott Stone. 12mo, 

pp. 294. Abbey Press. $1. 
The New Doctor; or. Health and Happiness. By S. M. 

Biddle. 12mo, pp. 255. Monmouth, Illinois: Pablished 

for the author. 

The Land of the Moors: A ComprehensiTS Description. 

By Bndgett Meakin. Bins., large 8to, pp. 464. Mac- 

nullanCo. $5. 
A Year in China, 1899-1900. Br Cliye Bigham, C.M.G. 

Dlus., large 8to, uncut, pp. 234. Slacmillan Co. $3.50. 
The Nla^rara Book. Br W. D. Howells, Mark Twain, 

Prof. Nathaniel S. Shaler, and others. New and roTised 

edition; illus., 8to, pp. 353. Doubleday, Page A Co. 


Christian Ordinances and Social Profirress: The William 

Belden Noble Lectures for 1900. By the Hon. and Very 

Rot. William Henry Fremantle, D.D. 12mo, gilt top. 

pp. 278. Houghton, Mifflin A Co. $1.50. 
Aspects of Revelation: Being the Baldwin Lectures for 

1900. By Chauneer B. Brewster, D.D. 12mo, pp, 275. 

Longmans. Green, A Co. $1.50. 
Tlie Church (Eoolesia). By George Dana Boardman, D.D. 

8to, pp. 221. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Involution of Immortality. By S. D. MoConnell, 

D.D. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 204. Bffacmillan Co. 

Tlie Theolofiry of Allirecht BitschL By Albert Temple 

Swing. A.M. Together with Ritaohl's Introduction in the 

Christian Religion, trans, by Alice Mead Swing, A.B. 

ISmo, pp. 296. Longmans, Cneen, A Co. $1.40 iMt. 
Tbe Books of the New Testament. By Rot. Leighton 

Pallan. 12mo, uncut, pp. 300. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 
Tlie Motherhood of Qod: A Series of Disoonrses. By 

Louis Albert Banka, D.D. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 248. Jen- 
nings A Pye. $1.25. 
Tlie Wit and Wisdom of Jesus. By George Wright Buck- 
ley. I6010, gilt top, uncut, pp. 213. Boston : James H. 

West Co. $1. 
A Modem Knlflrht of the Cross : Extracts from the Writings 

of William Stockton Heacock. Compiled by his parents 

and sister. With portrait, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 220. Jennings 

APye. $1. 
Tlie creed of Presbyterians. By Rot. Bgbert Watson 

Smith, D.D. 12mo, pp. 223. Baker & Taylor Co. 6O0. 

Tlie Children of tbe Nations: A Study of Colonization and 

its Problems. By Poultney Bigelow, M.A. 8to, uncut, 

pp. 365. MeClure, PhiUips A Co. $2. net. 
Annals of Politics and Culture (1492-1899). By G. P. 

Gooeh, M.A.; with Introductory Note by Lord Acton. 

8to,pp.530. Macmillan Co. $2.25 mI. 
Tbe Social Problem: Life and Work. By J. A. Hobson. 

Large 8to, uncut, pp. 296. James Pott & Co. $2. net. 

MonppoU^ Past and Present: An Introductory Study. 
By James Edward Le Rossignol, Ph.D. 12mo. pp. 266. 
'' Library of Economics and Politics.'* T. T. Crowell A 
Co. $1.25. 

Talks on Olvlos. • By Henry Holt. 12mo, pp. 493. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.25 net. 

Politics and the Moral Law. By GustST Ruemelin ; traiM. 
from the German by Rudolf Tombo, Jr., Ph.D.: edited by 
Frederick W. Holls, D.C.L. 16mo, pp. 126. Manmiilan 
Co. 75ct8.nef. 

Newyorkitls. By John H. Girdner, M.D. 12mo, pp. 164. 
New Tork: The Grafton Press. 

The Problem of Conduct: A Study in the Phenomenology 

of Ethics. By Alfred Edward Taybr. Large 8yo, uncut, 

pp.501. Bffacmillan Co. $3.25 net. 
The Ethics of Judaism. By M. Lazarus, Ph.D.; trans. 

from the German by Henrietta Szold. Ptot II.; 12mo, 

pp.301. Jewish Publication Society. $1.25. 


Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. By L. H. Bailey 
and others. Vol. m..N— Q. Illus., 4to, pp. 450. Mac- 
millan Co. $5. tut, (Sold only in sets of 4 Tolumes.) 

Pleasures of the Telescope: An Illustrated Goide for 
Amateur Astronomers and a Popular Description of the 
Chief Wonders of the HesTens for General Readers. By 
Garrett P. Serriss. Illus., 8to, pp. 200. D. Appleton A 
Co. $1.50. 

The Romance of the Heavens. By A. W. Bickerton. 
Dlus., 12mo, pp. 284. Bffacmillan Co. $1.25. 

Beport of the U. 8. National Museum, for Uie Tear End- 
m^i June 80, 1899. Illus., large 8to, pp. 598. GoTemment 
Printing Office. 

Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 1895-96. By J. W. Powell. Part I.; Ulus., 
large 4to, pp. 468. GoTcmment Printing Office. 

Biffhteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 1896-97. By J. W. Powell. Part I.; illus., 
large 4to, pp. 518. GoTomment Printing Office. 

The Sufc^unctive Substantive Clauses in Plautxis, not 
including Indirect Questions. By Charles L. Durham. 
Large 8to, pp. 120. ** Cornell Studies in Classical Philol- 
ogy." Macmillan Co. 80cts.n«f. 

A Study in Case Rivalry. By Clinton L. Babcock. Large 
8to, pp. 74. ** Cornell Studies in Classical Philology?' 
Macmillan Co. 60 cts. net, 


The Lovers of the Woods. By li^^iam H. Boardman. 
With frontispiece in colors, 12mo, uncut, pp. 239. McClure, 
PhiUips&Co. $1.50. 

Everyday Birds : Elementa^ Studies. By Bradford Torrey. 
nius. in colors after Audubon, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 106. 
Houghton, Mifflin A Co. $1. 

With the Wild. Flowers, from Pussy-willow to Thistle- 
down. By Maud Going (S. M. Hardtnge). Reyised edi- 
tion ; illus., 12mo, pp. 271. Baker (& Taylor Co. $1. 

Mr. Chupea and Miss Jenny: The Life Story of Two 
Robins. By Effie Bignell. lUus., 16mo, pp. 250. Baker 
A Taylor Co. $1. 

Pintoricchlo. By EtcIjii March PhiUipps. Illus. in photo- 

gruTure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 170. " Great Masters m 

Pamting and Sculpture." Bffacmillan Co. $1.75. 
Titian. By EsteUe M. Hurll. Illus., 12mo, gUt top, pp. 97. 

'* RiTCrside Art Series." Houghton, Mifflin A Co. 

75 cts. 

Lee's American Automobile Annual for 1901. Edited 

by Alfred B. Chambers, Ph.D. Illus., IGmo, pp. 275. 

Laird & Lee. $1. 
BncyclO];>edla of the Game of Whist. By Sir William 

Cusaek-Smith, Bart. Third edition, rerised and enlarged. 

24mo, gilt edges, pp. 88. Caasell A Co., Ltd. 
The Twentieth Century Handy Cyclopedia Britannica 

By Alfred B. Chambers, Ph.D. New edition; 24mo, 

pp. 883. Laird A Lee. 25 ots. 

Perseus. By Charles Kingslev. With frontispiece. 16mo, 
uncut, pp. 59. R. H. Russell. 75 cU. 

Digitized by 




[May 16, 

Heatb'0 Home and School OlasslcB. NewYolnniM: Crib 
ud Fly: A Tale of Two Terrien. Edited bj Ghwlee F. 
Dole.— The little Lune Prinee. By DiQeh Bfaria Mn- 
loek. In 2 perte. — Waate Not, Want Not, and other 
•toriee. By liaria Edceworth, Jane Taylor, and Mra. 
Barbaald. Edited by M. V. 0*Shea. — The Siwe of Ley- 
den, from MoUey^s '* Rise of the Datoh RepnUie." Ed- 
ited by WOliam Elliot GiiiBe.— The Grofton Boye. By 
Harriet liartiaeau. Edited by Witliam Elliot GriiBa. In 
2 parte.— Talee from Mnnehaneen. Edited by Edward 
Everett Hale. -Three Fairy Storiee. By Jean Ingelow. 
Edited bv Charlee F. Dole.— The Storr of a Donkey. 
Adapted from the Freneh of Madame le 8e(nr by Charlee 
Welah. Eeeh illna., 12mo. D. C. Heath A Co. l*er part, 
paper, 10 eta. net. 

The WorUnff Prindplea of Rhetoric. Examined in their 

Literanr Relatione and Ulnetrated with Examplee. By 

John Franklin Genung. 12mo, pp. 676. Giim A Co. 

$1.65 net. 
An Introduotion to the Industrial and Social History 

of Rnffland. By Edward P. Cheyney. Bins., 12mo, 

pp. 317. Maemilfan Co. $1.40 n«f. 
A Text-Book of Astronomy. By George C. Comstook. 

nine., 12mo, pp. 301. D. Appleton A Co. $1.30 net. 
Chatty Beadinffs In Elementary Sdenoe. In three booke ; 

illns. in colore, eto., 12mo. Longmans, Green, A Co. 

$1.17 net. 
How to Tea<fli Beadinir and Oomposition. By J. J. 

Bnme, M.A. With portiwt, 12mo, pp. 160. Amerioan 

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c/lmong the later volumes of our weU-known Eclectic Series of 
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Logic and Uecke's Story Reader jJW.JO 

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Scott's Kenilworth ^ . .50 

Dickens's Story of Little Nell 50 

Dickens's Tale of Two Cities .50 

Shaw's Big People and Little People of Other Lands .^ 

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TWBNTY-SIXTH YEAR— Bcffinnloff October 1, 1901. 

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No. 864. AUGUST 16, 1901. Vol. XXXI. 





Has College English ImproTed ? Jamea Mtlmn Lee. 
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Greece is a ooantry from which we do not 
expect mach literary work of oogmopolitan 
interest, and the report by Professor Lambros 
mentions hardly a name that is familiar to oar 
public. One exception to this statement may 
be made for Mr. D. Bikelas, who has formed 
a Society for Useful Books, << with the aim of 
publishing a volume for the people every 
month. Well printed and bound, and very 
cheap, these books have been published in 
great numbers, and ought to encourage the 
taste for reading.'' Among works of scholar- 
ship, we may mention ** Greek Proverbs," by 
Professor N. Politis ; the concluding volume 
of a ^^ History of Athens under the Turkish 
Dominion," by Mr. D. Kamburoglus ; a ** His- 
tory of Crete from the Earliest Times to the 
Present," by Mr. B. Psilakis ; and '' Political 
Studies," by Mr. Leon Melas, in which latter 
work " the Bulgarian question and the privi- 
leges of the Greek Church in Turkey are con- 

<«In the department of heUe$4eUres <The Healiug 
Plant of Love/ by Mr. G. DroMinis, a really fine novel; 
the tender collection of verBes < Alabastra,' by Mr. 
Johannes Polemis; and the substantial poems of Mr. S. 
Martzokis, seem most worthy of mention. * The Death 
of the Palikares ' is a weighty poem by Mr. Konstantin 

Heer Steyn Streuvels has already been men- 
tioned in these summaries by Professor Fred- 
ericq, and Mr. C. K. Elout, writing from 
Holland, discusses him at much length as the 
one important new writer of the year. 

« He is the trae peasant's poet, representing not the 
old Arcadian, unreal school, nor the modern, gloomy 
pessimism of which M. Zola's < La Terre ' is a grand 
expression, but a sound, warm-hearted, though cool- 
brained poetical conception of reality. He has neither 
enthnsiasm nor disdain for the peasant; he looks upon 
him as a thing of nature, which deserves our attention 
as much as a tree or a cloud or a meadow, and even 
more than these because there is a human soul in the 
case. . . . Besides, this simple young Flemish baker 
has a language of his own. He knows Dutch very well, 
apparently, but be adds to it with archaisms and peasant 
expressions. His language is not Flemish, however, 
but most decidedly Dutch — as sound and sane a Dutch 
as Vondel ever wrote, only with the great advantage of 
linguistic riches from neighbouring stores." 

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[Aug. 16, 

Heer van Eeden'g ^^The Limpid Lakes of 
Death " is a novel which illastrates ^' psychol- 
ogy* culminating in absolute pathology." 

" The yoang lady who is the heroine of this novel 
ends in placid tranquility, after passing through the 
basest phases of a woman's life. It is, however, notice- 
able that van Eeden never passes the limits of decency 
in this book. An ultra-realistic author would, no doubt, 
have painted the abject doings of such a woman as his 
heroine in harsher colours. Van Eeden is content with 
mere hints, and elaborates only the pathological side of 

Three rather important works of fiction deal 
with life in the Dutch Indies. Heer Couperus, 
in his " Stille Kraoht " (Silent Power), 
** Tries to present an impression of the sullen, passive 
resistance that colonial officials often meet with from 
the coloured population, and the mysterious powers 
this population employs, such as the inexplicable throw- 
ing of stones by invisible hands, to show that silent 
resistance. In the opinion of many Indian readers 
Couperus has failed to give a strong impression of these 
manifestations; but his book has caused a certain sen- 
sation, as it treated a question which happened to be 
the topic of the day — the influence of Indian climate, 
Indian surroundings, and Indian life on Europeans. 
Couperus seems to be one of those who consider life in 
the tropics a degrading influence on Europeans, a vul- 
garization of the higher European character." 

Heer B. Yeth's ** Life in India " is described as 
^' a perpetual depreciation of everything and 
everybody in India, an uninterrupted series of 
sneers and harsh language." Heer H. Borel's 
*^ Recht der Liefde " (The Laws of Love) is 
the *' story of a young European woman in 
India, whose life at first slowly trickles away 
in the hot climate of a town on the Indian 
coast, but then gets a new impulse in the fresh 
air and the grandeur of the mountains." A 
few more novels are '' Langs Li jnen van Gele- 
idelijkheid " (Along Lines of Graduality), by 
Heer Couperus; "Vlindertje" (Butterfly), 
by Heer Borel ; " Getronwd " (Married), by 
Heer van Hulzen; and ^'Yreugden van Hol- 
land " (The Joys of Holland), by Heer Has- 
pels. The last named writer 
** Is the literary leader of a new monthly which started 
a couple of months ago. < Onze Eeuw ' (Our Century) 
represents a reaction against the progressive views 
which our leading periodical, < De Gids/ has taken of 
late as regards social life and literature. There are a 
good many professors on the editorial committee, and 
the first articles were rather heavy, even to our Dutch 

On the stage, the successful productions of 
the year have been «< Op Hoop van Zegen " 
(Hoping for Luck), by Heer Heyermanns, 
and " Vier Ton," by Heer De Koo. 

Writing from Hungary, Mr. Leopold Kat- 
scher reminds us that the author of ** St. Peter's 

Umbrella " is ^' the very best of contemporary 
Hungarian novelists." This year he has pub- 
lished '^ A Strange Marriage," his longest 
novel. *'An historical background displays 
the adventures and divorce of a couple forcibly 
married against their wish by a clergyman who 
had seduced the wife." Other works of fiction 
include ^'Budapest," by Mr. Tamas Kobor 
(the beginning of a projected series after the 
Bougon-Macqnart pattern); **The Struggle of 
the Huns," by Mr. Gyola Werner ; " A False 
Legend," by Mr. Akos Pinter ; " Swamp," by 
Mr. Istvan Barsony ; «« That Ass Domokos," 
by Mr. Dezso Malonyay ; " Egers Stars," by 
Mr. Geza Gardonyi ; and many collections of 
short stories, the best of which are Mr. Jokai's 
«« Tombstone Album " and Mr. Hercveg's 
** Arianna." The last-named writer, with his 
^' Ocksay the Brigadier," a historical drama, 
*' has scored by far the greatest stage success 
of the year — indeed, in the whole history of 
the Hungarian stage." Speaking of stage 
miatters, it is curious to note that Shakespeare's 
^^ Troilus and Cressida," which our own stage- 
directors never consider seriously, has had 
thirty performances during three months at the 
Hungarian National Theatre. ^' In poetry 
there is only one volume worth mentioning —